Key Ideas: The Search for New Planets. Scientific Questions. Are we alone in the Universe? Direct Imaging. Searches for Extrasolar Planets

Save this PDF as:
Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Key Ideas: The Search for New Planets. Scientific Questions. Are we alone in the Universe? Direct Imaging. Searches for Extrasolar Planets"

Transcription

1 The Search for New Planets Key Ideas: Search for planets around other stars. Successful Search Techniques: Astrometric Wobble Doppler Wobble major discovery method Planetary Transits planets we can study in detail Gravitational Microlensing the lowest mass planets Orbit timing 3891 planets / 2900 planetary systems / 645 multiple planet systems Are we alone in the Universe? The question of the existence of other planets beyond the Solar System, and whether any can harbor life is an old one in astronomy: Are there solar systems around other stars? Are such solar systems like ours or different? Are any of the planets like the Earth? Has life arisen on other planets? Has intelligent life arisen on other planets? Has intelligent life arisen on Earth? Scientific Questions Speculation is fun, but the scientific problems reduce to searches for: Solar systems in the process of formation. Evolved solar systems around other stars. Evidence of life on other planets. Evidence of technological, intelligent life on other planets (SETI). Searches for Extrasolar Planets There are two basic search strategies: Direct Detection: Take images of planets orbiting other stars Watch planets occulting (eclipsing) their parent star, causing a characteristic drop in brightness. Gravitational Detection: Effects of a planet s gravity on their parent star. Gravitational microlensing by the planet. Planet-planet perturbations Direct Imaging Hard because stars are so much brighter than planets Best for large, young planets very far from star 44 planets around 40 stars (and counting) 102 planets / 84 planetary systems / 3 multiple planet systems 1

2 3 planets, all a few Jupiter masses, innermost about at the orbit of Neptune About 3 times the mass of Jupiter orbit predicted (!) from structure of ring. 870 year orbit. Mostly suppressed image of the star Wobbling Stars Recall Newton s form of Kepler s 1st Law: Planets actually orbit on ellipses with the center-of-mass at one focus. Because the sun is much more massive than any planet, the sun is very close to the center-of-mass but not quite It orbits around the center of mass at a distance of (planetary orbital radius)(m planet /M sun )=R for Jupiter The star will appear to wobble about the center-ofmass of the star-planet system. P S Astrometric Wobble Parent star wobbles back & forth on the sky relative to more distant background stars. Problem: The star is so much more massive than any planets, the motion is small. The motion is best seen when we are looking down on the plane of the orbit. From 18 light years away, the astrometric wobble of the Sun is <0.001 arcseconds! Only one planet detected this way (still true) Astrometric Wobble of the Sun 0.001" " Viewed from 18 light years above the Ecliptic plane 2

3 Doppler Wobble Method Another way is to look for motion along the line of sight using the Doppler Effect Star s spectral absorption lines shift towards the blue when the wobble moves the star towards the Earth. Star s spectrum shifts towards the red when the wobble moves the star away from the Earth. Measuring the orbital motions provides an estimate of the unseen planet s mass. P Doppler Wobble Measurements Star s spectrum Doppler shifts blueward S The greater mass of the star makes its orbital speed about the star-planet center of mass very small again smaller by the mass ratio M planet /M sun To the observer Star s spectrum Doppler shifts redward S P Example: Sun & Jupiter Jupiter: 13 km/sec at 5.2 AU from the center of mass Sun: 13 m/sec at AU from the center of mass Need to be able to measure the Doppler shifts of the lines with extremely high precision. 51 Pegasi Michel Mayor & Didier Queloz at Geneva Observatory observed a periodic wobble in the star 51 Pegasi in Sun-like star about 40 light-years away in the constellation of Pegasus Wobble was 56 meters/second, with a period of only 4.2 days. This implied a planet with a mass of 0.5 Jupiters orbiting at 0.05 AU! 3

4 Mass of planet/mass of Jupiter Doppler Planets As of February planets, 14 multiple planet systems As of March planets around 175 stars, 20 multiple planet systems As of March planets around 270 stars, 33 multiple planet systems As of November planets around 402 stars, 92 multiple planet systems 784 planets / 579 planetary systems / 144 multiple planet systems Some caveats are in order: Doppler Wobble most easily detects large, close planets (bigger wobbles) and has trouble with small distant planets (smaller wobbles) Currently can detect wobbles ~0.5 meters/second (a sprinter doing 100 meters in 10 seconds is moving 10 meters/second) - 1 meter/second is the wobble induced in the Sun by Saturn. The mass estimates assume the orbit is oriented exactly edge on, giving the smallest mass that could make the observed wobble. Also have to watch the star long enough for the planet to make a significant fraction of an orbit Today s Limits Period of planet s orbit Hard to find because the period of the orbit too long Hard to find because velocity of the star is too low Smallest ones are about ~1 Earth mass, but are closer to their stars than Mercury Some with periods of ~years, but they are 1-10 times the mass of Jupiter 4

