# Black Hole and Host Galaxy Mass Estimates

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1 Black Holes

2 Black Hole and Host Galaxy Mass Estimates 1. Constraining the mass of a BH in a spectroscopic binary. 2. Constraining the mass of a supermassive BH from reverberation mapping and emission line widths. 3. Constraining the mass of the host Galaxy from gravitational lensing.

3 Black-Hole Mass Estimates in Spectroscopic Binaries

4 Double Stars Double star: A pair of stars located at nearly the same position in the night sky. Some, but not all, double stars are binary stars. Optical double star: Two stars that lie along nearly the same line of sight but are actually at very different distances from us. Binary stars: Two stars orbiting about each other. The brighter star is called the primary and the other is its companion star or secondary. A double star can be either an optical double of a binary star. Visual Binary: a binary star for which the angular separation between the two components is great enough to permit them to be observed as pair of stars.

5 Binary Stars Binary Star 2MASSW J

6 Spectroscopic Binaries One can also use the Doppler effect to determine if a star is a binary. If the spectrum contains absorption lines that periodically shift in wavelength one can infer that they are looking at more that one star. spectroscopic binary: A binary star system whose binary nature is deduced from the periodic Doppler shifting of lines in its spectrum. If the spectrum of only one star of the binary is detectable it is called a single-line spectroscopic binary.

7 Spectroscopic Binaries Radial Velocity Curves of Spectroscopic binary system HD

8 Spectroscopic Binaries Assumptions and definitions: The angle between the true orbital plane and the observed one is called the inclination angle i. For simplicity we assume circular orbits (e = 0). v 1, v 2 are the velocities of the objects with masses m 1,m 2 respectively. The inferred radial velocities (via Doppler shift) are: v 1r = v 1 sini, v 2r = v 2 sini v 1 = 2!a 1 /P, v 2 = 2!a 2 /P Where a 1, a 2 are the radii (semimajor axes) of the orbits and P is the period of the binary.

9 Spectroscopic Binaries An elliptical orbit projected onto the plane of the sky produces an observable elliptical orbit. The foci of the original orbit do not project onto the foci of the projected ellipse.

10 Spectroscopic Binaries We take the center of mass as the center of our coordinate system. R cm = (m 1 a 1 m 2 a 2 )/(m 1 +m 2 ) = 0 m 1 m 2 = a 2 a 1 = Pv 2 2" Pv 1 2" = v 2 v 1 = v 2 sin# v 1 sin# = v 2r v 1r a = a 1 + a 2 = P 2" (v 1 + v 2 ) Kepler's modified 3rd law : P 2 = 4" 2 G a 3 ( m 1 + m 2 )

11 Spectroscopic Binaries ( m 1 + m 2 ) = P m 2 3 2"G ( v 1r + v 2r ) 3 sin 3 # ( m 1 + m 2 ) 2 sin3 # = Pv 1r 2"G 3 \$ : mass function The mass function only depends on observable quantities and places a lower limit on the mass m 2 (ie m 2 > f(m))

12 Determining BH Masses in AGN Direct methods of measuring BH masses in AGN using stellar dynamics requires high spatial resolution and is limited to nearby galaxies. A promising method relies on reverberation mapping of broad emission lines. Reverberation mapping is based on measuring the time lag between variations in the flux from a central source of ionizing radiation and the response of the emission lines from photoionized gas in the broad line region. Blandford & McKee 1982, Peterson 1993, Netzer & Peterson 1997)

13

14 Determining BH Masses in AGN The BH mass in an AGN is given by the virial equation : M BH = fr"v 2 Where f is a scale factor ~ 1 that depends on the BLR geometry, R is the distance between the BLR and ionizing source as inferred from reverberation mapping and "v is the emission-line width. R " L # Observations show that, where L is the AGN s continuum luminosity. The AGNs luminosity can therefore be used as a surrogate for R in the M BH equation. G

15 The mass scaling relationships for obtaining BH masses of AGN are (Vestergaard and Peterson, 2006, ApJ, 641, 68) :

16 The mass scaling relationships for obtaining BH masses of AGN are (Vestergaard and Peterson, 2006, ApJ, 641, 68) :

17 How Accurate is the single-epoch BH mass estimate?

18 Determining Lens Mass from Gravitational Lensing Conceptual diagram of the gravitational deflection of light in a quad GL system.

19 The two-dimensional lens equation is: The reduced deflection angle is : The position vector in the lens plane is : Gravitational Lensing; Basics!! " =! # \$! %! #! " = D LS D S "!! " = D LS # ( ) The deflection angle at position # is the sum of the deflections due to all the mass elements in the lens plane :! "! # ( ) = 4G c 2 '!!! (# \$ #%)&(#!! d 2 #% # \$ #% 2

20 Gravitational Lensing; Basics! The deflection angle of a photon passing a distance r o from a mass M is ã = 4GM/r o c (in units of radians). The lens equation from a point mass then becomes: " 2 # \$" # 4GM c 2 solution : D LS D L D S = 0 \$ = " 1 +" 2 and M = # " 1" 2 c 2 4G % ' & D L D S D LS ( * )

21 Several commonly used quantities in lensing are the critical surface-mass density, & crit, and the the Einstein Radius, R E. Multiple images are produced when the surface mass density of the lens exceeds the critical value : " crit = c2 4#G Gravitational Lensing; Basics! D S D L D LS & crit ~ 0.8 g cm -2 for lens and source redshifts of 0.5 and 2.0, respectively. For the special case in which the source lies exactly behind the lens (\$ = 0) a ring-like image is produced with a radius (commonly referred to as the Einstein Radius) % E : " E = 4GM c 2 D LS \$ M ' = (0.# 9) & ) D L D S % M sun ( 1/2 FIRST X-RAY ASTRONOMY SCHOOL! NATIONAL Astro OBSERVATORY 129: Chapter OF 1aATHENS! \$ & % D L D LS / D S Gpc ' ) ( *1/2

22 Gravitational Lensing; Basics! Hubble Space Telescope Image of PG (H band) Chandra X-ray Observatory Image of PG (deconvolved)15

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