# Systems Analysis and Control

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1 Systems Analysis and Control Matthew M. Peet Illinois Institute of Technology Lecture 22: The Nyquist Criterion

2 Overview In this Lecture, you will learn: Complex Analysis The Argument Principle The Contour Mapping Principle The Nyquist Diagram The Nyquist Contour Mapping the Nyquist Contour The closed Loop Interpreting the Nyquist Diagram M. Peet Lecture 22: Control Systems 2 / 30

3 Review Recall: Frequency Response Input: u(t) = M sin(ωt + φ) Output: Magnitude and Phase Shift Linear Simulation Results y(t) = G(ıω) M sin(ωt + φ + G(ıω)) Amplitude Time (sec) Frequency Response to sin ωt is given by G(ıω) M. Peet Lecture 22: Control Systems 3 / 30

4 Review Recall: Bode Plot The Bode Plot is a way to visualize G(ıω): 1. Magnitude Plot: 20 log 10 G(ıω) vs. log 10 ω 2. Phase Plot: G(ıω) vs. log 10 ω M. Peet Lecture 22: Control Systems 4 / 30

5 Bode Plots If we only want a single plot we can use ω as a parameter. Nyquist Diagram Imaginary Axis Real Axis A plot of Re(G(ıω)) vs. Im(G(ıω)) as a function of ω. Advantage: All Information in a single plot. AKA: Nyquist Plot Question: How is this useful? M. Peet Lecture 22: Control Systems 5 / 30

6 The Nyquist Plot To Understand Nyquist: Go back to Root Locus Consider a single zero: G(s) = s. Draw a curve around the pole What is the phase at a point on the curve? G(s) = s < s M. Peet Lecture 22: Control Systems 6 / 30

7 The Nyquist Plot Consider the phase at four points 1. G(a) = 1 = 0 2. G(b) = ı = G(c) = 1 = G(d) = ı = 270 The phase decreases along the curve until we arrive back at a. The phase resets at a by +360 c d b a The reset is Important! There would be a reset for any closed curve containing z or any starting point. We went around the curve Clockwise (CW). If we had gone Counter-Clockwise (CCW), the reset would have been 360. M. Peet Lecture 22: Control Systems 7 / 30

8 The Nyquist Plot Now consider the Same Curve with G(s) = s + 2 Phase at the same four points 1. G(a) = 3 = 0 2. G(b) = 2 ı = 30 d 3. G(c) = 1 = 0 30 o 4. G(d) = 2 + ı a = 30 c b In this case the transition back to 0 is smooth. No reset is required! M. Peet Lecture 22: Control Systems 8 / 30

9 The Nyquist Plot Question What if we had encircled 2 zeros? Phase at the same four points 1. G(a) = 0 2. G(b) = 180 d 3. G(c) = G(d) = 540 The phase resets at a by +720 c 60 o 120 o b a Rule: The reset is +360 # zeros. M. Peet Lecture 22: Control Systems 9 / 30

10 The Nyquist Plot Question What about encircling a pole? Consider the phase at four points 1. G(a) = 1 = 0 2. G(b) = 1 ı = ı = G(c) = 1 = G(d) = 1 ı = ı = 270 c d a The phase resets at a by 360 <s -1 = 90 o b Rule: The reset is 360 # poles. M. Peet Lecture 22: Control Systems 10 / 30

11 The Nyquist Plot Question: What if we combine a pole and a zero? Consider the phase at four points 1. G(a) = 0 2. G(b) = 60 d 3. G(c) = 0 4. G(d) = 60 There is no reset at a. c <s -1 = -60 o 120 o a b Rule: Going CW, the reset is +360 (# zeros # poles ). A consequence of the Argument Principle from Complex Analysis. M. Peet Lecture 22: Control Systems 11 / 30