5 Closest Planet? News! Even Closer Planet! Alpha Centauri (4.3 light years), a triple star system with Beta Centauri and Proxima Centauri Planet has a 3.2 day period, roughly 1.1 Earth masses, surface temperature ~1500K Amplitude of the Doppler wobble of Alpha Centauri? About 1 mile per hour (0.5 m/second) Some skepticism about reality of detection. Planet around Proxima Centauri (4.3 light years). Planetary Transits Planetary Transit If the orbital plane of an extrasolar planet is aligned with the line of sight: The planet will periodically transit across the face of its parent star. As the planet transits there will be a slight (fraction of a %) dimming of the starlight. Requires precision photometry & lots of luck. Combined with Doppler data, it gives the true orbital inclination, and hence the true mass. The Case of HD planetary transit in the star HD Has a Jupiter-sized planet found by the Doppler Wobble method: Sun-like star 158 light years away in Pegasus Planet has a mass of ~0.7 Jupiters Orbits at AU with a period of ~3.5 days Using the Doppler work as a guide, astronomers were able to observe the planet transit its star. 5

6 Why is this important? The planetary transit and Doppler Wobble data combined gives us more information: The orbital tilt: I = ± 0.14 The planet's mass: M=0.69 ± 0.05 M Jup The planet s radius: R=1.347 ± R Jup The planet's mean density: 350 kg/m 3 It is a giant gas planet intermediate in mass between Jupiter & Saturn. Number of Transits 425 confirmed transiting planets, around 321 stars, 71 systems with multiple transiting planets (these numbers are obsolete, see below) >3,5000 candidates from Kepler spacecraft statistical studies say almost all of these planets will be real 2865 planets / 2146 planetary systems / 469 multiple planet systems The Challenges Transit Depth The depth of the transit is set by how much of the star is covered by the planet the fractional change is (radius of planet/radius of star) 2 ~10 4 for the Earth ~10 2 Jupiter To look for the small dips associated with Earth almost certainly requires doing it from space in order to get the necessary stability The Challenges Transit Time The duration of the transit is determined by the orbit the time for the planet to pass in front of the sun transit duration ~ 12(orbital radius/au) 1/2 hours but as a fraction of the orbital period is is only fraction~0.001(au/orbital radius) Distant transits last longer but are a tiny fraction of the orbital period The Challenges Fraction Observable A more distant transiting planet must be closer and closer to having an orbit edge on relative to us the fraction which will transit is very small at large distances Fraction of planets that will transit ~(radius of star/radius of orbit) ~0.005(1 AU/radius of orbit) Kepler Launched in 2009 in theory capable of detecting transiting Earths It stares at one patch of sky and monitors the brightnesses of about 100,000 stars looking for transits. 6

7 1.7 times Jupiter s mass, very hot, 2730K so can see a secondary eclipse Gravitational Microlensing Gravity s Telescope Only ~40 planets so far, but able to find very low mass planets Big projects using this method are coming online 87 planets / 82 planetary systems / 3 multiple planet systems S. Gaudi Gravity bends light rays, and so a foreground star can focus the light of a more distant star onto the observer More complex light curves with a planet Advantage: The amplitude of the signal does not depend on the planet s mass unlike all other methods Disadvantages: It is a one shot observation no follow up observations to study it further or improve the measurements S. Gaudi 7

8 Brightness in weird astronomy units (10 times brighter going from 16.5 to 14) Explaining this one requires two planets orbiting a star with half the mass of the Sun the planets are 0.7 and 0.3 times the mass of Jupiter and are at 2.3 and 4.6 AU from the star Time in days Brightness of background star as a function of time (in days) Orbit Timing Once you have one planet you can look for other planets through their gravitational effects on the orbit of the first planet Can find much lower mass planets than you could find directly, particularly if they are in a resonance with the first planet At it s simplest, the timing of transits changes from the prediction for a simple elliptical orbit 7 systems, 8 planets Total numbers (obsolete) (exoplanet.eu) Confirmed planets (numbers I ve been using so far) 1043 planets around 791 stars, 173 multiple planet systems Then add the ~3500 Kepler candidates 6332 planets / 5149 planetary systems / 801 multiple planet systems (including candidates) Summary Direct imaging favors distant, big and young Astrometric wobble needs spacecraft Doppler wobble very successful, favors close and big Transits most extra information, favors close and big Microlensing anything at ~AU smaller rarer Orbit timing high mass or resonant low mass Gaudi 8

Planets are plentiful

Planets are plentiful Extra-Solar Planets Planets are plentiful The first planet orbiting another Sun-like star was discovered in 1995. We now know of 209 (Feb 07). Including several stars with more than one planet - true planetary

More information

10/16/ Detecting Planets Around Other Stars. Chapter 10: Other Planetary Systems The New Science of Distant Worlds

10/16/ Detecting Planets Around Other Stars. Chapter 10: Other Planetary Systems The New Science of Distant Worlds 10/16/17 Lecture Outline 10.1 Detecting Planets Around Other Stars Chapter 10: Other Planetary Systems The New Science of Distant Worlds Our goals for learning: How do we detect planets around other stars?

More information

Chapter 13 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective. Seventh Edition. Other Planetary Systems: The New Science of Distant Worlds Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 13 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective. Seventh Edition. Other Planetary Systems: The New Science of Distant Worlds Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 13 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Other Planetary Systems: The New Science of Distant Worlds 13.1 Detecting Planets Around Other Stars Our goals for learning: Why is it so challenging

More information

Searching for Other Worlds

Searching for Other Worlds Searching for Other Worlds Lecture 32 1 In-Class Question What is the Greenhouse effect? a) Optical light from the Sun is reflected into space while infrared light passes through the atmosphere and heats

More information

Doppler Technique Measuring a star's Doppler shift can tell us its motion toward and away from us.

