# TOPICAL PROBLEMS OF FLUID MECHANICS 17 ONE-DIMENSIONAL TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION OF CONDENSING ANNULAR FINS OF DIFFERENT PROFILES

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1 TOPICAL PROBLEMS OF FLUID MECHANICS 17 ONE-DIMENSIONAL TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION OF CONDENSING ANNULAR FINS OF DIFFERENT PROFILES A. Bouraaa 1, 2, M. Saighi 2, K. Salhi 1, A. Hamidat 1 and M. M. Moundi 1 1 Centre de Développement des Energies Renouvelales, CDER, Algiers, Algeria 2 University of Science and Technology Houari Boumediene, USTHB, Algiers, Algeria Astract A numerical approach ased on the general differential equation results from an energy alance on an element of the fin has een developed and applied to the extended surfaces of different one-dimensional circular fin configurations (rectangular, convex paraolic, triangular and concave paraolic). The excessive fin surface temperatures relative to the temperature of surrounding air are plotted against the dimensionless fin distance measured from the fin tip. The effect of relative humidity on the fin surface temperature has een considered. Keywords: heat exchanger, numerical method, wet fin analysis 1 Introduction Extended surfaces or fins are frequently used in heat exchange devices to increase the surface area in order to enhance the rate of heat transfer. According to the heat exchanger application, the fin surface can e operated under fully dry, partially wet or fully wet conditions. The fin portion surface is considered wet if its temperature is elow the dew point temperature of the incoming air. As a result, simultaneous heat and mass transfer occurs over this cooled portion of the fin. The condensate retained on the surface has hydrodynamic effects y changing the surface geometry and the air-flow pattern. Furthermore, a water layer on the surface increases local heat transfer resistance. In this case, the temperature over the fin surface changes simultaneously with the humidity ratio. Thus, the dry fin performance study is consideraly different to the study of the same fin under condensing conditions. For any fin surface conditions, it is still difficult to find a universal equation relating to the evaluation of temperature profiles and the corresponding heat flows. Various types of fins have een used for a long time where attempts have een made to analyse the fin performance with and without condensation from the air-stream [1]-[12]. Under dehumidifying conditions, the fin-side energy alance cannot e formulated depending on temperature alone. A humidity ratio difference term also appears in the second order differential equation that descries the temperature distriution over the fin surface. However, it is very necessary to have a relationship etween the humidity ratio of the saturated air on the fin surface and its corresponding temperature. Elmahdy and Biggs [] presented a numerical method to get temperature distriution and overall fin efficiency of fully wet circular fin. They assumed a linear relationship etween the humidity ratio of the saturated air and its corresponding temperature. Kazeminead [12] otained a numerical solution to the dimensionless temperature equation of a fully wet rectangular fin using the concept of sensile to total heat ratio. His differential equations were solved numerically using a shooting method which comines the Runge-Kutta method and the Newton-Raphson iteration. Rosario and Rahman [13] studied a radial fin assemly under partially wet, totally wet and totally dry conditions. Their computed results included the temperature distriution in the wall and the fin and the fin efficiency. Sharqawy and Zuair [14]

