1 ESS 7 Lectures 18, 19 and 20 May 17, 19 and 21, 2010 Technology and Space Weather
2 bestbuy.com Mgccl.com
3 Space Weather Effects on Satellite Lifetimes: Atmospheric Drag A satellite would orbit forever if gravity was the only force acting on it. Near the Earth (<2000km) satellites are traveling within the Earth s atmosphere. Collisions with the air cause them to slow down and drop to lower altitudes. During magnetic storms the atmosphere gets g g p g heated and the density increases.
4 An Example of Atmospheric Drag The increased drag can cause satellites to return to Earth. Even if they aren t lost their orbits are changed and they may not be able to perform their functions.
5 Cleaning Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Number of Satellites Oribital Debris Solar Max Most satellites are in LEO Most satellites are in LEO Magnetic storms remove space junk but also cripple active satellites.
7 Geosynchronous Orbit (6.6 R E ) Satellites Geosynchronous orbit where a satellite orbits the Earth in 24 hours is in the radiation belts. Over 100 satellites orbit used for communications, weather forecasts etc.
8 Magnetic Storms Populate the Radiation Belts Outer Belt Relativistic Electrons Inner Belt (Protons) Plasma sheet electrons
9 Space Environment Effects: Surface Charging
10 Effects of Surface Charging Spacecraft charging is a variation of the electrostatic potential of the spacecraft surface with respect to the surrounding plasma. The resulting discharges can: Cause spurious electronic switching Breakdown vehicle thermal coatings. Degrade amplifiers and solar cells Degrade optical sensors. Photoionization frees electrons from the spacecraft and it develops e a positive charge. Electrons may form a negative cloud near the spacecraft. If the entire surface was a homogeneous conductor this would not be a problem but this isn t the case. Differential charging of the sunlit surface with respect to the dark surface. Electrons with energies of a few kev can penetrate the skin of the spacecraft and charge it negatively.
11 Surface Charging: SCATHA Satellite Observations. Following this substorm while SCATHA was in eclipse the spacecraft charged to 20kV. 1981) Reagan et al., 1 SCATHA (R
12 Space Environment Effects: Deep Dialectric Charging
13 Examples of Deep Dielectric Charging Electrons with energies between 2 and 10 MeV have enough energy to get deep into satellite surfaces. The excess charge spreads out evenly on conducting surfaces but the charge accumulates on dielectric surfaces resulting in potential differences between different parts of the satellite. Eventually static discharges will occur. This can happen on electron circuitry. Left plot shows count rate of 3 MeV electrons versus time. Arrows show times when the spacecraft star tracker had anomalies. Right plot shows >2MeV electrons and anomalies.
14 High Energy Electrons: Deep-Dialectric Charging 1. Electrons bury themselves in the insulator 4. Electrons build up faster than they leak off 2. Electrons slowly leak out of the insulator 5. Discharge (electrical spark) that damages or destroys the material 3. Influx of electrons increases to levels higher than the leakage rate
15 Surface Damage in a C2 MOS Capacitor
16 Space Environment Effects: Single Event Upsets
17 Effects of Single Event Upsets Single Event Upsets are bit flips in digital microelectronic circuits. Damage to stored data. Damage to software. Stop central processing unit (CPU). Cause CPU to write over critical data tables. Create faulty commands. Caused by high energy ions ionizing silicon electronics. Galactic cosmic rays. SEPs Radiation belts.
18 Background caused by Solar Energetic Particles
19 Faraday s ay Law A time variable magnetic field can induce an electric field. E B t A time varying magnetic field is how an electrical generator works. Space weather events make a time varying magnetic fields. This can induce a voltage in wires or things like wires.
20 Geoelectric Field is caused by changes in the magnetic field, especially by pulsations
21 Carrington Event, Sep New York Times Sep
22 Power Grids and Black Outs A magnetic storm in 1989 caused induced current which damaged this transformer. It caused a black out that shut off power for 6 million people for 9 hours.