Doppler Technique Measuring a star's Doppler shift can tell us its motion toward and away from us. Doppler Technique Measuring a star's Doppler shift can tell us its motion toward and away from us. Current techniques can measure motions as small as 1 m/s (walking speed!). Sun motion due to: Jupiter:

More information

Chapter 13 Other Planetary Systems. Why is it so difficult to detect planets around other stars? Size Difference. Brightness Difference

Chapter 13 Other Planetary Systems. Why is it so difficult to detect planets around other stars? Size Difference. Brightness Difference Chapter 13 Other Planetary Systems Why is it so difficult to detect planets around other stars? Size Difference Planets are small compared to interstellar distances 10 billion to 1 scale Sun is size of

More information

Detecting Extra Solar Planets

Detecting Extra Solar Planets Detecting Extra Solar Planets The Extrasolar Planet Count Currently, 288 stars have been discovered to have planets. Some of these have more than one, so a total of 380 planets have been discovered as

More information

Chapter 13 Other Planetary Systems. Why is it so difficult to detect planets around other stars? Brightness Difference

Chapter 13 Other Planetary Systems. Why is it so difficult to detect planets around other stars? Brightness Difference Chapter 13 Other Planetary Systems The New Science of Distant Worlds 13.1 Detecting Extrasolar Planets Our goals for learning:! Why is it so difficult to detect planets around other stars?! How do we detect

More information

Chapter 13 Other Planetary Systems. The New Science of Distant Worlds

Chapter 13 Other Planetary Systems. The New Science of Distant Worlds Chapter 13 Other Planetary Systems The New Science of Distant Worlds 13.1 Detecting Extrasolar Planets Our goals for learning Why is it so difficult to detect planets around other stars? How do we detect

More information

Observations of extrasolar planets

Observations of extrasolar planets Observations of extrasolar planets 1 Mercury 2 Venus radar image from Magellan (vertical scale exaggerated 10 X) 3 Mars 4 Jupiter 5 Saturn 6 Saturn 7 Uranus and Neptune 8 we need to look out about 10 parsecs

More information

Other Planetary Systems (Chapter 13) Extrasolar Planets. Is our solar system the only collection of planets in the universe?

Other Planetary Systems (Chapter 13) Extrasolar Planets. Is our solar system the only collection of planets in the universe? Other Planetary Systems (Chapter 13) Extrasolar Planets Is our solar system the only collection of planets in the universe? Based on Chapter 13 No subsequent chapters depend on the material in this lecture

More information

Lecture 12: Extrasolar planets. Astronomy 111 Monday October 9, 2017

Lecture 12: Extrasolar planets. Astronomy 111 Monday October 9, 2017 Lecture 12: Extrasolar planets Astronomy 111 Monday October 9, 2017 Reminders Star party Thursday night! Homework #6 due Monday The search for extrasolar planets The nature of life on earth and the quest

More information

Extrasolar planets. Lecture 23, 4/22/14

Extrasolar planets. Lecture 23, 4/22/14 Extrasolar planets Lecture 23, 4/22/14 Extrasolar planets Extrasolar planets: planets around other stars Also called exoplanets 1783 exoplanets discovered as of 4/21/14 Orbitting 1105 different stars Number

More information

Astronomy 141 Life in the Universe Professor Gaudi Homework #4 Solutions

Astronomy 141 Life in the Universe Professor Gaudi Homework #4 Solutions Astronomy 141 Life in the Universe Autumn Quarter 008 Prof Gaudi Homework #4 Solutions These questions concern the concept of targets for searches for extrasolar planets specifically (a) the number of

More information

Extrasolar Planet Detection Methods. Tom Koonce September, 2005

Extrasolar Planet Detection Methods. Tom Koonce September, 2005 Extrasolar Planet Detection Methods Tom Koonce September, 2005 Planets Around Other Stars? How is it possible to see something so small, so far away? If everything is aligned perfectly, we can see the

More information

Transiting Hot Jupiters near the Galactic Center

Transiting Hot Jupiters near the Galactic Center National Aeronautics and Space Administration Transiting Hot Jupiters near the Galactic Center Kailash C. Sahu Taken from: Hubble 2006 Science Year in Review The full contents of this book include more

More information

Astronomy 101 Lab: Hunt for Alien Worlds

Astronomy 101 Lab: Hunt for Alien Worlds Name: Astronomy 101 Lab: Hunt for Alien Worlds Be prepared to make calculations in today s lab. Laptops will also be used for part of the lab, but you aren t required to bring your own. Pre-Lab Assignment:

More information

The formation & evolution of solar systems

The formation & evolution of solar systems The formation & evolution of solar systems Content expectations Birth of the Solar System What did the material that eventually became the Sun and planets look like originally? Interstellar clouds like

More information

Planet Detection. AST 105 Intro Astronomy The Solar System

Planet Detection. AST 105 Intro Astronomy The Solar System Review AST 105 Intro Astronomy The Solar System MIDTERM III this THURSDAY 04/8 covering LECT. 17 through We ve talked about the Terrestrial Planets and the Jovian Planets - What about planets around other

More information

Chapter 13 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Other Planetary Systems: The New Science of Distant Worlds Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 13 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Other Planetary Systems: The New Science of Distant Worlds Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 13 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Other Planetary Systems: The New Science of Distant Worlds 13.1 Detecting Planets Around Other Stars Our goals for learning: Why is it so challenging