2 18 Prague, Feruary 11-13, provided an analytical solution for temperature distriution and fin efficiency of a fully wet annular fin. The same authors [] investigated different straight fin profiles (rectangular, triangular, hyperolic and paraolic) under fully wet operating conditions. Similar to Elmahdy and Biggs [], Sharqawy and Zuair [14]-[] proposed another relationship etween the humidity ratio of the saturated air on the fin surface and its corresponding temperature. They suggested that the maximum temperature at the fin tip for wet condition is the dew point temperature of the incoming air. Recently, Sharqawy et al [16] carried out a numerical analysis to study efficiency and temperature distriution of annular fins of constant and variale cross-sectional area under completely wet and partially wet operating conditions. Bouraaa et al [17] presented a numerical investigation of the fin efficiency and temperature distriution of a plain fin with comined heat and mass transfer. The second order differential equation that descries the temperature distriution along the fin surface has een solved using the finite difference scheme. Bouraaa et al [18] have used this method for the fully wet annular fin of constant fin thickness. This study has een performed in order to simplify the general formulation of the conduction equation applied to the annular fin of various profiles. This numerical approach simplifies the general equation y avoiding the use of modified Bessel functions. 2 Mathematical formulation Under wet fin surface the the total heat transferred to the surface is governed y the dual driving potentials of temperature and water vapor concentration. Fig. 1 shows straight fin with different shapes. The fin profile is defined according to the variation of the fin thickness along its extended length [19]-[]. Figure 1: Schematic of different circular fin profiles: a. rectangular,. triangular, c. concave paraolic, and d. convex paraolic A finite difference method have een developed here to otain solutions to the prolem of the temperature distriution along the fin surface. The method has een developed for an annular fin of variale cross-sectional area. Referring to Fig. 2, a control volume of a fin of a length L is considered, the nodal temperatures are to e determined using N equally spaced nodes. L x = (1) N 1 Under the following assumptions: 1) there is no indication of any change with time; 2) the temperature along the fin surface varies only in the x direction; 3) thermal

3 TOPICAL PROBLEMS OF FLUID MECHANICS 19 conductivity of fin material is constant; and 4) negligile radiation heat transfer, the finite difference formulation for a general interior node i is otained y applying an energy alance on the volume element of this node. Let s write Figure 2: a. Fin thickness variation, and. aritrary internal nodes T 1 T T+ 1 T ka, 1 + ka+ 1, + hc S ( Ta T ) + B( wa ws ) = x x (2) Where, A, 1 the conduction area at the oundary etween local and downstream control volumes, A + 1, the conduction area at the oundary etween local and upstream control volumes, hc the fin-side sensile heat transfer coefficient, k thermal conductivity of the fin material. S is the convection area at the temperature, T local temperature of the fin surface, and ws the humidity ratio measured at T. The parameter B is defined as: fg 2/3 p th control volume, T a air stream w a humidity ratio of the ulk air i B = (3) c Le In the aove equation, the Lewis numer Le is assumed one, cp the isoaric specific heat and i fg the latent heat of evaporation of water. The relationship that is suggested y Sharqawy and Zoair [14]-[] etween ws and T can e given y: w = a + T (4) Where s 2 2 ws, dp ws, a2 = ws, + T T T 2 w = T dp s, dp s, Here, T and T dp are the ase fin and the dew point temperatures; respectively and, ws and w s, dp are the humidity ratios of saturated air evaluated at the ase and dew point temperatures; respectively. Therefore, equation (2) can e rewritten as: α T + β T + γ T = λ (7) dp w T i () (6)

4 Prague, Feruary 11-13, Where A 1, h S + c αi = 1; β = x( 1+ B2 ) A, 1 k A, 1 A 1, h S + c γ = ; λ = x( Ta + B( wa a2 )) A, 1 k A, 1 The variale conduction area is: A x = π r x t x (8) ( ) 4 ( e ) ( ) r the outer fin radius, x the fin distance measured from the fin tip and t ( x ) Where, e the fin half thickness at aritrary location and given y: x t ( x) = t p + ( t t p ) L Where, n is the fin profile exponent, t is the fin ase half thickness and, p half thickness. For t p =, equation (9) can e reduced to: ( ) n x = t n (9) t is the fin tip t x () L The ase and the end conduction areas are, respectively: A = 4π r t (11) In the case where t p =, the conduction areas at the e o A = 4π r t (12) e A+ 1, = 4π ( re dx) t N th control volume are: 1 A, 1 = 4 π ( re ( 1) dx) t (14) N The convection surfaces are given y the following expression: 2 2π re R S = 2 ( 2N ( 2 1) R) () N And ro R = 1 (16) re The finite difference equation for the first node, i = 1, is otained y writing an energy L / 2N at that oundary, again assuming alance on the volume element of length ( ) heat transfer to e into the medium at all sides. It is noteworthy that, for a rectangular fin, no heat transfer occurs etween the first node and the downstream control volumes. n n (13)

