Astronomy Chapter 12 Review

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1 Astronomy Chapter 12 Review

2 Approximately how massive is the Sun as compared to the Earth? A. 100 times B. 300 times C times D. 300,000 times E. One million times

3 Approximately how massive is the Sun as compared to the Earth? A. 100 times B. 300 times C times D. 300,000 times E. One million times

4 If you could manage to stand on the Sun, you would weigh approximately times more than your weight on the Earth. A. 10 B. 30 C. 100 D. 300,000

5 If you could manage to stand on the Sun, you would weigh approximately times more than your weight on the Earth. A. 10 B. 30 C. 100 D. 300,000

6 The sunlight we receive on the Earth originates from the Sun's A. Radiative zone. B. Photosphere. C. Chromosphere. D. Corona.

7 The sunlight we receive on the Earth originates from the Sun's A. Radiative zone. B. Photosphere. C. Chromosphere. D. Corona.

8 The hottest part of the Sun is A. The core. B. The radiative zone. C. The photosphere. D. The Corona.

9 The hottest part of the Sun is A. The core. B. The radiative zone. C. The photosphere. D. The Corona.

10 The Sun's core is generating energy in the form of. A. Gamma rays B. Ultraviolet C. X-rays D. Visible E. Radio

11 The Sun's core is generating energy in the form of. A. Gamma rays B. Ultraviolet C. X-rays D. Visible E. Radio

12 Sunspots are dark because they are A. Land masses like continents on the Earth. B. Holes in the photosphere, allowing astronomers to view into the Sun's interior. C. Shadows from clouds in the Sun's atmosphere. D. Slightly cooler regions meaning they emit less light than the surrounding areas.

13 Sunspots are dark because they are A. Land masses like continents on the Earth. B. Holes in the photosphere, allowing astronomers to view into the Sun's interior. C. Shadows from clouds in the Sun's atmosphere. D. Slightly cooler regions meaning they emit less light than the surrounding areas.

14 At which observatory listed below are scientists trying to capture neutrinos? A. SOHO (Solar & Heliospheric Observatory). B. Super Kamiokande, Japan. C. GONG (Global Oscillations network group). D. Hubble Space Telescope.

15 At which observatory listed below are scientists trying to capture neutrinos? A. SOHO (Solar & Heliospheric Observatory). B. Super Kamiokande, Japan. C. GONG (Global Oscillations network group). D. Hubble Space Telescope.

16 Which part of the Sun is covered with granules? A. Corona B. Chromosphere C. Photosphere D. Core

17 Which part of the Sun is covered with granules? A. Corona B. Chromosphere C. Photosphere D. Core

18 Which part of the Sun is not in hydrostatic equilibrium? A. Core B. Radiation zone C. Convection zone D. Corona

19 Which part of the Sun is not in hydrostatic equilibrium? A. Core B. Radiation zone C. Convection zone D. Corona

20 The solar wind is created in the Sun's. A. Core B. Radiation zone C. Convection zone D. Corona

21 The solar wind is created in the Sun's. A. Core B. Radiation zone C. Convection zone D. Corona

22 What is the name of a sudden, highly energetic, eruptive explosion on the surface of the Sun? A. Sunspot B. Granulation C. Flare D. Coronal hole

23 What is the name of a sudden, highly energetic, eruptive explosion on the surface of the Sun? A. Sunspot B. Granulation C. Flare D. Coronal hole

24 The diameter of the Sun is determined by measuring its and. A. Volume; density B. Distance; volume C. Distance; angular size

25 The diameter of the Sun is determined by measuring its and. A. Volume; density B. Distance; volume C. Distance; angular size

26 The surface temperature of the Sun can be measured using. A. Kepler's third law B. The Doppler shift C. Wien's law

27 The surface temperature of the Sun can be measured using. A. Kepler's third law B. The Doppler shift C. Wien's law

28 The temperature at the Sun's core is about. A. 15,000,000 K B. 1,500,000 K C. 150,000 K D. 15,000 K

29 The temperature at the Sun's core is about. A. 15,000,000 K B. 1,500,000 K C. 150,000 K D. 15,000 K

30 The Sun's composition by the % of mass is 71%, 27% and 2%. A. Hydrogen; oxygen; helium B. Helium; hydrogen; other elements C. Hydrogen; helium; other elements