More information

Chapter 13 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Other Planetary Systems: The New Science of Distant Worlds Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 13 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Other Planetary Systems: The New Science of Distant Worlds Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 13 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Other Planetary Systems: The New Science of Distant Worlds 13.1 Detecting Planets Around Other Stars Our goals for learning: Why is it so challenging

More information

2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Thought Question Suppose you found a star with the same mass as the Sun moving back and forth with a period of 16 months. What could you conclude? A. It has a planet orbiting at less than 1 AU. B. It has

More information

Planets Around Other Stars Extrasolar Planet Detection Methods. February, 2006

Planets Around Other Stars Extrasolar Planet Detection Methods. February, 2006 Planets Around Other Stars Extrasolar Planet Detection Methods February, 2006 Distribution of this File Extrasolar_planet_detection.ppt This Powerpoint presentation was put together for the purpose of

More information

Extrasolar Planets. Today. Dwarf Planets. Extrasolar Planets. Next week. Review Tuesday. Exam Thursday. also, Homework 6 Due

Extrasolar Planets. Today. Dwarf Planets. Extrasolar Planets. Next week. Review Tuesday. Exam Thursday. also, Homework 6 Due Extrasolar Planets Today Dwarf Planets Extrasolar Planets Next week Review Tuesday Exam Thursday also, Homework 6 Due will count best 5 of 6 homeworks 2007 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson

More information

» How vast those Orbs must be, and how inconsiderable this Earth, the Theatre upon which all our mighty Designs, all our Navigations, and all our

» How vast those Orbs must be, and how inconsiderable this Earth, the Theatre upon which all our mighty Designs, all our Navigations, and all our » How vast those Orbs must be, and how inconsiderable this Earth, the Theatre upon which all our mighty Designs, all our Navigations, and all our Wars are transacted, is when compared to them. A very fit

More information

Can We See Them?! Planet Detection! Planet is Much Fainter than Star!

Can We See Them?! Planet Detection! Planet is Much Fainter than Star! Can We See Them?! Planet Detection! Estimating f p! Not easily! Best cases were reported in late 2008! Will see these later! Problem is separating planet light from star light! Star is 10 9 times brighter

More information

Planet Detection! Estimating f p!

Planet Detection! Estimating f p! Planet Detection! Estimating f p! Can We See Them?! Not easily! Best cases were reported in late 2008! Will see these later! Problem is separating planet light from star light! Star is 10 9 times brighter

More information

18 An Eclipsing Extrasolar Planet

18 An Eclipsing Extrasolar Planet Name: Date: 18 An Eclipsing Extrasolar Planet 18.1 Introduction One of the more recent new fields in astronomy is the search for (and discovery of) planets orbiting around stars other than our Sun, or

More information

The Problem. Until 1995, we only knew of one Solar System - our own

The Problem. Until 1995, we only knew of one Solar System - our own Extrasolar Planets Until 1995, we only knew of one Solar System - our own The Problem We had suspected for hundreds of years, and had confirmed as long ago as the 1800s that the stars were extremely distant

More information

Lecture #15: Plan. Telescopes (cont d) Effects of Earth s Atmosphere Extrasolar planets = Exoplanets

Lecture #15: Plan. Telescopes (cont d) Effects of Earth s Atmosphere Extrasolar planets = Exoplanets Lecture #15: Plan Telescopes (cont d) Effects of Earth s Atmosphere Extrasolar planets = Exoplanets Resolving Power (review) The bigger the size of the telescope, the better it is at discerning fine details

More information

Extrasolar Planets. Properties Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley

Extrasolar Planets. Properties Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Extrasolar Planets Properties 2007 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Finding extrasolar planets is hard quick recap Planet Detection Direct: pictures or spectra of the planets

More information

The Main Point(s) Lecture #36: Planets Around Other Stars. Extrasolar Planets! Reading: Chapter 13. Theory Observations

The Main Point(s) Lecture #36: Planets Around Other Stars. Extrasolar Planets! Reading: Chapter 13. Theory Observations Lecture #36: Planets Around Other Stars Extrasolar Planets! Theory Observations Detection methods Results to date... Implications for "Habitable Zones" Reading: Chapter 13 Astro 102/104 1 The Main Point(s)

More information

Planet Detection. Estimating f p

Planet Detection. Estimating f p Planet Detection Estimating f p Can We See Them? Not yet, but there are plans 3 recent claims, but planets very far from star, so some doubts Problem is separating planet light from star light Star is

More information

HD Transits HST/STIS First Transiting Exo-Planet. Exoplanet Discovery Methods. Paper Due Tue, Feb 23. (4) Transits. Transits.