5 TOPICAL PROBLEMS OF FLUID MECHANICS 21 Figure 3: Schematic of the volume element of the first node Referring to the Fig. 3, Eq. (7) can e reduced to: β T + γ T = λ (17) Where hc S 1 β1 = 1 + x( 1 + B2 ) ; γ1 = 1; k A2,1 h S λ = x T + B( w a ) c 1 1 a a 2 k A 2,1 For the end node, i = N, we have TN + 1 = T. Sustituting in Eq. (7), the following equation can e otained α NTN + βntn = λn + γ NT (18) Where A hc S N α N = 1; βn = 1 + x( 1+ B2 ) AN, N 1 k AN, N 1 A hc SN γ N = ; λn = x Ta + B( wa a2 ) A k A N, N 1 N, N 1 Together, Eqs. (7), (17) and (18) constitute a system of N algeraic equations in N unknowns. The desired nodal temperatures can e easily found y solving them simultaneously. This general formulation can e easily applied for dry fin surface conditions, ust making some simplifications: B and hc hdry. The convective heat transfer coefficient on the fin-side under fully wet or fully dry conditions can e calculated using a specified correlation. Under condensing condition, correlations from Wang et al [21]-[22] and Pirompugd et al [23] can e used to evaluate the fin-side heat transfer coefficient. However for totally dry, the heat transfer coefficient can e calculated using correlations y Au Madi et al [24] and Wang et al [2]-[26]. 3 Results and discussion The variations of fin temperature excess for different fin profiles are plotted against the dimensionless fin radius measured from the fin tip. Fig. 4 illustrates the variation of the fin surface temperature for different fin profiles under wet and dry fin surface conditions. Whether the surface is dry or wet, the temperature excess curves for convex

6 22 Prague, Feruary 11-13, paraolic, triangular and concave paraolic fin shapes lie elow that of rectangular profile. Under the same fin length, fin ase thickness and operating conditions, the difference diminishes as X goes to 1. A further increase of fin length would result in an increase of conduction areas. These areas take the same conduction area of the rectangular fin as X = 1. θ= 2 =28 C T = C =3 m/s d o =9.2 mm =2.4 mm 2 t = 3 fins/m RH = 8% θ= 2 =28 C T = C =3 m/s d o =9.2 mm =2.4 mm 2 t = 3 fins/m Dry fins Rectangular fin profile Convex paraolic profile Triangular fin profile Concave paraolic profile ) Rectangular fin profile Convex paraolic profile Triangular profile Concave Paraolic profile ) Figure 4: Temperature excess comparison: left- wet fins and, right- dry fins For higher dimensionless fin radius, the temperature distriution curves for concave paraolic profile and triangular fin profile are slightly higher than other fin profliles. This can e attriuted to the effect of the clearance C on the flow path shown in Fig.. At a small value of C, the front face of the fin receives a significant impingement flow which leads to higher sensile and latent heat transfer. This results in a higher fin surface temperature at lower value of the clearance. Figure : Effect of the clearance Figures 6a-6d show the variation of the temperature excess against the dimensionless radius for three values of relative humidity (RH = 6, 8 and %) and compared with those under fully dry surface condition. The results here are in consistent with those from Elmahdy and Biggs [] Kazeminead [12], Sharqawy and Zuair [14]-[] and Bouraaa et al [17]-[18]. They found that the temperature curves of a wet surface fin lie elow those of dry surface fin. As the relative humidity increases, the departure of the temperature profile from the dry surface curve ecomes greater. The increase of the air relative humidity is accompanied y an increase of the potential heat and mass transfer. In the other word, higher relative humidity results in a higher latent heat transfer and higher fin surface temperature.