31 The Sun's composition by the % of mass is 71%, 27% and 2%. A. Hydrogen; oxygen; helium B. Helium; hydrogen; other elements C. Hydrogen; helium; other elements

32 The energy in the Sun's core is produced by A. Chemical reaction of hydrogen and helium. B. Fusion of hydrogen to helium. C. Radioactive decay. D. Release of gravitational potential energy.

33 The energy in the Sun's core is produced by A. Chemical reaction of hydrogen and helium. B. Fusion of hydrogen to helium. C. Radioactive decay. D. Release of gravitational potential energy.

34 Light travels for about to reach the Sun's surface from the Sun's core, and about to reach the Earth from the Sun's surface. A. 16 million years; 8 minutes B. 100 years; 8 minutes C. 1 minute; 8 seconds D. 100 years; 8 seconds

35 Light travels for about to reach the Sun's surface from the Sun's core, and about to reach the Earth from the Sun's surface. A. 16 million years; 8 minutes B. 100 years; 8 minutes C. 1 minute; 8 seconds D. 100 years; 8 seconds

36 The Sun's atmosphere consists of the and the. A. Photosphere; chromosphere B. Photosphere; corona C. Chromosphere; corona

37 The Sun's atmosphere consists of the and the. A. Photosphere; chromosphere B. Photosphere; corona C. Chromosphere; corona

38 The temperature at the of the Sun's chromosphere is higher than the temperature. A. Base; at the top of the chromosphere B. Top; at the base of the chromosphere C. Top; of the Sun's corona D. Base; of the Sun's corona

39 The temperature at the of the Sun's chromosphere is higher than the temperature. A. Base; at the top of the chromosphere B. Top; at the base of the chromosphere C. Top; of the Sun's corona D. Base; of the Sun's corona

40 How is the composition of the Sun today different than when it formed 4.6 billion years ago? A. There is no difference, the composition has not changed. B. There is now more hydrogen and less helium. C. There is now more helium and less hydrogen. D. The amount of hydrogen and helium has not changed but the amount of heavier elements has decreased.

41 How is the composition of the Sun today different than when it formed 4.6 billion years ago? A. There is no difference, the composition has not changed. B. There is now more hydrogen and less helium. C. There is now more helium and less hydrogen. D. The amount of hydrogen and helium has not changed but the amount of heavier elements has decreased.

42 provides a way to measure the speed of seismic waves in the Sun. A. Newton's 3rd law B. Wien's law C. The Doppler effect D. Kepler's 3rd law

43 provides a way to measure the speed of seismic waves in the Sun. A. Newton's 3rd law B. Wien's law C. The Doppler effect D. Kepler's 3rd law

44 The Sun rotates at its equator than at its poles. A. Slower B. The same C. Faster

45 The Sun rotates at its equator than at its poles. A. Slower B. The same C. Faster

46 The a period, that coincides with. A. Sunspot cycle is; of 11 years; the Sun's rotation around its axis B. Maunder Minimum is; of low sunspot activity; the "little ice age" in the late 17th century C. Magnetic cycle is; of 22 years; a period of intense solar and earthquakes D. Solar cycle is; of high sunspot activity; the cycle of the planetary alignments

47 The a period, that coincides with. A. Sunspot cycle is; of 11 years; the Sun's rotation around its axis B. Maunder Minimum is; of low sunspot activity; the "little ice age" in the late 17th century C. Magnetic cycle is; of 22 years; a period of intense solar and earthquakes D. Solar cycle is; of high sunspot activity; the cycle of the planetary alignments

48 A solar prominence is essentially A. A cloud of hot gas lifting off the surface of the Sun. B. An eruption of gas heated by the sudden recombination of opposite polarity parts of the Sun's magnetic field. C. A plasma confined to a magnetic tube sticking out of the surface of the Sun. D. An aurora occurring in the Sun's atmosphere instead of the Earth's.

