# Section 4. Quantitative Aptitude

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1 Section 4 Quantitative Aptitude You will get 35 questions from Quantitative Aptitude in the SBI Clerical 2016 Prelims examination and 50 questions in the Mains examination. One new feature of the 2016 SBI Clerical Mains examination is that there will be a time limit of 45 minutes for the Quantitative section, that is, you will have slightly less than a minute to attempt each question in this section. Here is a typical break-up of different question types you are likely to see on the Quantitative section of the SBI Clerical Mains test: Question type Number of questions Simplification/Approximation Number series 5 Data interpretation Word problems In this chapter, you will first refresh all the important Math concepts and formulae and then attempt section tests at the end of the chapter under timed conditions. For each of the topics covered below, you will also see a strategy box containing information on the number of questions from that topic likely to appear on the test, the general difficulty level of these questions, etc. Number System & Number Properties Number of questions likely to come on the SBI Clerical exam: 2-3 Difficulty level of questions: Low to Medium Time you should take to solve these questions: seconds each Strategy for these questions: Since these questions are usually easy and straightforward, you should attempt them Natural and Whole Numbers The terms from 0,1,2,3,.. are known as Whole numbers. Natural numbers do not include 0. Integers and Fractions Numbers, such as 1, 0, 1, 2, and 3, that have no fractional part are called Integers. Integers include the counting numbers (1, 2, 3, ), their negative counterparts ( 1, 2, 3, ), and 0. On the other hand, a fraction is a quantity that represents a part of a whole. It has two parts a numerator and a denominator. 0 as a number is neither a negative integer nor a positive integer. Also, 0 and all positive integers are called non-negative integers. There are two types of fractions: 1. Proper fractions: Fractions of the form A/B, where A and B are integers and A is less than B are called proper fractions. For example, 2/3, 4/7, 7/11 and so on. 2. Improper fractions: Fractions of the form A/B, where A and B are integers and A is greater than B are called improper fractions. For example, 5/3, 8/7, 11/9 and so on. showing how you can quickly compare fractions. Important Concepts about Fractions 1. If the numerator is increased while keeping the denominator constant, the fraction increases in value and vice versa. 2. If the denominator is increased while keeping the numerator constant, the fraction decreases in value and vice versa. Prime and Composite Numbers A number which has exactly two different factors 1 and the number itself is a prime number (3, 11, 19, etc.) and a number having more than two different factors is a composite number (4, 12, 20, etc.) 83

2 SBI Clerk Test Cracker Since the number 1 has only one factor, that is, 1 itself, it is neither a prime number nor a composite number. 1 is neither prime nor composite. Also 2 is the smallest prime number. Some properties and observations on prime numbers are as follows: (a) 2 is the smallest prime number. (b) 2 is the only even prime number. All other prime numbers are odd. (c) There are 25 prime numbers when counted from 1 to 100. (d) Every prime number except 2 and 3 can be expressed as a multiple of 6 plus 1 or a multiple of 6 minus 1, that is, 6N + 1 or 6N 1. Odd and Even numbers: All the numbers which are completely divisible by 2 are called even numbers (for example, 2,4,6,8,10) and numbers which are not divisible by 2 are called odd numbers (for example, 1,3,5,7,9,11). 0 as a number will be treated as neither even nor odd until and unless specified otherwise. Therefore, we have: Five odd digits: 1,3,5,7,9 Four even digits: 2,4,6,8 BODMAS BODMAS stands for Brackets Off, Division, Multiplication, Addition and Subtraction. This acronym helps us remember the sequence in which to carry out the operations of arithmetic. This will be very useful while solving Simplification questions on the SBI Clerical exam. Important Formulae 1. Sum of first n natural numbers = n(n+1)/2 2. Sum of first n odd numbers = n 2 3. Sum of first n even numbers = n(n+1) 4. Sum of squares of first n natural numbers = n(n+1) (2n+1)/6 5. If the sum of two numbers is S and their difference is D, then the larger number = (S + D)/2 and the smaller number = (S D)/2 6. If the sum of two numbers is S and their difference is D, then their product = (S + D) (S D)/4 7. In a two-digit number, if the unit s digit is U and the ten s digit is T, then the number is = 10T + U Decimals Decimals are numbers that fall in between integers; they express a part-to-whole relationship in terms of place value. For example, 1.2 is a decimal. Integers such as 3 and 2 are not decimals. An integer written as 1.0, however, is considered a decimal. Divisibility Rules for Numbers Let us take a quick look at the divisibility rules for some important numbers that will help you make calculations quickly. 1. Divisibility Rule for 2: A number is divisible by 2, if its last digit is 0 or even, that is 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8. All even numbers are divisible by Divisibility Rule for 3: A number is divisible by 3 if the sum of all the digits of the number is divisible by 3. For example, let us take the number Now the sum of the digits will be = 27 and since 27 is divisible by 3, the number 4689 is also divisible by Divisibility Rule for 4: A number is divisible by 4 if the number formed by its last 2 digits is divisible by 4. Let us take the example of The number formed by the last 2 digits is 89 and since 89 divided by 4 gives a remainder of 1, 4689 when divided by 4 will also give a remainder of Divisibility Rule for 5: A number is divisible by 5 if its last digit is 0 or Divisibility Rule for 6: A number is divisible by 6 if it is divisible by both 2 and Divisibility Rule for 8: A number is divisible by 8 if the number formed by its last three digits is divisible by Divisibility Rule for 9: A number is divisible by 9 if the sum of all the digits is divisible by Divisibility Rule for 10: A number is divisible by 10, if the last digit is Divisibility Rule of 12: A number is divisible by 12, if it is divisible by both 3 and 4. In addition to knowing the divisibility rules, you also need to be conversant with the multiplication tables of all integers till at least 20. You can find these in the Quick Reckoner section at the end of this book. Factors & Multiples A factor is a number that is able to completely divide a number greater than or equal to it. For example, 2 is a factor of 4 and 3 is a factor of 15, but 2 is not a factor of 15. On the other hand, a multiple is a number that may be divided by another number a certain number of times without leaving a remainder. So, 4 is a multiple of 2, 15 is a multiple of 3, but 15 is not a multiple of 2 since dividing 15 by 2 will leave a remainder of 1. Factor Foundation Rule 0 as a number is neither a negative integer nor a positive integer. Also, 0 and all positive integers are called non-negative integers. If a is a factor of b, and b is a factor of c, then a is also a factor of c. For example, 3 is a factor of 9 and 9 is a factor of 81. Therefore, 3 is also a factor of