23 What Damages Transformers? Changing ionospheric currents induce changing magnetic fields, which induce currents in long wires Corpuscular radiation from aurora charge conductors (like long straight wires) Variable magnetic fields exert force on electrical components in transformer. Transformer winding failure Transformer exit lead overheating
24 North America Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) NERC is the Federal Energy Regulatory Commissions i electric reliability coordinator. Organized into a series of regional coordinators. Develops and enforces reliability standards. d
25 Trans-continental/oceanic n nta c Fiber Optic Cables Fiber optics use light instead of current to carry signals. They should not be susceptible to induced currents. However, most 1000+km long lines need relays to boost the signal strength. These need power and hence copper wires running to them. "Courtesy of Windows to the Universe,
26 Pipeline Corrosion on A current in a pipeline pp enhances corrosion. The trans-alaska pipeline is basically a long conductor at high latitude where there are changing magnetic fields even during substorms.
27 Launches must be Postponed During Solar Particle Events Launches for a number of rockets must be postponed if the flux of >50MeV protons exceeds 100 pfu. The proton fluxes interfere with the guidance system.
28 What Would Satellite Operators do if they had Accurate Space Weather Forecasts? Instruments and/or spacecraft turned off or safed Maneuver planning Anomaly assessments Orbit determination accuracy Increased spacecraft and instrument monitoring for health and safety during solar storms
29 AM and HF Radio Propagation on We can take advantage of refraction and reflection by using the ionosphere to have over- the-horizon communication (Marconi) Frequency needs to be less than the critical frequency (or plasma frequency) of the ionosphere (typically around 10 MhZ) F critical = 9 n e where the density is in m -3
30 Danger to Aviation HF Communication only High frequency (3-30MHz) communications problems in polar regions. By 2018 estimated 1.8 million passengers between US and China.
31 Satellite t Communications ons Typically y very high frequency so ionospheric effects are minimized (but not eliminated) GPS - signal delays and GPS signal delays and refraction give errors in position.
32 Satellite t Signal Scintillation High frequency changes in signal strength variations Same effect as twinkle in star light Due to interference of ionospheric irregularities C i l t Causes signal connect loss/drop outs
33 GPS (NAVSTAR) Animation A simulation of the original design of the GPS space segment, with 24 GPS satellites (4 satellites in each of 6 orbits), showing the evolution of the number of visible satellites from a fixed point (45ºN) on earth (considering "visibility" as having direct line of sight). The parameters used to simulate the orbits are: eccentricity (e) 0.05, inclination (i) 55º and a separation between orbits of 60º in the right ascension of the ascending node. Within each orbit, the four satellites are evenly spaced (the instant of pass through perihelion being arbitrary for the first satellite in each orbit). The orbital period of the satellites was taken to be 12 hours. The earth was considered a perfect sphere with a radius of 6400 km. The time in the animation is running about 2880 times faster than real time (half a minute representing 24 hours),as clearly seen in the rotation of earth. The simulation was created using MATLAB and converted to animated gif format using Adobe ImageReady. El Pak - Wikipedia
34 Danger to Aviation at Lower Latitudestu The FAA Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) is used to navigation at lower latitudes. WAAS uses the GPS satellites. In 2005 aircraft in the western U.S. lost contact with the GPS satellites due to interference from a large solar flare.
35 Ionosphere Disturbances impact vertical error limits, defined by the FAA s Lateral Navigation Vertical Navigation (LNAV/VNAV) specification to be no more that 50 meters. Commercial aircraft unable to use WAAS for precision approaches. Space weather can cause errors greater than 50 meters. WAAS Altitude tu Errors
36 What Causes What? (CIR Versus CME Storms) The responses of the magnetosphere to CIR and CME driven storms are different. As a result the space weather effects are different. CIR driven storms cause more problems for space assets. CME driven storms cause more problems for electrical systems.