7 TOPICAL PROBLEMS OF FLUID MECHANICS 23 θ = = 28 C T = C = 3 m/s = 2.4 mm = 3 fins/m t a θ = 2 = 28 C T = C = 3 m/s = 2.4 mm = 3 fins/m t dry RH = 6% Rectangular profile RH = 8% RH = % dry RH = 6% RH = 8% Convex paraolic profile RH = % ) θ = 2 = 28 C T = C = 3 m/s = 2.4 mm = 3 fins/m t c Triangular profile θ = 2 = 28 C T = C = 3 m/s = 2.4 mm = 3 fins/m t d Concave paraolic profile dry RH = 6% RH = 8% RH = % ) dry RH = 6% RH = 8% RH = % ) Figure 6. Effect of relative humidity on the temperature excess For these values of relative humidity, Sharqawy and Zuair [14] found that the fin tip temperature for different fin shapes are elow the dew point temperature of air. Conversely, the results here indicate that this is not always true. In order to explain the discrepancy, an investigation in the variation of the fin tip temperature against the dew point temperature (relative humidity etween and %) is carried out. The results are shown in Tale. 1. As can e oserved, the whole fin of different profiles is in partially dry condition for % relative humidity. The fin of rectangular profile ecomes in fully wet as relative humidity increases to 6%. For the convex fin profile, the whole fin is in partially wet condition for this value of relative humidity and will e in fully wet conditions as the relative humidity is increased to 7%. The dry-wet oundary moves toward the fin tip with increasing the relative humidity value. However, the width of wet region does not increase y the same amount. The fins of triangular and concave fin profiles need highest relative humidity values to ecome completely wet, (8% for triangular profile and % for concave profile). Apparently, this is associated with the condensate low off phenomena. The condensate is strongly attached to the surface of the rectangular fin. Conversely, for a concave fin a large amount of condensate can e easily leaving the surface dry. This discrepancy can also e attriuted to the correlations used when calculating the heat transfer coefficients. Note that the heat transfer coefficients for wet and dry conditions used in the present work are that derived from Wang et al [21] and [2].

8 24 Prague, Feruary 11-13, Tale 1. Fin tip temperature. Rectangular Convex Triangular Concave RH 6 7 Tdp Ttip Ttip Ttip Ttip Conclusion The one-dimensional conduction equation applied to the annular fins of aritrary profile (rectangular, convex paraolic, triangular and concave paraolic) has een numerically solved. It is found that the fin surface temperature increases with increasing relative humidity. This implies that the contriution of mass transfer has an importance effect on the surface temperature distriution when dehumidification of moist air occurs. In addition, the fin tip temperature is not always elow the dew point temperature of moist air. The fins of triangular and concave profiles need highest relative humidity to ecome completely wet. References [1] Harper, D. R. & Brown, W. B.: Mathematical equations for heat conduction in the fins of air-cooled engines. Report National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Report no. 8: (1921) pp [2] Avrami, M. & Little, J. B.: Diffusion of heat through a rectangular ar and the cooling and insulating effect of fins. I. the steady state. Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 13, no. 6: (1942) pp [3] Brown, A.: Optimum dimensions of uniform annular fins. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 8: (196) pp. 662, 196. [4] Li, C. H.: Optimum cylindrical pin fin. AIChE Journal, vol. 29, no. 6: (1983) pp [] Elmahdy, A. H. & Biggs, R. C.: Efficiency of extended surfaces with simultaneous heat and mass transfer. ASHRAE Transactions, vol. 89, Part. 1A: (1983) pp [6] Unal, H.: Determination of the temperature distriution in an extended surface with a non-uniform heat transfer coefficient. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 28, no. 12: (198) pp [7] Acharya, S., Braud, K. G & Attar, A.: Calculation of fin efficiency for condensing fins. International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, vol. 7, no. 2: (1986) pp [8] Ullmann, A. & Kalman, H.: Efficiency and optimized dimensions of annular fins of different cross-section shapes. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 32, no. 6: (1989) pp [9] Coney, J. E. R., Sheppard, C. G. W & El-Shafei, E. A. M.: Fin performance with condensation from humid air: a numerical investigation. International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, vol., no. 3: (1989) pp

