# Part 3: The Dark Energy

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1 Part 3: The Dark Energy What is the fate of the Universe? What is the fate of the Universe? Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, published as Addison Weasley. 1

2 Fate of the Universe can be determined from its history 1980s: The plan to determine the fate of the Universe In 1980s it was expected that expansion of the Universe is slowing. By late 1980 two groups decided the measure the cosmic deceleration, or how the expansion of the Universe is slowing. Their method was in principle the same as the one used by Edwin Hubble to establish that Universe is expanding: to locate distant stars and to measure how they move. 2

3 1980s: The plan to determine the fate of the Universe In 1980s it was expected that expansion of the Universe is slowing. By late 1980 two groups decided the measure the cosmic deceleration, or how the expansion of the Universe is slowing. Their method was in principle the same as the one used by Edwin Hubble to establish that Universe is expanding: to locate distant stars and to measure how they move. Problem: you need to look really far away billions of light years away. 5 billion years in the past At these distance standard candles Edwin Hubble used Cepheid variable stars are not visible. Need much brighter standard candle we have too see it from billions of light years away! Problem: you have to look really far back in time Need really bright standard candles A standard candle is a class of astrophysical objects, such as supernovae or variable stars, which have known luminosity due to some characteristic quality possessed by the entire class of objects

4 Fate of the Universe can be determined from its history Learn about the future Find enough standard candles to plot the graph 4

5 We can see supernova explosions from billions of years away! Just for a while, it shines brighter than the entire galaxy! Credits: NASA Long time ago in a galaxy far far away Universe expands while light from supernova travels to us. The wavelength of light shifts far to the red. NOW Scientific American 290, (2004) If the expansion of the universe were decelerating, the supernova would be closer and brighter than expected. If the expansion were accelerating, the supernova would be farther away and dimmer than expected. Scientific American 290, (2004) 5

6 Problems: (1) Supernova explosions did not appear to be the same, so did not seem to be good standard candles. (2) They are rare about one per century per galaxy. (3) They are unpredictable. Two developments by mid 1980s (1) Scientists realized that supernova explosions can be divided into classes. Type Ia supernova subclass were identified which appeared to make much better standard classes than the others. (2) New sensors, the CCD detectors, which are like the detectors in the back of the digital cameras that most people have today were introduced to astronomy. New computers that were just then becoming fast enough to analyze the large amounts of data that came out of these detectors Nobel Prize in Physics 6

7 CCD and computer analysis are needed for supernova hunt Supernova Before-and-after images of one of the supernovae discovered in 1986 by Berkeley Automated Supernova Search. CCD and computer analysis are needed for supernova hunt Example of digital image subtraction. From the CCD image of a supernova and its host galaxy, we subtract an image of the galaxy before the supernova appeared (or after it disappeared), leaving an image of just the supernova. 7

8 What is Type Ia supernova? Why do we think they are all the same even the ones that exploded 10 billion years ago? Type II 8

9 Small star to Red Giant Converts H to He (fusion) Eventually most of H in the stellar core has been converted to He Pressure drops Stellar core contracts Temperature in stellar core rises If mass is more than ½ Sun mass He ignites, C and O are produced Outer envelop expands Red Giant Red Giant to White dwarf Outer stellar envelop expands further and escapes to form a planetary nebula In small stars, core temperature is not high enough to start burning carbon Then, when all He is used up, star has no fusion source and stars becomes to very slowly cool off - White Dwarf (Carbon/Oxygen) 9

10 Stars: pressure vs. gravity Stars: pressure vs. gravity White dwarf NO FUSION What keeps is from collapsing? 10

11 Quantum mechanics: degeneracy pressure Quantum mechanics: electron degeneracy pressure Electrons are neutrons are fermions. Fermions have to be in different quantum states. In degenerate gas all quantum states are occupied by electrons. Then, pressure arises in degenerate core since electrons can not be packed arbitrary close together. It is called degeneracy pressure. White dwarfs are supported against gravity collapse by electron degeneracy pressure. 11

12 Here is a catch: electron degeneracy pressure can only support stars up to a certain mass against collapse! Chandraskehar limit 1.4 solar mass Note: the other star does not have to be a red giant, another white dwarf will do. Astronomy: Roen Kelly 12

