ASTR 1120 General Astronomy: Stars & Galaxies

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1 ASTR 1120 General Astronomy: Stars & Galaxies!NNOUNCEMENTS HOMEWORK #6 DUE TODAY, by 5pm HOMEWORK #7 DUE Nov. 10, by 5pm

2 Dark matter halo for galaxies REVIEW Dark matter extends beyond visible part of the galaxy -- mass is ~10x stars and gas! Probably not normal mass that we know of (protons, neutrons, electrons). Most likely subatomic particles, as yet unidentified (weakly interacting massive particles WIMPs?)

3 A Case for a Supermassive Black Hole at the Galactic Center REVIEW Doppler shift measurements of spiraling stars and gas suggest 3 million M Sun black hole Enclosed mass (M o ) Still too far out to exclude other possibilities Distance from Sgr A* (pc) Genzel 1996 We need to be able to see closer in to really prove there is a supermasive black hole!

4 REVIEW Stars appear to be orbiting something massive but invisible a black hole! Orbits of stars indicate a mass of about 3-44 million sun within 600 M sun R Schwarzchild

5 State of Affairs at the Galactic Center REVIEW Stellar orbits have made our Galaxy one of the best proofs of supermassive black holes at the center of most galaxies. Millions to billions of times the mass of our Sun. Must be created by something entirely different than a massive star supernova. Flares are often observed in X-rays and IR Observations of occasional flares are interpreted as the result of occasional swallowing of a gas clump or a star by the giant black hole.

6 REVIEW Elliptical EllipticalGalaxy Galaxy Irregular Galaxies Hubble Ultra Deep Field Spiral Galaxy

7 Clicker Question Which type of galaxy contains a low percentage of cool gas and dust? A. Spiral B. Elliptical C. Irregular D. Barred spiral E. Everyone but B

8 Clicker Question Which type of galaxy contains a low percentage of cool gas and dust? A. Spiral B. Elliptical C. Irregular D. Barred spiral E. Everyone but B

9 Hubble classification of galaxy types Spirals Ellipticals Barred spiral

10 Where do spirals and ellipticals live? Spirals: mostly in groups (3-10 galaxies) HST: Hickson CG 44

11 Ellipticals - most often in dense clusters of galaxies (involve 100 s to 1000 s) HST: Abell 1689

12 The Big Picture: Universe is filled with network of galaxies in groups and clusters ~100 billion galaxies!

13 Pattern of galaxies (3 million+),15 o portion of sky Brighter = more galaxies

14 Clicker Question Which of the following is NOT a classification of a type of galaxy? A. Keplerian B. Spiral C. Lenticular D. Elliptical E. Irregular

15 Clicker Question Which of the following is NOT a classification of a type of galaxy? A. Keplerian B. Spiral C. Lenticular D. Elliptical E. Irregular

16 Our Local Group of galaxies 3 spirals: Andromeda (M31) 3/2 M MW Milky Way 1 M MW Triangulum (M33) 1/5 M MW 2 irregulars: LMC 1/8 M MW SMC 1/30 M MW 16+ dwarfs ~21 Galaxies

17 Biggest is Andromeda (Sb - M33) Andromeda is ~3 million light years away (or ~30 MW diameters), has ~1.5 mass of MW We see it as it was 3 million years ago, not as it is today! this is lookback time Oops! It may crash into MW in about 2 billion years

18 Triangulum (M33) 1/5 mass of MW, spiral classified as Sc Several bright (pink) star forming regions

19 Large & Small Magellanic Clouds SMC LMC

20 LMC has 30 Doradus,, home of SN 1987A

21 Clicker Question What are the Magellanic Clouds? A. Two nebulae in disk of Milky Way visible only in southern hemisphere B. Clouds of dust and gas in many places throughout the Milky Way galaxy C. Two small galaxies in the same group as the Milky Way D. Star-forming clouds in constellation Orion

22 Clicker Question What are the Magellanic Clouds? A. Two nebulae in disk of Milky Way visible only in southern hemisphere B. Clouds of dust and gas in many places throughout the Milky Way galaxy C. Two small galaxies in the same group as the Milky Way D. Star-forming clouds in constellation Orion

23 How do we get distances to things far outside our Galaxy?

24 Mapping the Universe: We need Distances to Galaxies! The problem: or Methods we are familiar with: Radar and Stellar parallax Only useful inside the Solar System A few thousand ly

25 New Methods: Bootstrap our way Identify (and calibrate) objects that could serve as STANDARD CANDLES -- beyond direct measurement 1. Make some measure of an object which identifies its luminosity 2. Use this luminosity and measure apparent brightness to infer distance to it

26 DISTANCE ESTIMATE 1 Main-Sequence Fitting Start with cluster A (upper) whose distance known via parallax A Compare with other cluster B (lower) B Get distance to B from brightness difference Distances up to ~1 million light years

27 Clicker Question Which cluster is closer? A. Hyades B. Pleiades C. Not enough information to tell B A

28 Clicker Question Which cluster is closer? A. Hyades B. Pleiades C. Not enough information to tell B A

29 Main Sequence Fitting pinned to nearby Hyades Cluster Only 151 ly away

30 DISTANCE ESTIMATE 2 Cepheid variable stars Instability strip -- region in H-R diagram with large, bright stars Outer regions of star are unstable and tend to pulsate Star expands and contracts, getting brighter and fainter Reminder (Fig 15.14)

31 DISTANCE ESTIMATE 2 Cepheid variable stars Period - Luminosity relation brighter Cepheids have longer periods

32 Clicker Question Two Cepheid stars, Fred and Barney, have the same apparent brightness.. Fred has a period of 5 days, and Barney of 10 days. Which is closer? A. Fred B. Barney

33 Why A. Fred? Fred has a shorter period and so must be less luminous Period-Luminosity Relation Less luminous but the same apparent brightness means that Fred is closer to us

34 DISTANCE ESTIMATE 3 Tully-Fisher Relation Fast rotation speeds in spiral galaxies! more mass in galaxy! higher luminosity Measure rotation speeds to infer luminosity Need bright edge-on spirals, estimate tilt Distances up to ~1 billion ly

35 DISTANCE ESTIMATE 4 Even brighter: White dwarf supernovae Nearly the same amount of energy released every time. why? Standard explosion = fusion of 1.4 solar masses of material

36 Bright enough to be seen halfway across observable universe Useful for mapping the universe to the largest distances

37 Summary Distance Ladder to measure universe Different standard candles are useful for different distances

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