37 Review of CME Properties Occur predominately during solar maximum, are mostly radial structures, and drive storms with time scales of days. Frequently are composed of 3 parts: Forward Shock: If the speed differential between the remnants of the coronal ejecta and the slow, upstream solar wind is greater than the magnetosonic wave speed (50 70 km/s), a forward shock is formed. Typical shocks of Mach 2-3 are observed. The changes pass a given point in minutes. Sheath region: between the shock and the cloud the field and density are compressed and turbulent, ~ 9-24 nt (dependant on the Mach of the shock), timescale on the order of hours. Magnetic cloud: slow varying (~ day), strong magnetic fields (10-25 nt), low density, low ion temperature as compared to background solar wind.
38 Graphical view of ICME (a.k.a CME and Magnetic Cloud) Figure 2 from Gonzalez et al., 1999.
39 CIR Properties Occur predominately during the descending phase of solar cycle, are nearly azimuthal in profile, and last up to a week. Frequently lack of sudden impulse (no forward shock at 1 AU shocks typically form between 2-3AU) but can contain the typical 3 phases of a magnetic storm. They are characterized by strong magnetic fields ~ 30 nt (due to high and low speed stream compression) B z fluctuates throughout interval (due at least in part by intense Alfvén wave activity embedded in high speed streams see Smith et al., 1995).
40 Cartoon of CIR Figure 4 from Tsurutani et al., Figure 6 from Gonzalez et al., 1999.
41 CME: More on CME and CIR Storms CIR Can create major storms (Dst < -100 nt) Initial phase: sudden commencement caused by forward shock, τ ~ min-hrs. Main phase: initiated by a southward IMF and enhances nightside id convection thus ring current increases, τ ~ hrs. Recovery phase: when the ring current begins to decay- τ ~ days. Due to highly oscillatory nature of the Bz GSM field, the resultant storms are weak to moderate (Dst>-100 nt) Initial phase: caused by an increase in ram pressure from the HCSPS but density increase is gradual, sudden commencements are rarely observed. Main phase: caused by CIR Recovery phase: high speed stream contains Alfvenic waves which create intense AE increases.
42 Solar Energetic Particles Solar energetic particle events are enhanced fluxes of subrelativistic and relativistic ions that have durations of hours to days. They are known to be associated with flares and interplanetary shocks (Borovsky & Denton 2006). Frequently accompany CME (with shocks) driven storms, but rarely with CIRs at Earth (because shock hasn t typically y steepened yet
43 Relativistic Electrons in Radiation Belts Enhanced relativistic electrons (> MeV) in the outer radiation belt. CMEs CIRs CME driven storms: Less severe CIR driven storms Can be severe, enhanced fluxes peak during declining solar cycle.
44 Formation on of new Radiation at belt Usually caused by the capture of SEP ions during strong compression of the magnetosphere, but new inner electron belt has also been created from large compression of a SSC. CME driven process not related to CIRs.
45 Aurora Great auroras are predominately due to CME driven storms and peak during solar maximum. Low intensity aurora over the entire oval is observed during CIR driven storms in the recovery phase. Aurora Australis appearing in the night sky at Swifts Creek, 100km north of Lakes pp g g y Entrance, Victoria, Australia. Ca. Nov Wikipedia.
