Professional / Amateur collaborations in exoplanetary science

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1 Professional / Amateur collaborations in exoplanetary science Alexandre Santerne Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto

2 Outline Exoplanets: the big picture collaborations in photometry collaborations in spectroscopy conclusion & perspectives

3 The big picture We want to know: How planetary systems form, migrate and evolve What s the formation rate of planetary system? Around which type of stars? What is the diversity of planets? What is the chemical composition of planetary atmosphere? What are the conditions for habitability?...

4 Transiting exoplanets = comparative planetology Radius Mass Bulk density Know the mass & density: know the nature (rocky, Neptune-like, giant, brown dwarf,...) Sohl et al. (2012)

5 Photometry

6 1.02 Kepler Niches 1.00 OHP-T120 Keep transit ephemeris up-to-date. Search for other companions in the system by transit timing variations. Study stellar activity using planet-spot crossing events. Detect transit on planets detected by radial velocity. Relative flux IAC80 ROTAT MOOS Engarouines KOINet koinet.astro.physik.unigoettingen.de Radial velocity [m.s 1 ] HARPS-N = 71 = 76 = Time (BJD ) Santerne et al. (2014)

7 Spectroscopy

8 Amateur radial velocities buil/extrasolar/obs.htm

9 Amateur radial velocities buil/extrasolar/obs.htm

10 Amateur radial velocities buil/extrasolar/obs.htm

11 High-resolution amateur spectroscopy Echelle spectrograph R ~50 000

12 High-resolution amateur spectroscopy Echelle spectrograph R ~50 000

13 High-resolution amateur spectroscopy ELODIE, 1995 Echelle VHIRES, 2014 spectrograph R ~50 000

14 The Moore law for spectrographs accuracy

15 The Moore law for spectrographs accuracy

16 The Moore law for spectrographs accuracy?

17 Niches for amateurs Radial velocity survey Follow-up of transit survey

18 Niches for amateurs Radial velocity survey Objective: search for massive planets / brown dwarfs around bright fast-rotating (F) stars Follow-up of transit survey

19 Niches for amateurs Radial velocity survey Objective: search for massive planets / brown dwarfs around bright fast-rotating (F) stars Follow-up of transit survey Objective: characterise giant planets transiting bright stars

20 Today 10 3 Kepler candidates All planets Expected RV semi-amplitude [m/s] Best photon noise in 1h exp. time SOPHIE HARPS Magnitude

21 Tomorrow Transiting exoplanet space missions CoRoT Kepler K2 bright stars CHEOPS TESS PLATO Today

22 TESS (Transit Exoplanet Survey Satellite) Full-sky survey of stars brighter than mv~12 Z9"=#.%29&(9H(D92/(</#.(X.%$0/&'22 Observing run of 27 days ;('*$$#*+:$$%+<)&*,=8 B+C8=D"E8!"##$>5+)8*'6$ 423.*(#1+#5+""+6'7 fi F&)(G,5+:'!858'G(98 066&_ f05 f0h 0 2.

23 e between the two missions. Figure 4 left, shows the i versus their orbital distance (normalized detections and to will the address HZ). a number of different science cases. ter than 11 mag and therefore too faint for an accurate y rv spectroscopy and too faint for atmospheric parison the expected yield for PLATO. Green dots 2 years coverage for the second pointing. ii and masses can be measured. PLATO will increase 42% of the sky ith accurate radii and masses by orders-of-magnitude. stars as bright as mv~4 out to the Habitable Zone of solar-like stars. Short pointings will be devoted to shorter-per In its nominal science operation phase, PLATO 2.0 s current baseline observing strategy com PLATO (PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations) Long-duration Observation Phases, consisting of continuous observations for pointings, lasting a minimum of 2 years with a maximum of 3 years for the first po Step-and-Stare Operation Phases, consisting of shorter-period observations of s fields which will last 1-2 years total, depending on the duration of the long durati Sky fields in this phase will be observed for at least 2 months, up to a maximum of 5 Figure 5.2 Schematic comparison of observing approaches. Yellow squares: CoRoT target fields in centre and anti-centre direction. Upper left corner: the Kepler target field. Large squares: size of the field. A combination of short and long (red) duration pointings is able to cover a very large part (ESA/SRE(2011)13). Note that the final locations of long and step-and-stare fields will be defined af PLATO 2.0 selection and are drawn here Kepler for illustration only. See Figure CoRoT 5.2 for preliminary location of Ref. long-dur ~150 No. of bright targets ~85,000 stars The proposed total* observing strategy ~6,000 stars aims at covering a ~370 large fraction of the sky, thereby 2, 4, 5 maxi 11 mag number of well characterized planets and planetary systems, in combination with widepointings total* that will significantly >512 stars increase the number ~150 of accurately known terrestrial 2, No. of dwarf star ~85,000 stars 3, Borucki et al Right : PLATO detection yield. ts with measured radii and masses. Expected PLATO not shown for clarity. Details on the expected PLATO k.

24 Perspectives & Conclusion Exoplanet studies are accessible to amateur astronomers - in photometry and spectroscopy. The study of giant exoplanets transiting bright star could performed by amateurs In photometry: check for background eclipsing binaries. In spectroscopy: by participating to the radial velocity follow-up (screen out false positives and characterise giant planets). Room for large pro/am collaborations in the context of future space missions (esp. TESS & PLATO) -> bright stars. Photometry: see Mousis et al. (2014) Spectroscopy: Santerne et al. (in prep.)

25 The french Pro/Am school Oleron 2003, La Rochelle 2006, 2009, 2012, TBD 2015.

26 The french Pro/Am school Oleron 2003, La Rochelle 2006, 2009, 2012, TBD Cocktail recipes: ~50% of pro s ~50% of am s shake during 1 week -> new collaborations!

27 The french Pro/Am school Oleron 2003, La Rochelle 2006, 2009, 2012, TBD Some key dates: Cocktail recipes: start of pro/am collaborations in spectroscopy ~50% of pro s start of pro/am collaborations in exoplanets ~50% of am s (improved in 2012) shake during 1 week -> new collaborations!

28 What about an European pro/am meeting?? - Thanks for your attention -

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