49 A solar prominence is essentially A. A cloud of hot gas lifting off the surface of the Sun. B. An eruption of gas heated by the sudden recombination of opposite polarity parts of the Sun's magnetic field. C. A plasma confined to a magnetic tube sticking out of the surface of the Sun. D. An aurora occurring in the Sun's atmosphere instead of the Earth's.

50 One way to probe the rate of nuclear reactions in the center of the Sun is by studying the produced because. A. Positrons; they annihilate into gamma rays of very specific energies. B. Neutrinos; they pass out of the Sun without undergoing a random walk. C. Heavy hydrogen; it has different spectral lines than normal hydrogen. D. Wave motions; they can be measured at the Sun's surface.

51 One way to probe the rate of nuclear reactions in the center of the Sun is by studying the produced because. A. Positrons; they annihilate into gamma rays of very specific energies. B. Neutrinos; they pass out of the Sun without undergoing a random walk. C. Heavy hydrogen; it has different spectral lines than normal hydrogen. D. Wave motions; they can be measured at the Sun's surface.

52 Since nuclear fusion in the Sun creates energy from matter, why doesn't it violate the law of conservation of energy? A. Conservation of energy only applies to mechanical and electrical systems, not to nuclear physics. B. The energy actually comes from the motion of the four separate hydrogen atoms, which move less bound together as one helium atom. C. Matter and energy are equivalent, as expressed by Einstein's equation E = mc2. D. It does, but conservation of energy is only a law in Newtonian physics, which does not work under the conditions at the center of the Sun.

53 Since nuclear fusion in the Sun creates energy from matter, why doesn't it violate the law of conservation of energy? A. Conservation of energy only applies to mechanical and electrical systems, not to nuclear physics. B. The energy actually comes from the motion of the four separate hydrogen atoms, which move less bound together as one helium atom. C. Matter and energy are equivalent, as expressed by Einstein's equation E = mc2. D. It does, but conservation of energy is only a law in Newtonian physics, which does not work under the conditions at the center of the Sun.

54 If the Sun's rotation carries two sunspots around the side out of sight, you might see them again in about A. Twelve hours. B. Two weeks. C. A month. D. Six months.

55 If the Sun's rotation carries two sunspots around the side out of sight, you might see them again in about A. Twelve hours. B. Two weeks. C. A month. D. Six months.

56 Generally speaking, activity on the surface of the Sun is primarily driven by A. Gravity. B. Thermodynamics. C. Electromagnetism. D. Nuclear reactions.

57 Generally speaking, activity on the surface of the Sun is primarily driven by A. Gravity. B. Thermodynamics. C. Electromagnetism. D. Nuclear reactions.

58 The photosphere A. Is the part of the Sun where nuclear fusion is occurring. B. Is the layer of the Sun where it transitions from being opaque to transparent. C. Is the hottest part of the Sun. D. Is the densest part of the Sun.

59 The photosphere A. Is the part of the Sun where nuclear fusion is occurring. B. Is the layer of the Sun where it transitions from being opaque to transparent. C. Is the hottest part of the Sun. D. Is the densest part of the Sun.

60 From the center out, the correct order of the parts of the Sun is A. Core, convection zone, radiative zone, photosphere, chromosphere, corona. B. Radiative zone, core, chromosphere, convection zone, photosphere, corona. C. Core, convection zone, photosphere, chromosphere, corona, radiative zone. D. Core, radiative zone, convection zone, photosphere, chromosphere, corona

61 From the center out, the correct order of the parts of the Sun is A. Core, convection zone, radiative zone, photosphere, chromosphere, corona. B. Radiative zone, core, chromosphere, convection zone, photosphere, corona. C. Core, convection zone, photosphere, chromosphere, corona, radiative zone. D. Core, radiative zone, convection zone, photosphere, chromosphere, corona