HD Transits HST/STIS First Transiting Exo-Planet. Exoplanet Discovery Methods. Paper Due Tue, Feb 23. (4) Transits. Transits. Paper Due Tue, Feb 23 Exoplanet Discovery Methods (1) Direct imaging (2) Astrometry position (3) Radial velocity velocity Seager & Mallen-Ornelas 2003 ApJ 585, 1038. "A Unique Solution of Planet and Star

More information

Planets in other Star Systems

Planets in other Star Systems Planets in other Star Systems test out how planets are formed with more examples first extrasolar planet observed in 1995. In Jan 2000, 28 observed and now >3700 confirmed (10/2017). Many systems with

More information

Extrasolar Planets. Methods of detection Characterization Theoretical ideas Future prospects

Extrasolar Planets. Methods of detection Characterization Theoretical ideas Future prospects Extrasolar Planets Methods of detection Characterization Theoretical ideas Future prospects Methods of detection Methods of detection Methods of detection Pulsar timing Planetary motion around pulsar

More information

III The properties of extrasolar planets

III The properties of extrasolar planets III The properties of extrasolar planets (as of early 2016) http://sgoodwin.staff.shef.ac.uk/phy229.html 3.0 Introduction This lecture will discuss what we have found so far. It is important to remember

More information

Planets and Brown Dwarfs

Planets and Brown Dwarfs Extra Solar Planets Extra Solar Planets We have estimated there may be 10 20 billion stars in Milky Way with Earth like planets, hospitable for life. But what evidence do we have that such planets even

More information

ASTB01 Exoplanets Lab

ASTB01 Exoplanets Lab ASTB01 Exoplanets Lab Author: Anders Johansen Revision date: $Date: 2015/08/28 14:55:59 $ Planets orbiting stars other than the Sun are called exoplanets. Stellar light reflected off

More information

ASTRO 1050 Extrasolar Planets

ASTRO 1050 Extrasolar Planets ASTRO 1050 Extrasolar Planets ABSTRACT This is an exciting time in astronomy. Over the past two decades we have begun to indirectly detect planets that orbit stars other than our Sun. Methods of detection

More information

Lab 5: Searching for Extra-Solar Planets

Lab 5: Searching for Extra-Solar Planets Lab 5: Searching for Extra-Solar Planets Until 1996, astronomers only knew about planets orbiting our sun. Though other planetary systems were suspected to exist, none had been found. Now, thirteen years

More information

What Have We Found? 1978 planets in 1488 systems as of 11/15/15 (http://exoplanet.eu/ ) 1642 planets candidates (http://exoplanets.

What Have We Found? 1978 planets in 1488 systems as of 11/15/15 (http://exoplanet.eu/ ) 1642 planets candidates (http://exoplanets. Exoplanets. II What Have We Found? 1978 planets in 1488 systems as of 11/15/15 (http://exoplanet.eu/ ) 1642 planets + 3787 candidates (http://exoplanets.org) Detected by radial velocity/astrometry: 621

More information

Other planetary systems

Other planetary systems Exoplanets are faint! Other planetary systems Planets are seen only by reflected light at optical wavelengths At the distance of another star the faint light of a planet is lost in the glare of the star

More information

Lab #5. Searching for Extrasolar Planets

Lab #5. Searching for Extrasolar Planets Lab #5 Searching for Extrasolar Planets Introduction Since the beginning of recorded history, humans have wondered whether we are alone in the Universe. Recently, Astronomers have begun to make significant

More information

The Kepler Mission: 20% of all Stars in the Milky Way Have Earth like Planets!

The Kepler Mission: 20% of all Stars in the Milky Way Have Earth like Planets! The Kepler Mission: 20% of all Stars in the Milky Way Have Earth like Planets! Kepler Spacecraft Can we believe this result? What techniques and data were used to derive this important result? 1 How to

More information

Planets in other Star Systems

Planets in other Star Systems Planets in other Star Systems test out how planets are formed with more examples first extrasolar planet observed in 1995. In Jan 2000, 28 observed and now >3700 confirmed (3/2018). Many systems with 2

More information

EXOPLANET DISCOVERY. Daniel Steigerwald

EXOPLANET DISCOVERY. Daniel Steigerwald EXOPLANET DISCOVERY Daniel Steigerwald WHAT IS AN EXOPLANET? An exoplanet is a planet outside of our solar system Extrastellar Rogue 1853 Planets 1162 planetary systems 473 Multiple planetary systems HISTORY

More information

Lecture #15: Plan. Telescopes (cont d) Effects of Earth s Atmosphere Extrasolar planets = Exoplanets

Lecture #15: Plan. Telescopes (cont d) Effects of Earth s Atmosphere Extrasolar planets = Exoplanets Lecture #15: Plan Telescopes (cont d) Effects of Earth s Atmosphere Extrasolar planets = Exoplanets Collecting Area Light bucket : the bigger the area of the telescope s mirror or lens, the more photons

More information

Young Solar-like Systems

Young Solar-like Systems Young Solar-like Systems FIG.2. Panels(a),(b),and(c)show 2.9,1.3,and 0.87 mm ALMA continuum images of other panels, as well as an inset with an enlarged view of the inner 300 mas centered on the (f) show

More information

Class 15 Formation of the Solar System

Class 15 Formation of the Solar System Class 16 Extra-solar planets The radial-velocity technique for finding extrasolar planets Other techniques for finding extrasolar planets Class 15 Formation of the Solar System What does a successful model

More information

Planets beyond the Solar System: Search and Discovery *

Planets beyond the Solar System: Search and Discovery * OpenStax-CNX module: m59921 1 Planets beyond the Solar System: Search and Discovery * OpenStax Astronomy This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License

More information

Astronomy 122 Midterm

Astronomy 122 Midterm Astronomy 122 Midterm This Class (Lecture 15): Stellar Evolution: The Main Sequence Next Class: Stellar Evolution: Post-Main Sequence Midterm on Thursday! Last week for Nightlabs 1 hour exam in this classroom

More information

Why is it hard to detect planets around other stars?

