A zoo of transient sources. (c)2017 van Putten 1

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1 A zoo of transient sources (c)2017 van Putten 1

2 First first light UDFj , z~10.3 Bouwens, R.J., et al., Nature, 469, 504 Cuchiara, A. et al., 2011, ApJ, 736, 7 z=9.4: GRB B, z~9.4 (~520 M yr) (c)2017 van Putten 2

3 HE sources and extreme transients Associated with supermassive black holes: Active galactic nuclei (AGN) Associated with neutron stars and black holes: Pulsars, supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, X-ray and gamma-ray binaries, radio bursters (c)2017 van Putten 3

4 A zoo of AGN (c)2017 van Putten 4

5 (z=0.768, FR II, Seyfert 1) (c)2017 van Putten 5

6 Time [yr] Time [wk] Quasars (extragalactic) and microquasars (galactic) supermassive stellar mass 3C279 (22 GHz) GRS mas arcs (c)2017 van Putten 6

7 BH ~ 3 million solar masses (MPI) (c)2017 van Putten 7

8 Galaxy classification by morphology M87 Relativistic outflow Active Galactic Nulceus (c)2017 van Putten 8

9 NGC 1068 (M77) Hierarchical observational classification of AGN Extended features Thermal and non-thermal emission (synchrotron emission, inverse Compton, SSC, ), outflows (relativistic or non-relativistic, one- or two-sided, symmetric or asymmetric) with or without terminal lobes, luminosities, Lorentz factors, variability and morphological properties (across different wavelengths), Host galaxy core or nucleus Non-stellar emission spectra and temporal behavior, narrow and broad emission and/or absorption lines Host galaxy: Redshift, type (Spiral, Elliptical (Lenticular, Irregular not for AGN), star formation rate, etc. Host galaxy environment Isolated (field) galaxies, interacting galaxies, or galaxies in clusters. If the latter, (X-ray) properties of the cluster (indicating gas content), Mrk421 (c)2017 van Putten 9

10 Cygnus A (3C 405, z=0.056): FR II (Seyfert 2) Fanaroff-Riley II Edge brightened ( lobed ), relativistic, high radio power, one-sided or asymmetric Synchrotron emission (c)2017 van Putten 10

11 Messier 84 (NGC4374, D=18 Mpc): FR I (Seyfert 2) FRI: edge darkened radio jets, nonrelativistic outflows, low radio power, two-sided symmetric jets (c)2017 van Putten 11

12 Fanaroff-Riley (1974): Ratio of extent (distance to source) of high- to low surface brightness is correlated to radio-luminosity R FR < 0.5 :FR I L 178 MHz h WHz 1 str 1 R FR > 0.5 :FR II L 178 MHz > h WHz 1 str 1 3C449 (Perley Willis & Scott 1979) 3C47 (Bridle et al. 1994) (c)2017 van Putten 12

13 Optical-radio luminosity distribution Typically onesided, straight, B-parallel along the jet (except at terminal lobes): relativistic, supersonic outflows FR II FR I Often two-sided, distorted, plume-like, B- transverse to the jet, low ionization by central engine*: non-relativistic, sub-sonic outflows Owen & Ledlow 1994 *Baum, Zirbel and O'Dea (1995) (c)2017 van Putten 13

14 *Not including FR I-II classification Unification by viewing angle* Broad Line Region (BLR): V ~ few 1000 km/s Narrow Line Region (NLR): V < 1000 km/s BLR / NLR from central region (X-rays, UV) and further out Emission lines from BLR / NLR clouds Visible continuum from disk further UV down to IR from surrounding torus, dust, clouds Mrk421 (c)2017 van Putten 14

15 Eddington limits F N = GMm p r 2, F r = L / c 4πr 2 σ T : L Edd = 4πGMm p c σ T erg s 1 M = Lσ T 4πGm p c L 44 M Solar L erg s 1 : M 10 8 M Solar M = M M Solar : M Edd = L ηc ~ 2 η M 8 M Solar yr 1 (c)2017 van Putten 15