13 The white dwarf approaches Chandraskehar limit and explodes in a giant thermonuclear explosion! Type I supernova simulation NASA, ESA and A. Feild (STScI) 13

14 The physics of the type Ia supernova explosion are debated Carbon ignites, thermonuclear flame rips through the white dwarf, fusing carbon into heavier elements with a sudden release of energy that tears the star apart. Can be caused by collisions with the other star. The most solid observation to date that implicates detonating white dwarfs in the production of type 1a supernovae. 94 Mps away (very close) 14

15 Simulation of Supernova type Ia explosion Why supernova type Ia can be used as a standard candle? Because explosion occurs when white dwarfs which are all about the same reach the same Chandraskehar limit mass. The details are being debated We now have a standard or rather standartizable candle and return back to discussing measuring the expansion of the Universe. NEED TO FIND FAR AWAY SUPERNOVA OF TYPE Ia 1987: Some of the issues researches listed in the beginning of their work 15

16 1987: Some of the issues researches listed in the beginning of their work Previous survey 1/500 years/galaxy 16

17 Redshift Redshift may be characterized by the relative difference between the observed and emitted wavelengths (or frequency) of an object. In astronomy, it is customary to refer to this change using a dimensionless quantity called z. λ z = observed λ λ emitted emitted λ emitted λ observed = 500 nm = 1000 nm z = =

18 18

19 Subtract images at different times to find your supernova An image obtained November 1989 with wide-field camera on the Anglo-Australian 4- m telescope. The small specks of light are the distant galaxies. The same field, but observed January It is reversed in grayscale to indicate that it will be subtracted from the first. Supernova Computer subtraction of the images. The spot remaining is what a supernova would look like. 19

20 The batch observational strategy that made it possible to guarantee multiple new super-nova discoveries at high redshift. They would all be on a pre-specified date (in particular just before a new moon) and all while still brightening. 1987: Some of the issues researches listed in the beginning of their work 20

21 Supernova spectra look like noise until you do not know what you are looking for! Same spectrum, after removing very narrow spectral features, and smoothing to bring out the broad supernova features. The red curve shows the excellent match with a spectrum of a low-redshift Type Ia supernova, as it would appear redshifted to z = K correction: matching high redshift spectrum to how the spectrum looks at zero redshift The standard K correction was intended to capture the difference between the amount of light in a given filter (here the B filter) seen at zero redshift and at high redshift, due to the different parts of the spectrum that would be observed in that filter. YOU JUST SEE THE TAIL THIS WAY! /laureates/2011/perlmutter-lecture.html 21

22 K correction: matching high redshift spectrum to how the spectrum looks at zero redshift The new Cross-filter K correction worked by observing the high red-shift supernova with a red filter, in this case the R-band filter, so that the same part of the supernova spectrum is coming through this filter at high redshift as comes through the B-band filter at low red-shift. This approach makes possible a much smaller uncertainty for the K correction (zero redshift spectra). /laureates/2011/perlmutter-lecture.html 1987: Some of the issues researches listed in the beginning of their work 22

23 How to normalize supernovas? Some are more luminous, but The faster the supernova s decline the fainter its peak magnitude. Two approaches to using the time scale of the supernova event (or the shape of the light curve) as an indicator of how bright the supernova reached at peak. Alternative approach to normalize supernovas: Simply stretch or compress the time axis of the light curve by a single stretch factor 23

24 How to normalize supernovas? Some are more luminous, but The faster the supernova s decline the fainter its peak magnitude. 1987: Some of the issues researches listed in the beginning of their work 24

25 Study separately the low- and high-redshift supernovae found in elliptical galaxies and for those in spirals. These different host galaxy environments have very different histories, so if the results from these different environments than the results are not strongly distorted by the environmental histories changing the behavior of the supernovae. 25

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27 Expansion of the Universe is accelerating! Scientific American 290, (2004) Universe is accelerating! Completely unexpected result! 27

28 The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011 Saul Perlmutter Brian P. Schmidt Adam G. Riess Supernova Cosmology Project High-z Supernova Search Team The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011 was divided, one half awarded to Saul Perlmutter, the other half jointly to Brian P. Schmidt and Adam G. Riess "for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae". Something makes Universe expansion to accelerate for the past 5 billion years! We labelled this something dark energy. 28

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