12 The Nyquist Plot How can this observation be used? Consider Stability. G(s) is stable if it has no poles in the right half-plane Question: How to tell if any poles are in the RHP? Solution: Draw a curve around the RHP and count the resets. Define the Curve: Starts at the origin. Travels along imaginary axis till r =. At r =, loops around clockwise. Returns to the origin along imaginary axis. A Clockwise Curve The reset is +360 (# zeros # poles ). If there is a negative reset, there is a pole in the RHP r = M. Peet Lecture 22: Control Systems 12 / 30

13 The Nyquist Plot If we encircle the right half-plane, The reset is +360 (# zeros # poles ). Question 1: How to determine the number of resets along this curve? r = Question 2: Zeros can hide the poles! What to do? resets = 0 M. Peet Lecture 22: Control Systems 13 / 30

14 Contour Mapping Lets answer the more basic question first: How to determine the number of resets along this curve? Definition 1. Given a contour, C X, and a function G : X X, the contour mapping G(C) is the curve {G(s) : s C}. In the complex plane, we plot Im(G(s)) vs. Re(G(s)) along the curve C Yields a new curve, C G. Im( G(s) ) G(s) Re( G(s) ) s M. Peet Lecture 22: Control Systems 14 / 30

15 Contour Mapping Key Point: For a point on the mapped contour, s = G(s), s = G(s) We measure θ, not phase. To measure the 360 resets in G(s) We count the number of +360 resets in θ! We count the number of times C G encircles the origin Clockwise. A reset occurs every time C G encircles the origin clockwise. Makes the resets much easier to count! Assumes the contour doesn t hit any poles or zeros, otherwise G(s) and we lose count. G(s) 0 and we lose count. s s * = G(s) θ = < G(s) M. Peet Lecture 22: Control Systems 15 / 30

16 Contour Mapping Example 1 Remember Direction is important If the original Contour was counter-clockwise The reset is +360 (# poles # zeros ). In this example we see C G encircles the origin once going Clockwise θa = 0 θb = 90 θc = 180 θd = 270 A Positive Reset of c d b a Thus +360 (# poles # zeros ) = +360 At least one pole in the region. (# poles # zeros ) = 1 M. Peet Lecture 22: Control Systems 16 / 30

17 Contour Mapping Assume the original Contour was clockwise There are 5 counter-clockwise encirclements of the origin. A Negative Reset of Thus +360 (# zeros # poles ) = (# zeros # poles ) = 5 At least 5 poles in the region. The reset is +360 (# zeros # poles ). M. Peet Lecture 22: Control Systems 17 / 30

18 The Nyquist Contour Conclusion: If we can plot the contour mapping, we can find the relative # of poles and zeros. Definition 2. The Nyquist Contour, C N is a contour which contains the imaginary axis and encloses the right half-place. The Nyquist contour is clockwise. A Clockwise Curve Starts at the origin. Travels along imaginary axis till r =. At r =, loops around clockwise. Returns to the origin along imaginary axis. r = M. Peet Lecture 22: Control Systems 18 / 30

19 The Nyquist Contour To map the Nyquist Contour, we deal with two parts The imaginary Axis. The loop at. { s * = G(iω) r = G(iω) θ = < G(iω) The Imaginary Axis Contour Map is G(ıω) Plot Re(G(ıω)) vs. Im(G(ıω)) Data Comes from Bode plot Plot Re(G(ıω)) vs. Im(G(ıω)) Map each point on Bode to a point on Nyquist Magnitude (db) Bode Diagram Phase (deg) Frequency (rad/sec) M. Peet Lecture 22: Control Systems 19 / 30

20 The Nyquist Contour The Loop at : 2 Cases G(s) = n(s) d(s) = a 0s m + a m b 0 s n + b n Case 1: G(s) is Proper, but not strictly Degree of d(s) same as n(s) As ω, G(s) becomes constant Magnitude becomes fixed n(s) lim s d(s) = n(s) d(s) = a0 b 0 Phase (deg) Magnitude (db) Bode Diagram Phase varies (More on this later) We can use the Nyquist Plot Frequency (rad/sec) M. Peet Lecture 22: Control Systems 20 / 30