62 The Zeeman effect, in which energy levels of electrons are shifted and produce a corresponding split in spectral lines observed, is used to measure at the Sun's surface. A. Magnetic field strength B. The intensity of gamma rays C. Gravitational field strength D. The velocity and oscillations of gas

63 The Zeeman effect, in which energy levels of electrons are shifted and produce a corresponding split in spectral lines observed, is used to measure at the Sun's surface. A. Magnetic field strength B. The intensity of gamma rays C. Gravitational field strength D. The velocity and oscillations of gas

64 The solar cycle is a result of the A. Nuclear fusion at the core of the Sun. B. Loss of energy in the Sun's magnetic field through flares, sunspots, and prominences. C. Differential rotation of the Sun. D. Motion in the convection zone cycling material into the Sun's core.

65 The solar cycle is a result of the A. Nuclear fusion at the core of the Sun. B. Loss of energy in the Sun's magnetic field through flares, sunspots, and prominences. C. Differential rotation of the Sun. D. Motion in the convection zone cycling material into the Sun's core.

66 In the Sun, nuclear fusion occurs A. In the core and the radiative zone. B. Only in the core. C. Throughout the entire star.

67 In the Sun, nuclear fusion occurs A. In the core and the radiative zone. B. Only in the core. C. Throughout the entire star.

68 Although the Sun's core has a density much greater than rock it is considered a gaseous object because A. The Sun's high internal temperatures prevent the atoms from bonding together to form a liquid or a solid. B. A large fraction of the Sun's interior is made of electromagnetic radiation (light). C. It is composed mostly of hydrogen. D. The Sun formed from the solar nebula which itself was a large gas and dust cloud.

69 Although the Sun's core has a density much greater than rock it is considered a gaseous object because A. The Sun's high internal temperatures prevent the atoms from bonding together to form a liquid or a solid. B. A large fraction of the Sun's interior is made of electromagnetic radiation (light). C. It is composed mostly of hydrogen. D. The Sun formed from the solar nebula which itself was a large gas and dust cloud.

70 Astronomers know what the solar interior is like by A. observing the interior directly. By using the appropriate filters it is possible to reduce the bright glow of the Sun and to peer directly at the Sun's interior. B. constructing a miniature Sun in the laboratory and extrapolating the results to the real Sun. C. using locally tested physics combined with observations to build a mathematical model of what the Sun should be like in its interior. D. sending probes directly into the Sun and sending back the information.

71 Astronomers know what the solar interior is like by A. observing the interior directly. By using the appropriate filters it is possible to reduce the bright glow of the Sun and to peer directly at the Sun's interior. B. constructing a miniature Sun in the laboratory and extrapolating the results to the real Sun. C. using locally tested physics combined with observations to build a mathematical model of what the Sun should be like in its interior. D. sending probes directly into the Sun and sending back the information.

72 What holds the Sun together? A) Electrostatic forces between ions in its interior. B) Gas pressure. C) Its gravitational force. D) Nothing: the Sun is actually expanding very slowly.

73 What holds the Sun together? A) Electrostatic forces between ions in its interior. B) Gas pressure. C) Its gravitational force. D) Nothing: the Sun is actually expanding very slowly.

74 The Sun produces its energy through A) the fusion of neutrinos into helium. B) the fusion of positrons into hydrogen. C) the fusion of hydrogen into helium. D) electric currents generated in its core.

75 The Sun produces its energy through A) the fusion of neutrinos into helium. B) the fusion of positrons into hydrogen. C) the fusion of hydrogen into helium. D) electric currents generated in its core.

76 The sun's energy comes from A) the release of magnetic energy. B) the conversion of mass into energy. C) its rotation slowing down. D) meteors and asteroids striking its surface.

77 The sun's energy comes from A) the release of magnetic energy. B) the conversion of mass into energy. C) its rotation slowing down. D) meteors and asteroids striking its surface.