3 Prime Factorisation Prime factorization is a way to express any number as a product of prime numbers. For example, the prime factorisation of 30 is Prime factorisation is useful in answering questions about divisibility. showing how to factorize a number down to its lowest prime factors. HCF We already have an understanding of what is a factor. The Highest Common Factor or HCF is the highest common factor among all the factors of a set of given numbers. It is also known as the Greatest Common Factor (GCF) or the greatest common divisor (GCD). For example, the HCF of 24 and 40 will be 8, since 8 is the largest number that can evenly divide into both 24 and 40. LCM The LCM is the least common multiple of any set of given numbers. Least Common Multiple refers to the smallest multiple of two (or more) integers. Multiples will be equal to or larger than the starting integers. The LCM of 6 and 15 is 30 because 30 is the smallest number that both 6 and 15 go into. How to find the LCM Let s say you have to find the LCM of 20, 35 and 56 Step I: Factorise each of the three numbers. 20 = 2 x 2 x 5 x 1 = 2 2 x 5 35 = 5 x 7 x 1 56 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 7 x 1 = 2 3 x 7 Step II: Multiply the highest powers of each digit. So, LCM = 2 3 x 5 x 7 = 280 If two numbers have no factors in common (except 1, of course), their LCM is simply the product of the two numbers. For example, the LCM of 12 and 7 is 12 7 = 84. How to find the HCF Let s say you have to find the HCF of 20 and 35 Step I: Factorise the two numbers 20 = 2 x 2 x 5 x 1 = 2 2 x 5 35 = 5 x 7 x 1 Section 4: Quantitative Aptitude Step II: Multiply the factors which both the numbers have in common. So, HCF = 5 x 1 = 5 Important Formulae 1. Relation between two numbers and their HCF and LCM is: First number x Second number = HCF x LCM 2. HCF of a fraction = HCF of numerators/lcm of Denominators 3. LCM of a fraction = LCM of numerators/hcf of Denominators Averages explaining how you can quickly find the LCM of a set of numbers without actually calculating it. Number of questions likely to come on the SBI Clerical exam: 1-2 Difficulty level of questions: Low Time you should take to solve these questions: seconds each Strategy for these questions: Since these questions are usually easy and straightforward, you should attempt them. An average is the central value of a set of numbers. In this chapter, we ll look at the three typical averages you might come across on the SBI Clerical exam mean, median and mode. Mean The mean is the most common type of average you will be working with. The mean is defined as the sum of all observations divided by the number of observations. Therefore, Mean = Sn /n Where, Sn is the sum of all the values being added or considered and n is the number of values being added or considered. For example, the mean of 12, 24, and 27 is = ( ) /3 = 21 showing how to use the method of averaging out to calculate the mean quickly Mean of Consecutive or Evenly Spaced Integers The mean of a set of consecutive integers is always the middle value of the set. If the set has an odd number of values, then the mean will be within the set and if the set has an even number of values, then the mean will be the average of the two numbers in the middle of the set. 85