9 TOPICAL PROBLEMS OF FLUID MECHANICS 2 [] Coney, J. E. R., El-Shafei, E. A. M & Sheppard, C. G. W.: Experimental investigation of a cooled thick fin in dry and humid air flows. International Journal of Refrigeration, vol. 12: (1989) pp [11] Kazeminead, H., Yaghoui, M. A. & Bahri, F.: Conugate forced convectionconduction analysis of the performance of a cooling and dehumidifying vertical rectangular fin. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 36, no. 14: (1993) pp [12] Kazeminead, H.: Analysis of one-dimensional fin assemly heat transfer with dehumidification. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 38, no. 3: (1994) pp [13] Rosario, L. & Rahman, M. M.: Analysis of heat transfer in a partially wet radial fin assemly during dehumidification. International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, vol., no. 4: (1999) pp [14] Sharqawy, M. H. & Zuair, S. M.: Efficiency and optimization of an annular fin with comined heat and mass transfer - An analytical solution. International Journal of Refrigeration, vol. 3: (7) pp [] Sharqawy, M. H. & Zuair, S. M.: Efficiency and optimization of straight fins with comined heat and mass transfer - An analytical solution. Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 28: (8) pp [16] Sharqawy, M. H., Moinuddin, A & Zuair, S. M.: Heat and mass transfer from annular fins of different cross-sectional area. Part I. Temperature distriution and fin efficiency. International Journal of Refrigeration, vol. 3: (12) pp [17] Bouraaa, A., Saighi, M., Fekih, M. & Belal.: Study on the heat transfer of the rectangular fin with dehumidification: Temperature distriution and fin efficiency. International Review of Mechanical Engineering, vol. 7, no. : (13) pp [18] Bouraaa, A., Fekih, M. & Saighi, M.: Study on the heat transfer performance of the annular fin under condensing conditions. International Journal of Mechanical, Industrial Science and Engineering, vol. 7, no. 12: (13) pp [19] Mikk, I.: Convective fin of minimum mass. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 23: (198) pp [] Kraus, A. D., Aziz, A. & Welty, J.: Extended Surface Heat Transfer. John Wiley and Sons, (1). [21] Wang, C. C., Hsieh, Y. C & Lin, Y. T.: Performance of plate finned tue heat exchangers under dehumidifying conditions. Journal of Heat Transfer, vol. 119: (1997) pp [22] Wang, C. C., Lin, Y. T & Lee, C. J.: An airside correlation for plain fin-and-tue heat exchangers in wet conditions. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. 43: () pp [23] Pirompugd, W., Wang, C. C & Wongwises, S.: Finite circular fin method for heat and mass transfer characteristics for plain fin-and-tue heat exchangers under fully and partially wet surface conditions. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. : (7) pp [24] Au Madi, M., Johns, R. A & Heikal, M. R.: Performance characteristics correlation for round tue and plate finned heat exchangers. International Journal of Refrigeration, vol. 21, no. 7: (1998) pp

10 26 Prague, Feruary 11-13, [2] Wang, C. C., Chang, Y. J., Hsieh, Y. C & Lin, Y. T.: Sensile heat and friction characteristics of plate fin-and-tue heat exchangers having plane fins. International Journal of Refrigeration, vol. 19, no. 4: (1996) pp [26] Wang, C. C., Chi, K. Y & Chang, C. J.: Heat transfer and friction characteristics of plain fin-and-tue heat exchangers, part II: correlation. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 43: () pp

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