46 Ionospheric Effects CME affect: GIR: geomagnetically g induced currents which are hazardous to Earth based electrical systems. Caused by rapid intensification of ionosphere currents that are driven from shock compression of the magnetosphere or a substorm. Occur predominately during solar max and/or the early declining phase Brodsky & Denton, 2006
Geomagnetic storms. Measurement and forecasting Anna Gustavsson 17 October 2006 Project of the Space Physics Course 2006 Umeå University 1 Introduction Effects of magnetic storms on technology Geomagnetic
How is Earth s Radiation Belt Variability Controlled by Solar Wind Changes Richard M. Thorne Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, UCLA Electron (left) and Proton (right) Radiation Belt Models
Internal Charging Hazards in Near-Earth Space during Solar Cycle 24 Maximum: Van Allen Probes Measurements T. Mulligan Skov, J.F. Fennell, J.L. Roeder, J.B. Blake, and S.G. Claudepierre The Aerospace Corporation,
High energy particles from the Sun Arto Sandroos Sun-Earth connections 25.1.2006 Background In addition to the solar wind, there are also particles with higher energies emerging from the Sun. First observations
1 2 3 US Air Force 557 th Weather Wing maintains a website with many operational products both on terrestrial as on space weather. The operational holy grail for the military are stoplight charts, indicating
ESS 7 Lectures 22 and 23 May 28 and June 2, 2010 Humans in Space Even if not soon to the Moon or Mars, humans will still be in Space (ISS) NASA Feb 19 2010 Radiation Doses and Risks When high energy particles
Lecture 5 The Formation and Evolution of CIRS Fast and Slow Solar Wind Fast solar wind (>600 km/s) is known to come from large coronal holes which have open magnetic field structure. The origin of slow
The Sun sends the Earth: Solar Radiation - peak wavelength.visible light - Travels at the speed of light..takes 8 minutes to reach Earth Solar Wind, Solar flares, and Coronal Mass Ejections of Plasma (ionized
The Structure of the Magnetosphere The earth s magnetic field would resemble a simple magnetic dipole, much like a big bar magnet, except that the solar wind distorts its shape. As illustrated below, the
Lecture 3: The Earth, Magnetosphere and Ionosphere. Sun Earth system Magnetospheric Physics Heliophysics Ionospheric Physics Spacecraft Heating of Solar Corona Convection cells Charged particles are moving
J. RADIAT. RES., 43: SUPPL., S53 S57 (2002) Activities of the Japanese Space Weather Forecast Center at Communications Research Laboratory SHINICHI WATARI 1 * and FUMIHIKO TOMITA 1 Space weather / ISES/SEP
DIN EN 16603-10-04:2015-05 (E) Space engineering - Space environment; English version EN 16603-10-04:2015 Foreword... 12 Introduction... 13 1 Scope... 14 2 Normative references... 15 3 Terms, definitions
J. Astrophys. Astr. (2008) 29, 263 267 Solar and Interplanetary Disturbances causing Moderate Geomagnetic Storms Santosh Kumar, M. P. Yadav & Amita Raizada Department of P.G. Studies and Research in Physics
The importance of solar wind magnetic field observations & the upcoming Sunjammer solar sail mission J. P. Eastwood The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK 13 November 2013
Dr. Brock J. LaMeres Associate Professor Electrical & Computer Engineering Montana State University Research Statement Support the Computing Needs of Space Exploration & Science Computation Power Efficiency
Spacecraft Environment! Space System Design, MAE 342, Princeton University! Robert Stengel! Atmospheric characteristics! Loads on spacecraft! Near-earth and space environment! Spacecraft charging! Orbits
PROBLEM 1 (15 points) In a Cartesian coordinate system, assume the magnetic flux density varies as ( ) where is a constant, is the unit vector in x direction. a) Sketch the magnetic flux density and the
Space Weather and Amateur Radio: Science, Forecasting and Effects The Aerospace Corporation Dayton Hamvention Antenna Forum 19 May 2017 What is Space Weather? Essentially Space Weather is: A planet s interaction
NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center Data and Services Terry Onsager and Howard Singer NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center Terry.Onsager@noaa.gov Customer Subscriptions to Space Weather Services Frequent
Geomagnetic Sudden Impulses Whitham D. Reeve 2013 W. Reeve 1. Introduction This article discusses geomagnetic sudden impulses observed with the SAM-III magnetometer system at Anchorage, Alaska USA during
Myagkova I.N., Panasyuk M.I., Kalegaev V.V. Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow Complex ORbital Observations in Near-Earth Space of the Activity of the Sun The third
Earth s Radiation Belts: A Tutorial D.N. Baker Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences Department of Physics University of Colorado - Boulder Special
Electron Acceleration and Loss in the Earth s Radiation Belts: The Contribution of Wave- particle Interactions Richard B Horne British Antarctic Survey R.Horne@bas.ac.uk Outline Relevance Radiation belt
The first super geomagnetic storm of solar cycle 24: The St. Patrick day (17 March 2015) event Chin Chun Wu 1, Kan Liou 2, Bernard Jackson 3, Hsiu Shan Yu 3, Lynn Hutting 1, R. P. Lepping 4, Simon Plunkett
AMSAT Space Symposium 2012 Space Radiation Mitigation for Fox-1 Alan Biddle WA4SCA Tony Monteiro AA2TX Space Radiation Components Type Source Composition Trapped Particles in Van Allen Belts Galactic Cosmic
LEARNING ABOUT THE OUTER PLANETS Can see basic features through Earth-based telescopes. Hubble Space Telescope especially useful because of sharp imaging. Distances from Kepler s 3 rd law, diameters from
Solar Dynamics Affecting Skywave Communications Ken Larson KJ6RZ October 2010 1 Page Subject 3 1.0 Introduction 3 2.0 Structure of the Sun 3 2.1 Core 3 2.2 Radiation Zone 4 2.3 Convection Zone 4 2.4 Photosphere
CESAR BOOKLET General Understanding of the Sun: Magnetic field, Structure and Sunspot cycle 1 Table of contents Introduction to planetary magnetospheres and the interplanetary medium... 3 A short introduction
Proceedings of the National Symposium on Current trends in Atmospheric Research including Communication And Navigation aspects (CARCAN-), Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology, Hyderabad, A.P. December
May-Britt Kallenrode Space Physics An Introduction to Plasmas and Particles in the Heliosphere and Magnetospheres With 170 Figures, 9 Tables, Numerous Exercises and Problems Springer Contents 1. Introduction
NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center A Profile of Space Weather Space Weather Prediction Center 24-hour Forecast Center, Boulder, CO U. S. Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
INSTRUCTIONS 1. Write your name and student identification number on the answer sheet. 2. Please cover your answer sheet at all times. 3. This is a closed book exam. You may use the PH2200 formula sheet
How the Sun Works Presented by the The Sun warms our planet every day, provides the light by which we see and is absolutely necessary for life on Earth. In this presentation, we will examine the fascinating
Turbulent Origins of the Sun s Hot Corona and the Solar Wind Steven R. Cranmer Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Turbulent Origins of the Sun s Hot Corona and the Solar Wind Outline: 1. Solar
Electromagnetic Compatibility! Space System Design, MAE 342, Princeton University! Robert Stengel!! Problems, Analysis, and Testing!! Specifications!! Fundamentals!! Systems Approach!! Categories!! Spacecraft
Simulation of the charging process of the LISA test masses due to solar particles. 5 th International Lisa Symposium 14 July 2004 Helios Vocca INFN Pg Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs( SEPs) SEPs are particles
2-2-3 Prediction of the Plasma Environment in the Geostationary Orbit Using the Magnetosphere Simulation The geostationary orbit satellites are used for communication, broadcasting, meteorological observation,
JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 117,, doi:10.1029/2011ja017124, 2012 Magnetosphere response to high-speed solar wind streams: A comparison of weak and strong driving and the importance of extended