4 SBI Clerk Test Cracker Set with odd number of values (5 values) {2, 3, 4, 5, 6}. The average is the middle value 4. Set with even number of values (6 values) {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7}. The average is the average of two middle values 4 and 5, i.e., 4.5. As you can see, it still lies mid-way within the set. This relation also holds true for a set with evenly spaced numbers, such as {5, 10, 15, 20, 25}. The mean in this case is 15. Median The median is the middle value in a set of numbers written in increasing (or decreasing) order. In a set with an odd number of terms, the median is the middle number. For example, in the set {1, 3, 4, 6, 9}, the median is 4. In a set with an even number of terms, the median is the average of the two middle numbers. So, in the set {1, 3, 4, 6}, the median is (3+4)/2 = 3.5. While finding the median, remember to write all the values in ascending or descending order; else you will not get the correct answer. For a set of consecutive or evenly spaced integers, the mean and median are always the same. Mode The mode of a distribution is the value of the term that occurs the most often. For example, the mode of the set {2, 4, 4, 6, 6, 6, 7, 8, 8, 9} is 6 because it occurs three times in the set. If no number is repeated in the set, then there is no mode for the set. The mode is rarely tested on the SBI Clerical exam. So you don t need to bother too much about it. Focus more on the mean and median. Range The range is the difference between the largest and the smallest values within a set. For example, the range of the set {2, 4, 4, 6, 6, 6, 7, 8, 8, 9} = (9 2) = 7 Important Formulae 1. The average of first N consecutive natural numbers = (N+1)/2 2. The average of first N consecutive even numbers = N+1 3. The average of first N consecutive odd numbers = N 4. The average of consecutive even numbers up to N = N/ The average of consecutive odd numbers up to N = (N+1)/2 Percentage If the range of any set is 0, this means all the numbers in that set have the same value. Number of questions likely to come on the SBI Clerical exam: 2-3 Difficulty level of questions: Low to Medium Time you should take to solve these questions: seconds each Strategy for these questions: Since these questions are usually easy and straightforward, you should attempt them. Percentage is an important topic as a part of your preparation for the SBI Clerical exam not only because you can get direct questions from percentages but also because the knowledge of percentages helps you easily understand and attempt problems from other areas in arithmetic. Also, the understanding of percentages forms an important aspect of Data Interpretation (DI) in which questions require us to calculate percentage values, growth rates and the other percentage changes. So, what is percentage? Any value expressed on a base of 100 or over a base of 100 is called percentage, and is represented as % (cent represents the base 100). A fraction is another way in which the value of a particular percentage can be represented. Therefore, one can say that percentages and fractions are equivalent and can be converted into one another as per the need. As an example, 25% is the same as 1/4, 33.33% is the same as 1/3, 50% is the same as 1/2 and so on. 1. To convert a percentage into a fraction, divide the percentage by 100. For example, 20% is same as 20/100 = 1/5. 2. Similarly, to convert a fraction into a percentage, multiply the fraction by 100. As an example, 2/5 = (2/5) 100 = 40%. Percentage Equivalent of Fractions We need to know the percentage equivalent of fractions in order to enhance our understanding of percentages as a concept and to help in quick calculations. explaining how the knowledge of fractional equivalent of percentages can make life easier for you. For example, the percentage equivalent of 1/2 will be (1/2) 100 = 50%. Instead of saying 1/2 or half of any value, we can also say that we are calculating 50% of the given value. 86