Why is it hard to detect planets around other stars? Extrasolar planets Why is it hard to detect planets around other stars? Planets are small and low in mass Planets are faint The angular separation between planets and their stars is tiny Why is it hard

More information

Sombrero Galaxy. The Sombrero Galaxy is located on the southern edge of the rich Virgo cluster of galaxies.

Sombrero Galaxy. The Sombrero Galaxy is located on the southern edge of the rich Virgo cluster of galaxies. Sombrero Galaxy The Sombrero Galaxy is located on the southern edge of the rich Virgo cluster of galaxies. Sombrero Galaxy This galaxy is 28 million light-years away. For comparison, it takes sunlight

More information

Planets & Life. Planets & Life PHYS 214. Please start all class related s with 214: 214: Dept of Physics (308A)

Planets & Life. Planets & Life PHYS 214. Please start all class related  s with 214: 214: Dept of Physics (308A) Planets & Life Planets & Life PHYS 214 Dr Rob Thacker Dept of Physics (308A) thacker@astro.queensu.ca Please start all class related emails with 214: 214: Today s s lecture Assignment 1 marked will hand

More information

Extrasolar Planets = Exoplanets III.

Extrasolar Planets = Exoplanets III. Extrasolar Planets = Exoplanets III http://www.astro.keele.ac.uk/~rdj/planets/images/taugruishydra2.jpg Outline Gravitational microlensing Direct detection Exoplanet atmospheres Detecting planets by microlensing:

More information

Extrasolar Planets. to appear in Encyclopedia of Time, Sage Publishing, in preparation, H.J. Birx (Ed.)

Extrasolar Planets. to appear in Encyclopedia of Time, Sage Publishing, in preparation, H.J. Birx (Ed.) Extrasolar Planets to appear in Encyclopedia of Time, Sage Publishing, in preparation, H.J. Birx (Ed.) The term extrasolar planets or exoplanets stands for planets outside our Solar System, i.e. not orbiting

More information

AST2000 Lecture Notes

AST2000 Lecture Notes AST2000 Lecture Notes Part 1C Extrasolar planets Questions to ponder before the lecture 1. Why is it only during recent years that we have started to detect planets orbiting stars outside our solar system?

More information

ASTRO Fall 2012 LAB #6: Extrasolar Planets

ASTRO Fall 2012 LAB #6: Extrasolar Planets ASTRO 1050 - Fall 2012 LAB #6: Extrasolar Planets ABSTRACT This is an exciting time in astronomy. Over the past two decades we have begun to indirectly detect planets that orbit stars other than our sun.

More information

Stellar Masses: Binary Stars

Stellar Masses: Binary Stars Stellar Masses: Binary Stars The HR Diagram Again A Diagram for People Q: What is happening here? A: People grow. They are born small, and then grow in height and mass as they age (with a fair bit of individual

More information

Spectroscopy, the Doppler Shift and Masses of Binary Stars

Spectroscopy, the Doppler Shift and Masses of Binary Stars Doppler Shift At each point the emitter is at the center of a circular wavefront extending out from its present location. Spectroscopy, the Doppler Shift and Masses of Binary Stars http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/astropix.html

More information

Astronomy 330 HW 2. Outline. Presentations. ! Alex Bara

Astronomy 330 HW 2. Outline. Presentations. ! Alex Bara Astronomy 330 This class (Lecture 10): Origin of the Moon Ilana Strauss Next Class: Our Planet Scott Huber Thomas Hymel HW 2! Alex Bara http://userpages.bright.net/~phobia/main.htm! Margaret Sharp http://hubpages.com/hub/proof-that-ufos-exist---

More information

There are 4 x stars in the Galaxy

There are 4 x stars in the Galaxy ExtraSolar Planets Our solar system consists of 1 Star 4 Jovian planets (+ icy moons) 4 Terrestrial planets The asteroid belt (minor planets) The Kuiper belt (dwarf planets, plutinos and TNOs) The Oort

More information

PLANETARY SYSTEM: FROM GALILEO TO EXOPLANETS

PLANETARY SYSTEM: FROM GALILEO TO EXOPLANETS PLANETARY SYSTEM: FROM GALILEO TO EXOPLANETS Rosa M. Ros Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona (Spain) Abstract When in 1610 Galileo Galilei looked at Jupiter with the use of his telescope, he saw

More information

Beyond the Book. FOCUS Book

Beyond the Book. FOCUS Book FOCUS Book At the bottom of page 4 is an example of a transit graph. A transit graph shows changes in the brightness of a star s light as a planet crosses in front of the star as seen from Earth. Suppose

More information

Searching for Extra-Solar Planets

Searching for Extra-Solar Planets Searching for Extra-Solar Planets Until 1996, astronomers only knew about planets orbiting our sun. Though other planetary systems were suspected to exist, none had been found. Now, thirteen years later,

More information

The Hertzprung-Russell Diagram. The Hertzprung-Russell Diagram. Question

The Hertzprung-Russell Diagram. The Hertzprung-Russell Diagram. Question Key Concepts: Lecture 21: Measuring the properties of stars (cont.) The Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) Diagram (L versus T) The Hertzprung-Russell Diagram The Stefan-Boltzmann Law: flux emitted by a black body