16 NGC 1068 (M77) NGC 1068 (M77) Observationally, a Seyfert 2: Nucleus observed only indirectly, by scattered light off an inner torus. Any direct view (with Seyfert 1 like features) from nucleus is inhibited. (strong emission lines) (Optical and X-ray image) (blazar, in Ursa Major)) Mrk421 (c)2017 van Putten 16

17 Centaurus A (NGC 5128, Next door at 4 Mpc, Seyfert 2) (c)2017 van Putten 17

18 NGC 1068 (M77) NLRG Seyfert 2 (narrow lines) 3C175 Seyfert 1 (narrow and broad) Seyfert 1.2 BLRG (blazar, in Ursa Major)) Mrk421 (c)2017 van Putten 18

19 Seyfert 1 (BLRG): NGC 4151 Emission lines: broad H I, He I or He II (allowed); narrow O III (forbidden) (blazar, in Ursa Major)) Mrk421 (c)2017 van Putten 19

20 NGC 1068 (M77) NLRG Seyfert 2 (narrow lines) 3C175 Seyfert 1.2 (strong emission lines) Seyfert 1 (narrow and broad) BLRG NGC 4151 Seyfert 1 (c)2017 van Putten 20

21 Blazars: relativistic outflows viewed close to the line-of-sight A. Simmonet (c)2017 van Putten 21

22 Quasars ( quasi-stellar objects ) RL Big Blue bump : massive accretion disk around a SMBH RQ (c)2017 van Putten 22

23 3C273 (z= , Seyfert 1, QSO, RL): BL Lacertae (highly variable, highly polarized) HST L = L Solar Discovered by Maarten Schmidt (1963) Chanrda-X image (NASA/A.Siemiginowska (CfA)/J.Bechtold Chandra-X (U. Arizona)) (c)2017 van Putten 23

24 3C279 (z=0.5362, Quasar): Optically Violently Variable (OVV) (c)2017 van Putten 24

25 PKS (z=1,187): Blazar Chandra-X image (NASA/A.Siemiginowska (CfA)/J.Bechtold (U. Arizona)) (c)2017 van Putten 25

26 Blazars Rapid time variable high energy emission TeV blazars Blazar spectrum > 200 GeV 60 s binning Mrk 421 (z= ) Aharonian, F., et al with H.E.S.S. 3C 279 (z=0.5362) (Wehrle, A.E. et al with CGRO) Physical origin: submm-uv synchrotron by in-situ accelerated electrons, gamma-rays from inverse Compton scattering and/or SSC (c)2017 van Putten 26

27 Estimating BH mass by causality Observed 8 min flare! Black hole of about 50 million solar masses (c)2017 van Putten 27

28 M87 (D=16.4 Mpc (Virgo)): BL Lac, LINER (c)2017 van Putten 28

29 Low Ionization Nuclear Emission Line Region (LINER) (c)2017 van Putten 29

30 Radio (red, VLA) + X-ray (blue, Chandra-X) X-ray: NASA/CXC/KIPAC/N. Werner et al Radio: NSF/NRAO/AUI/W. Cotton (c)2017 van Putten 30

31 Relativistic optical-radio jet (FR I) (c)2017 van Putten 31

32 Relativistic FR II jet from radio galaxy Pictor A (D=150 Mpc) Hardcastle et al MNRAS (c)2017 van Putten 32 X-ray: NASA/CXC/Univ. of Hertfordshire/M. Hardcastle et al.; Radio: CSIRO/ATNF/ATCA

33 NGC 1068 (M77) NLRG Seyfert 2 (narrow lines) NGC 4151 (strong emission lines) BLRG Seyfert 1 (narrow and broad) 3C175 Mrk421 PKS C273 (blazar, in Ursa Major) Mrk421 (c)2017 van Putten 33

34 Redshift distributions late (low z) No or weak optical emission lines late (low z) coeval with SFR, galaxy mergers, long GRBs 10% radio loud (c)2017 van Putten 34