5 Section 4: Quantitative Aptitude exam, it is time to practise some questions. The question sets in this book appear exactly as you would see them on an actual SBI Clerical Mains section with 50 questions in each test and a similar spread of questions to what you will see on the actual test. Make sure you attempt these tests in a timed manner. Your time limit is 45 minutes for each test and your target should be to attempt 40 or more questions in each test with an accuracy level of around 80%. Remember to use your rough sheet to do all your calculations and not to mark or underline anything in the book. After you complete one test, make sure you analyse all your mistakes and also the questions that you got right but were unsure of, before moving on to the next test. It is not a good idea doing too many of these tests back to back as fatigue and boredom can lower you scores. Ideally, take a break between tests or mix up tests from other topics, such as Reasoning and English. PRACTICE QUESTIONS Answer the following questions by selecting the most appropriate option. Practice Set x = 650 +? (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) /6 2/7 + 7/9 =? (1) 167/126 (2) 126/167 (3) 219/228 (4) 119/128 (5) 228/ =? (1) 102 (2) 112 (3) 98 (4) =? (1) (2) (3) (4) =? (1) 109 (2) 101 (3) 111 (4) 99 (5) =? 5.9 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Find the value of / / (1) 1.5 (2) 2.5 (3) 0 (4) 1 (5) (2 1/3) (1 1/4)(1 1/5).. (1 1/99) (1 1/100)=? (1) 1/50 (2) 1/25 (3) 1/20 (4) 1/40 9. Find the value of (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Find the value of 3/11 [(1 + 1/3) (1 + 1/4). (1 + 1/120)] (1) 121 (2) 11 (3) 10.6 (4) 7.82 (5) % of % of 2400 =? % of 3600 (1) 9.66 (2) (3) (4) (5) x x x 8.74 =? (1) 121 (2) 77 (3) 216 (4) 159 (5) / =? (1) 0.06 (2) 0.22 (3) 2.34 (4) 1.87 (5) Find the value of ((0.1) 3 + (0.6) 3 + (0.7) 3 (0.3) (0.6)(0.7))/((0.1) 2 + (0.6) 2 + (0.7) ) (1) 14/10 (2) 1.25 (3) 11/10 (4) 6.15 (5) 2/7 15. If = 516, then the value of is: (1) 1013 (2) 1032 (3) 516 (4) 900 (5) Find the squares of the sum of the first 24 natural numbers. (1) 3600 (2) 4200 (3) 4900 (4) 5500 (5) A bag has red and blue balls in the ratio 4:5. If the total number of balls is 81, find the number of blue balls. (1) 25 (2) 40 (3) 45 (4) 55 (5) A father is three times as old as his son today. After 13 years, the father will be twice as old as his son. Find the present age of the son. (1) 11 (2) 12 (3) 13 (4) 15 (5) What will be the cost of gardening 1-metre broad boundary around a rectangular plot having perimeter of 340 metres at the rate of 10 per square metre? (1) ` 3,400/- (2) ` 1,700/- (3) ` 3,440/- (4) ` 2,440/- 101

6 PRACTICE SET 1 1. (4) Following the BODMAS order: x = 650 +? x 50 = 650 +? = 650 +? = 650 +? = 650 +? = 650 +? =? =? Thus, the correct answer is (4) 2. (1) Following the BODMAS order: 5/6 + 7/9 2/7 =? /54 2/7 =? 87/54 2/7 =? /378 =? 501/378 =? (dividing both numerator and denominator by 3) 167/126 =? Thus, the correct answer is (1) 3. (1) =?? = (1) =?? = (3) =?? = (4) Following the BODMAS order: 2.7 x =? =? =? Thus, the correct answer is (4) 7. (3) 11/30 [1/6 + 1/5 + [7/12 7/12]] 11/30 [1/6 + 1/5 + [0]] 11/30 [(5 + 6)/30] 11/30 11/30 = (3) (2 1/3) (1 1/4)(1 1/5)... (1 1/99)(1 1/100) Solutions to Quantitative Aptitude 9. (2) 10. (2) 5/3 3/4 4/ /99 99/100 =?? = 5/100 = 1/20 = ( /899) 899 = ( )/ = / = = 3/11 [(1 + 1/3) (1 + 1/4)... (1 + 1/120)] = 3/11 [4/3 + 5/ /120] = 3/11 4/3 5/ /120 = 121/11 = (3) You can quickly do this question if you are conversant with fractional equivalents of common percentages. You know that 75% is ¾ and 37.5% is half of 75%. So, 37.5% of 800 = (¾ x 800/2) = 300 Similarly, 12.5 % is nothing but 1/8, so 12.5 % of 2400 = 1/8 x 2400 = 300 Putting these values back in the original question we get, =? % of =? % of 3600 Again using your knowledge of fractional equivalents, you know that 600/3600 is 1/6 and 1/6 is nothing but 16.67%. Thus, your answer is 16.67% As you can see, the knowledge of fractional equivalents of common percentages can make you work very fast on simplification questions. 12. (5) At first glance, this question looks really complicated. The clue for you should be that some of the numbers are repeating is used twice and so is 8.74 and 6.52 is the double of This should immediately tell you to apply the algebraic identities you have learnt earlier in this chapter, namely (a+b)2 = a2 + b2 + 2ab Now this question can be solved instantly because what you get is, ( )2 =? (12)2 =? 144 =? Thus, the correct answer is (5) 13. (1) The decimals 0.42 and 0.36 repeating several times should have given you a clue that you need to use algebraic identities involving the cube, namely, a3 b3 = (a-b) (a2 + ab + b2) Using this identity in our question, we get, (0.42)3 (0.36)3 / 0.42 x x x 0.36 Expanding the numerator using the above identity, we get ( ) (0.42 x x x 0.36)/ 0.42 x x x 0.36 =? Cancelling out the common expression in the numerator and denominator we get, ( ) =? 0.06 =? Thus, the correct answer is (1) 14. (1) ((0.1)3 + (0.6)3 + (0.7)3 (0.3)(0.6)(0.7))/((0.1)2 + (0.6)2 + (0.7) ) ( )3/( ) > 1.4 = 14/ (2) 2( ) = (3) The formula for sum of squares of first N natural numbers = N(N+1)(2N + 1)/6

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