More information

EART164: PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES

EART164: PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES EART164: PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES Francis Nimmo Last Week - Dynamics Reynolds number, turbulent vs. laminar flow Velocity fluctuations, Kolmogorov cascade Brunt-Vaisala frequency, gravity waves Rossby waves,

More information

Characterizing Stars

Characterizing Stars Characterizing Stars The stars Every star you see in the sky is a large hot ball of gas like our star the Sun. Each one possibly making up a solar system with planets and debris orbiting around them. Stellar

More information

Extrasolar Planets. Materials Light source to mimic star Ball to mimic planet Light meter Interface

Extrasolar Planets. Materials Light source to mimic star Ball to mimic planet Light meter Interface Name: Date: Extrasolar Planets Objectives: Learn about Extrasolar planets planets orbiting other stars Explain how astronomers detect and characterize Extrasolar planets Materials Light source to mimic

More information

Lecture 12: Distances to stars. Astronomy 111

Lecture 12: Distances to stars. Astronomy 111 Lecture 12: Distances to stars Astronomy 111 Why are distances important? Distances are necessary for estimating: Total energy released by an object (Luminosity) Masses of objects from orbital motions

More information

Astronomy 421. Lecture 8: Binary stars

Astronomy 421. Lecture 8: Binary stars Astronomy 421 Lecture 8: Binary stars 1 Key concepts: Binary types How to use binaries to determine stellar parameters The mass-luminosity relation 2 Binary stars So far, we ve looked at the basic physics

More information

The Discovery of Planets beyond the Solar System. Luis A. Aguilar Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM. México

The Discovery of Planets beyond the Solar System. Luis A. Aguilar Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM. México The Discovery of Planets beyond the Solar System Luis A Aguilar Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM México First of all, What is a planet? Contrary to what you may have thought, this is something difficult to

More information

Modern Astronomy Review #1

Modern Astronomy Review #1 Modern Astronomy Review #1 1. The red-shift of light from distant galaxies provides evidence that the universe is (1) shrinking, only (3) shrinking and expanding in a cyclic pattern (2) expanding, only

More information

Writing very large numbers

Writing very large numbers 19.1 Tools of Astronomers Frequently in the news we hear about discoveries that involve space. Since the 1970s, space probes have been sent to all of the planets in the solar system and we have seen them

More information

Astronomy December, 2016 Introduction to Astronomy: The Solar System. Final exam. Practice questions for Unit V. Name (written legibly):

Astronomy December, 2016 Introduction to Astronomy: The Solar System. Final exam. Practice questions for Unit V. Name (written legibly): Astronomy 101 12 December, 2016 Introduction to Astronomy: The Solar System Final exam Practice questions for Unit V Name (written legibly): Honor Pledge: On my honor, I have neither given nor received

More information

Astronomy 210 Midterm #2

Astronomy 210 Midterm #2 Astronomy 210 Midterm #2 This Class (Lecture 27): Birth of the Solar System II Next Class: Exam!!!! 2 nd Hour Exam on Friday!!! Review Session on Thursday 12-1:30 in room 236 Solar Observing starts on

More information

1 The Solar System. 1.1 a journey into our galaxy

1 The Solar System. 1.1 a journey into our galaxy 1 The Solar System Though Pluto, and the far-flung depths of the Solar System, is the focus of this book, it is essential that Pluto is placed in the context of the planetary system that it inhabits our

More information

II Planet Finding.

II Planet Finding. II Planet Finding http://sgoodwin.staff.shef.ac.uk/phy229.html 1.0 Introduction There are a lot of slides in this lecture. Much of this should be familiar from PHY104 (Introduction to Astrophysics) and

More information

The Plethora of Exoplanets Could Any Have Life? Kevin H Knuth University at Albany Spring 2015

The Plethora of Exoplanets Could Any Have Life? Kevin H Knuth University at Albany Spring 2015 The Plethora of Exoplanets Could Any Have Life? Kevin H Knuth University at Albany Spring 2015 For there is a single general space, a single vast immensity which we may freely call Void; in it are innumerable

More information

Wobbling Stars: The Search for Extra Terrestrial Planets

Wobbling Stars: The Search for Extra Terrestrial Planets Name: Partner(s): 1101 or 3310: Desk # Date: Purpose Wobbling Stars: The Search for Extra Terrestrial Planets Describe the Doppler effect for sound and light Explain the relationships between the pitch,

More information

Simon P. Balm Astro 5 Test #3 Sample Questions

Simon P. Balm Astro 5 Test #3 Sample Questions Simon P. Balm Astro 5 Test #3 Sample Questions 1. What do we mean by the general habitability of a planet? A. the suitability for Life on it surface B. the suitability for Life beneath its surface C. its

More information

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 15. Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 15. Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Outlines Chapter 15 Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Chapter 15 The Formation of Planetary Systems Units of Chapter 15 15.1 Modeling Planet Formation 15.2 Terrestrial and Jovian Planets

More information

Detecting Other Worlds with a Backyard Telescope! Dennis M. Conti Chair, AAVSO Exoplanet Section

Detecting Other Worlds with a Backyard Telescope! Dennis M. Conti Chair, AAVSO Exoplanet Section Detecting Other Worlds with a Backyard Telescope! Dennis M. Conti Chair, AAVSO Exoplanet Section www.astrodennis.com The Night Sky Q: Which stars have one or more planets (exoplanets) around them? A: Most

More information

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 15. Astronomy Today 8th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 15. Astronomy Today 8th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Outlines Chapter 15 Astronomy Today 8th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Chapter 15 Exoplanets Units of Chapter 15 15.1 Modeling Planet Formation 15.2 Solar System Regularities and Irregularities 15.3

More information

Other Solar Systems. Week 15 (Chapter 13): Other Planetary Systems

Other Solar Systems. Week 15 (Chapter 13): Other Planetary Systems Week 15 (Chapter 13): Other Planetary Systems Nov. 30 Please pickup your grade sheet at front. We ll discuss at end of class. Other Solar Systems First one (51 Pegasi) discovered in 1995 Currently 268

More information

A star is at a distance of 1.3 parsecs, what is its parallax?