Jupiter Orbit, Rotation Physical Properties Atmosphere, surface Interior Magnetosphere Moons (Voyager 1) Jupiter is the third-brightest object in the night sky (after the Moon and Venus). Exploration by
NASA s Contribution to International Living With a Star Madhulika Guhathakurta Office of Space Science, CodeSS NASA Headquarters October 17,2002 Sun-Earth Connection (Sec) Program Planet Varying Radiation
The Jovian Planets (Gas Giants) Discoveries and known to ancient astronomers. discovered in 1781 by Sir William Herschel (England). discovered in 1845 by Johann Galle (Germany). Predicted to exist by John
An electric field is a storehouse of energy. The space around a concentration of electric charge is different from how it would be if the charge were not there. If you walk by the charged dome of an electrostatic
Chapter 7 Space Environment Maj Jeffrey D. Lanphear, USAF; and Maj Gabriel A. Medina, Dominican Republic Air Force Special consideration must be given to the design and fabrication of systems that must
The Sun Teacher Background: The Dancing Lights Program Margaux Krahe Many people think the Sun is just a fiery yellow ball. The Sun is not actually burning because fire requires oxygen. Really, the Sun
Living in a Star Sarah Gibson (NCAR/HAO) 3D real-time astronomy Solar eruption (CME) Earth s magnetosphere We are observing a stellar system from within What we see may impact us in near-real time Unescapably
Washington University in St. Louis Washington University Open Scholarship Undergraduate Theses Unrestricted Spring 3-26-2013 Determination of Average Loss Lifetimes for Near Earth Electrons in Solar Storms
Analysis on selected geo-effective events using observations and models at Space Environment Prediction Center Siqing Liu, Ercha Aa, Qiuzhen Zhong, Bingxian Luo, Zhitao Li, Jingjing Wang, and Jiancun Gong
Proton Radiation Belt Remediation (PRBR) Presentation to Review Committee Dennis Papadopoulos Tom Wallace October 28, 2008 Removing Energetic Protons Removal is accomplished in the same way as HANE electron
Monitoring solar energetic particles with ESA SREM units I. Sandberg Institute for Space Applications and Remote Sensing National Observatory of Athens, Greece The 10th Hellenic Astronomical Conference
The Sun: Our Star The Sun is an ordinary star and shines the same way other stars do. Announcements q Homework # 4 is due today! q Units 49 and 51 Assigned Reading Today s Goals q Today we start section
Status and Perspectives of the LAGO Project 5 th Workshop on Air Shower Detection at High Altitude Paris, France Édgar F. Carrera email@example.com (for the LAGO Collaboration) Universidad San Francisco
Astronomy Chapter 12 Review Approximately how massive is the Sun as compared to the Earth? A. 100 times B. 300 times C. 3000 times D. 300,000 times E. One million times Approximately how massive is the
PROJECT FINAL REPORT Grant Agreement number: 606716 Project acronym: Project title: Funding Scheme: SPACESTORM Modelling space weather events and mitigating their effects on satellites Seventh Framework
External Magnetic Field Variations and Aeromagnetic Surveys Experiences, Problems, Potential Solutions Jurgen Watermann Hans Gleisner & Thorkild Rasmussen chercheur associé, Le STUDIUM hosted by LPCE/CNRS
ESS 7 Lectures 6, 7 and 8 April 9, 12 and 14 The Heliosphere The Exploding Sun At times the Sun explosively sends plasma into space. This occurs most dramatically during CMEs. Hallowe en Storm 2003 Note
Solar energetic particles and cosmic rays Energetic particles in the heliosphere Solar energetic particles and cosmic rays Energy spectra and acceleration Particle propagation and transport Pick-up ions,
A LOOK AT PROPAGATION FOR THE 2017/2018 CONTEST SEASON Frank Donovan W3LPL Carl Luetzelschwab K9LA 1 THANKS TO THE WWROF FOR SPONSORING THIS WEBINAR wwrof.org And thanks to Ken K4ZW for facilitating this
Jupiter: Giant of the Solar System Jupiter s Red spot : A huge storm that has raged for over 300 years that is ~2x size of the Earth. Gas Giant is really a Liquid Giant! Pictures over ~7 years from Hubble