78 What is the Sun's outermost atmosphere called? A) The corona B) The chromosphere C) The photosphere D) The radiative zone

79 What is the Sun's outermost atmosphere called? A) The corona B) The chromosphere C) The photosphere D) The radiative zone

80 How do a prominence and a flare differ? A) A prominence is a huge plume of glowing gas trapped in the Sun's magnetic field; a flare is a brief, bright eruption in the chromosphere. B) A prominence is brief, bright eruption in the chromosphere; a flare is a tenuous flow of hydrogen and helium that sweeps across the Solar System. C) A prominence is a jet of hot gas thousands of kilometers long; a flare is an immense bubble of hot gas rising from deep within the Sun. D) There is no difference.

81 How do a prominence and a flare differ? A) A prominence is a huge plume of glowing gas trapped in the Sun's magnetic field; a flare is a brief, bright eruption in the chromosphere. B) A prominence is brief, bright eruption in the chromosphere; a flare is a tenuous flow of hydrogen and helium that sweeps across the Solar System. C) A prominence is a jet of hot gas thousands of kilometers long; a flare is an immense bubble of hot gas rising from deep within the Sun. D) There is no difference.

82 What is solar seismology? A) The study of the Sun's atmosphere by analyzing waves in the Sun's interior. B) The study of the Sun's interior by analyzing waves in the Sun's atmosphere. C) The study of gravitational waves from the Sun. D) The study of the Sun's changing size.

83 What is solar seismology? A) The study of the Sun's atmosphere by analyzing waves in the Sun's interior. B) The study of the Sun's interior by analyzing waves in the Sun's atmosphere. C) The study of gravitational waves from the Sun. D) The study of the Sun's changing size.

84 About how long is the solar cycle (evidenced by sunspots)? A) 3 years B) 5 days C) 11 years D) 33 years

85 About how long is the solar cycle (evidenced by sunspots)? A) 3 years B) 5 days C) 11 years D) 33 years

86 The Sun is supported against the crushing force of its own gravity by (a) magnetic forces. (b) its rapid rotation. (c) the force exerted by escaping neutrinos. (d) gas pressure. (e) the antigravity of its positrons.

87 The Sun is supported against the crushing force of its own gravity by (a) magnetic forces. (b) its rapid rotation. (c) the force exerted by escaping neutrinos. (d) gas pressure. (e) the antigravity of its positrons.

88 According to the ideal gas law, if the temperature of a gas is made 4 times higher, which of the following is a possible result? (More than one answer may be correct.) (a) Its pressure increases by 4 times and its density remains the same. (b) Its density increases by 4 times and its pressure remains the same. (c) Its pressure and density both double. (d) Its pressure increases by 4 times while its density decreases by 4 times. (e) Its pressure and density both decrease by 2 times.

89 According to the ideal gas law, if the temperature of a gas is made 4 times higher, which of the following is a possible result? (More than one answer may be correct.) (a) Its pressure increases by 4 times and its density remains the same. (b) Its density increases by 4 times and its pressure remains the same. (c) Its pressure and density both double. (d) Its pressure increases by 4 times while its density decreases by 4 times. (e) Its pressure and density both decrease by 2 times.

90 The primary method astronomers use to measure oscillations on the surface of the Sun is by (a) comparing telescopic images. (b) magnetograms from measuring Zeeman splitting of spectral lines. (c) measuring the Doppler shift of absorption lines from the surface. (d) Xray and ultraviolet imaging by satellites. (e) sonic detection.

91 The primary method astronomers use to measure oscillations on the surface of the Sun is by (a) comparing telescopic images. (b) magnetograms from measuring Zeeman splitting of spectral lines. (c) measuring the Doppler shift of absorption lines from the surface. (d) Xray and ultraviolet imaging by satellites. (e) sonic detection.

92 Differential rotation results in (a) the solar wind. (b) a wound up magnetic field. (c) the Maunder minimum. (d) the Sun's generation of energy. (e) All of the above.

93 Differential rotation results in (a) the solar wind. (b) a wound up magnetic field. (c) the Maunder minimum. (d) the Sun's generation of energy. (e) All of the above.

94

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