A star is at a distance of 1.3 parsecs, what is its parallax? Stars Spectral lines from stars Binaries and the masses of stars Classifying stars: HR diagram Luminosity, radius, and temperature Vogt-Russell theorem Main sequence Evolution on the HR diagram A star

More information

Searching for planets around other stars. Searching for planets around other stars. Searching for other planetary systems this is a hard problem!

Searching for planets around other stars. Searching for planets around other stars. Searching for other planetary systems this is a hard problem! Reading: Chap. 21, Sect.21.4-21.6 Final Exam: Tuesday, December 12; 4:30-6:30PM Homework 10: Due in recitation Dec. 1,4 1 Brief review of last time: Formation of Planetary Systems Observational Clues:

More information

Chapter 15: The Origin of the Solar System

Chapter 15: The Origin of the Solar System Chapter 15: The Origin of the Solar System The Solar Nebula Hypothesis Basis of modern theory of planet formation: Planets form at the same time from the same cloud as the star. Planet formation sites

More information

F = ma P 2 = a 3 (M + m) P 2 = a 3. max T = 2900 K m

F = ma P 2 = a 3 (M + m) P 2 = a 3. max T = 2900 K m Summer 2013 Astronomy - Test 1 Test form A Name Do not forget to write your name and fill in the bubbles with your student number, and fill in test form A on the answer sheet. Write your name above as

More information

Star Systems and Galaxies

Star Systems and Galaxies Star Systems and Galaxies Why Does the Milky Way Look Hazy? 1. Using a pencil, carefully poke at least 20 holes close together in a sheet of white paper. 2. Tape the paper to a chalkboard or dark-colored

More information

Measuring the Properties of Stars (ch. 17) [Material in smaller font on this page will not be present on the exam]

Measuring the Properties of Stars (ch. 17) [Material in smaller font on this page will not be present on the exam] Measuring the Properties of Stars (ch. 17) [Material in smaller font on this page will not be present on the exam] Although we can be certain that other stars are as complex as the Sun, we will try to

More information

13 - EXTRASOLAR PLANETS

13 - EXTRASOLAR PLANETS NSCI 314 LIFE IN THE COSMOS 13 - EXTRASOLAR PLANETS Dr. Karen Kolehmainen Department of Physics, CSUSB http://physics.csusb.edu/~karen/ EXTRASOLAR PLANETS? DO PLANETS ORBIT AROUND OTHER STARS? WE WOULD

More information

Extra Solar Planetary Systems and Habitable Zones

Extra Solar Planetary Systems and Habitable Zones Lecture Overview Extra Solar Planetary Systems and Habitable Zones Our Galaxy has 200 Billion Stars, Our Sun has 8 planets. It seems like an awful waste if we are alone Exoplanets Karen J. Meech, Svetlana

More information

Learning Objectives. one night? Over the course of several nights? How do true motion and retrograde motion differ?

Learning Objectives. one night? Over the course of several nights? How do true motion and retrograde motion differ? Kepler s Laws Learning Objectives! Do the planets move east or west over the course of one night? Over the course of several nights? How do true motion and retrograde motion differ?! What are geocentric

More information

RING DISCOVERED AROUND DWARF PLANET

RING DISCOVERED AROUND DWARF PLANET RING DISCOVERED AROUND DWARF PLANET Haumea, a dwarf planet in the Kuiper Belt was just found to have a ring. Why? Hint: what causes the Jovian planet rings? Artist's conception, not a real photo RING DISCOVERED

More information

Astronomy 1140 Quiz 4 Review

Astronomy 1140 Quiz 4 Review Astronomy 1140 Quiz 4 Review Anil Pradhan December 6, 2016 I The Outer Planets in General 1. How do the sizes, masses and densities of the outer planets compare with the inner planets? The outer planets

More information

Chapter 15 The Formation of Planetary Systems

Chapter 15 The Formation of Planetary Systems Chapter 15 The Formation of Planetary Systems Units of Chapter 15 15.1 Modeling Planet Formation 15.2 Formation of the Solar System 15.3 Terrestrial and Jovian Planets 15.4 Interplanetary Debris 15.5 Solar

More information

How big is the Universe and where are we in it?

How big is the Universe and where are we in it? Announcements Results of clicker questions from Monday are on ICON. First homework is graded on ICON. Next homework due one minute before midnight on Tuesday, September 6. Labs start this week. All lab

More information

Architecture and demographics of planetary systems

Architecture and demographics of planetary systems Architecture and demographics of planetary systems Struve (1952) The demography of the planets that we detect is strongly affected by detection methods psychology of the observer Understanding planet demography

More information