Status and Perspectives of the LAGO Project 5 th Workshop on Air Shower Detection at High Altitude Paris, France Édgar F. Carrera firstname.lastname@example.org (for the LAGO Collaboration) Universidad San Francisco
Exercises using Satellite ToolKit (STK) email@example.com Creating Satellite Orbits 1. What You Will Do Create a low-earth orbit (LEO) satellite Create a medium-earth orbit (MEO) satellite Create a highly
Ionospheric Tomography II: Ionospheric Tomography II: Applications to space weather and the high-latitude ionosphere Why tomography at high latitudes? Why tomography at high latitudes? Magnetic field railway
Introduction Ionizing radiation that is associated with radioactivity cannot be directly detected by our senses. Ionization is the process whereby the radiation has sufficient energy to strip electrons
Solar Terrestrial Influences on Climate during Geomagnetic Reversals Glatzmaier, G.A., and P. Olson (2005), Probing the Geodynamo, Scientific American Special Edition, 15(2), 28. Robert L. McPherron Institute
Observation of Light Curves of Space Objects Hirohisa Kurosaki Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency Toshifumi Yanagisawa Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency Atsushi Nakajima Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
HARTLAND OBSERVATORY Monthly Geomagnetic Bulletin BRISTOL CHANNEL December 2002 02/12/HA Hartland NERC 2002 1. HARTLAND OBSERVATORY MAGNETIC DATA 1.1 Introduction This bulletin is published to meet the
A New Equatorial Plasma Bubble Prediction Capability Brett A. Carter Institute for Scientific Research, Boston College, USA, http://www.bc.edu/research/isr/, RMIT University, Australia, www.rmit.edu.au/space
Chapter 19 Exploring Space 1. All radiation is classified by wavelength in the electromagnetic spectrum. 2. Two types of telescopes that collect visible light are refractors and reflectors. 3. An uncrewed
HELIOSTAT III - THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE SYNOPSIS: In this lab you will observe, identify, and sketch features that appear in the solar chromosphere. With luck, you may have the opportunity to watch a solar
ESA s Juice: Mission Summary and Fact Sheet JUICE - JUpiter ICy moons Explorer - is the first large-class mission in ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 programme. Planned for launch in 2022 and arrival at Jupiter
Lecture 1102 Sound Waves EM Waves Physics Help Q&A: tutor.leiacademy.org The Doppler Effect The Doppler effect (or Doppler shift) is the change in frequency (or wavelength) of a wave for an observer moving
This page intentionally left blank! Solar-Terrestrial Data Available on the k4msu.com Website The original title was going to be... Is KK4BKD a Spy Using k4msu.com to Send Secret Messages? Or, what else
Magnetic Reconnection: explosions in space and astrophysical plasma J. F. Drake University of Maryland Magnetic Energy Dissipation in the Universe The conversion of magnetic energy to heat and high speed
Physics 170 - Mechanics Lecture 30 Gravitational Energy Gravitational Potential Energy Gravitational potential energy of an object of mass m a distance r from the Earth s center: Gravitational Potential
Electromagnetic Fields Inside the Magnetoshpere P. K. Toivanen Finnish Meteorological Institute, Space Research Outline Introduction to large-scale electromagnetic fields Magnetic field geometry Modelling
Regents Earth Science Unit 5: Astronomy Models of the Universe Earliest models of the universe were based on the idea that the Sun, Moon, and planets all orbit the Earth models needed to explain how the
Lecture 14: Solar Cycle Outline 1 Observations of the Solar Cycle 2 Babcock-Leighton Model Observations of the Solar Cycle Sunspot Number 11-year (average) cycle period as short as 8 years as long as 15
Romanian Reports in Physics, Vol. 64, No. 1, P. 302 307, 2012 SIMULATION OF SPACE RADIATION FOR NANOSATELLITES IN EARTH ORBIT * M.F. TRUȘCULESCU 1,2, O. SIMA 1 1 University of Bucharest, Physics Department,