21 The Nyquist Contour The Loop at : G(s) = n(s) d(s) = a 0s m + a m b 0 s n + b n Case 1: G(s) is Strictly Proper Degree of d(s) greater than n(s) As ω, G(ıω) 0 n(s) lim G(s) = lim s ω d(s) = 0 Phase (deg) Magnitude (db) Bode Diagram Frequency (rad/sec) Can t tell what goes on at! Nyquist Plot is useless M. Peet Lecture 22: Control Systems 21 / 30

22 The Nyquist Contour If we limit ourself to proper, but not strictly proper. Because the Nyquist Contour is clockwise, The number of clockwise encirclements of 0 is The # poles # zeros in the RHP Conclusion: Although we can map the RHP onto the Nyquist Plot, we have two problems. Can only determine # poles # zeros Doesn t work for strictly proper systems. M. Peet Lecture 22: Control Systems 22 / 30

23 The Nyquist Contour Our solution to all problems is to consider Systems in Feedback Assume we can plot the Nyquist plot for the open loop. What happens when we close the loop? The closed loop is We want to know when kg(s) 1 + kg(s) 1 + kg(s) = 0 Question: Does 1 k + G(s) have any zeros in the RHP? - u(s) + k G(s) y(s) M. Peet Lecture 22: Control Systems 23 / 30

24 The Nyquist Contour Closed Loop This is a better question. + G(s) is Proper, but not Strictly 1 k 1 d(s) + kn(s) + G(s) = k kd(s) Degree of d(s) greater than or equals n(s) degree(d(s) + kn(s)) = degree(d(s)) Numerator and denominator have same degree! We know about the poles of 1 k + G(s) poles are the poles of the open loop We know if the open loop is stable! we know if any poles are in RHP. M. Peet Lecture 22: Control Systems 24 / 30

25 The Nyquist Contour Closed Loop Mapping the Nyquist contour of 1 k + G(s) is easy! 1. Map the Contour for G(s) 2. Add 1 k to every point 1/k Shifts the plot by factor 1 k M. Peet Lecture 22: Control Systems 25 / 30

26 The Nyquist Contour Closed Loop Conclusion: If we map the Nyquist Contour for 1 k + G(s) The # of clockwise encirclements of 0 is # poles # zeros of closed loop in the RHP. The # of zeros of 1 k + G(s) in RHP is # of clockwise encirclements plus # of open-loop poles of G(s) in RHP. Instead of shifting the plot, we can shift the origin to point 1 k The number of unstable closed-loop poles is N + P, where N is the number of clockwise encirclements of 1 k. P is the number of unstable open-loop poles. If we get our data from Bode, typically P = 0-1/k M. Peet Lecture 22: Control Systems 26 / 30

27 The Nyquist Contour Example -1/k Two CCW encirclements of 1 k Assume 1 unstable Open Loop pole P = 1 Encirclements are CCW: N = 2 N + P = 1: No unstable Closed-Loop Poles M. Peet Lecture 22: Control Systems 27 / 30

28 The Nyquist Contour Example Nyquist lets us quickly determine the regions of stability The Suspension Problem Open Loop is Stable: P = 0 No encirclement of 1/k Holds for any k > 0 Closed Loop is stable for any k > 0. Imaginary Axis Nyquist Diagram Real Axis M. Peet Lecture 22: Control Systems 28 / 30

29 The Nyquist Contour Example The Inverted Pendulum with Derivative Feedback Open Loop is Unstable: P = 1 CCW encirclement of 1/k Holds for any 2 < 1 < 0 k Holds for any k > 1 2 When k 1 2, N = 1 Closed Loop is stable for k > 1 2. Imaginary Axis Nyquist Diagram Real Axis M. Peet Lecture 22: Control Systems 29 / 30

30 Summary What have we learned today? Complex Analysis The Argument Principle The Contour Mapping Principle The Nyquist Diagram The Nyquist Contour Mapping the Nyquist Contour The closed Loop Interpreting the Nyquist Diagram Next Lecture: Drawing the Nyquist Plot M. Peet Lecture 22: Control Systems 30 / 30

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