Understanding physics issues of relevance to ITER

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1 Understanding physics issues of relevance to ITER presented by P. Mantica IFP-CNR, Euratom/ENEA-CNR Association, Milano, Italy on behalf of contributors to the EFDA-JET Work Programme Brief summary of ITER relevant physics issues addressed at JET Detailed example: recent improvements in the understanding of transport and confinement 1/20

2 JET as a bridge to ITER JET is the tokamak nearest to ITER in size and achievable plasma parameters. This allows the best confidence in the extrapolation of results; to carry out physics studies that are not possible in other machines; to act as a focus for EU fusion research favouring exchange of results from various groups and the build-up of a EU team. JET Anniversary P.Mantica 2/20

3 ITER relevant physics issues addressed at JET Disruptions Edge Localized Modes Stabilization of MHD activity Burning plasma physics Tritium retention and migration Understanding energy and particle transport 3/20

4 Why is understanding transport important? Progress towards ignition relies on improving energy and particle confinement. Understanding transport physics allows to control transport. 4/20

5 What do we need to understand? Transport is measured to be well above the levels foreseen by theory of neoclassical collision processes ==> anomalous transport The anomaly comes from the existence of turbulence processes hat type of instabilities e the main players? w do we control them? Electrostatic fluid turbulence simulation 5/20

6 D.McDonald

7 Particle and impurity transport Density peaking Current predictions of ITER performance assume a flat density profile D and T transport P fus ~n D n T a 20% gain in central density would bring a JET has unique capability 40% to study increase differences in fusion between power T and D transport Impurity accumulation n e ( ) Major radius (m) JG c He ash removal Outward convection 7/20

8 Density peaking: anomalous pinch or not? Anomalous Curvature Thermodiffusion driven pinch diffusion Ware Pinch Is an anomalous pinch predicted by theory? Does an anomalous pinch exist in experimental data? 8/20

9 Theoretical predictions from turbulence simulations electrostatic turbulence simulations indicate curvature pinch Thermo-diffusion changes sign when T e / T i is increased ==> no flattening due to α particle electron heating expected in ITER plasmas dominated by Ion Temperature Gradient modes No core particle source nor Ware pinch n e -n 95 S pe /S pi τ e ion heating TEP electron heating X. Garbet 9/ ρ

10 Curvature driven pinch in L-mode No core particle source nor Ware pinch, still peaked n e Experimental results Peaked density in H-mode at low collisionality Strong dependence on collisionality Density peaking Current peaking H.Weisen / A. Zabolotsky 10/20

11 Tritium transport studies T penetration after trace T gas puff in D plasma is resolved by powerful 14 MeV neutron diagnostics T transport investigated in all main JET plasma regimes, clarifying several physics issues for particle transport. L.Bertalot Dependence on ρ* can be assessed B τ pt ~ ρ* -2.9 Anomalous pinch present also for T transport 11/20

12 Impurity accumulation Occurs when impurity transport is neoclassical and the density gradient is peaked Control of impurity accumulation as well as He ash removal is a result of control of density peaking. Method: application of central ion heating through RF in ITG dominated plasmas. Reduction of v observed. Ar density No ICRH 2 MW ICRH M.E. Puiatti 12/20

13 Heat transport Confinement scaling laws ITER ITPA τ E,th = M 0.19 κ a 0.78 R 1.39 a 0.58 I p 0.9 B T 0.15 n e 0.41 P ITER 98 Temperature profile stiffness Turbulence stabilization Formation of Internal Transport Barriers Turbulence limits attainable T/T How to stabilize turbulence and attain higher T/T 13/20

14 τ E = τ B ρ * a β b ν * c Dimensionless Scaling Laws gyrobohm scaling Dimensionless form of ITER 98 scaling law Bτ E ~ρ * -2.7 β -0.9 ν * 0.0 gyrobohm scaling law, e collisions New results from JET Bτ E ~ρ * -2.7 β 0 ν * needs to be confirmed by fut higher power experiments Projected Fusion Performance τ E = τ B 1/ρ * β b ν * c = JET = DIII D 14/20 β N Conventional prediction G.Cordey, C.Petty I p u

15 Temperature Profile Stiffness Turbulence and transport increase above a threshold value of T/T preventing to reach high values of T/T 100 Assuming T profile A gain in threshold or an attenuation of the stiffness factor imply a gain in ITER central temperature/fusion power or alternatively allow a less demanding constraint on pedestal heigth ρ P.Mantica 15/20

16 P.Mantica A powerful tool to study stiffness: power modulation Modulation data allow a stringent test of transport models and their validation for extrapolation to ITER predictions 16/20

17 Electron heat flux P.Mantica Stronger stiffness with ion heating Results Weaker stiffness for dominant electron heating Critical threshold Coupled IonTemperature Gradient and Trapped Electron Modes are the main players. Stiffness models can be discriminated. 17/20

18 One solution to overcome stiffness: Transport Barriers Transport barriers are regions where turbulence is stabilized and consequently transport is reduced. ExB flow shear z Negative magnetic shear T L RS q min =1.35 RS q min =1.5 1 ITB q r q Turbulent vortices are broken and transport reduced r/a 0.8 X.Garbet 18/20 r r

19 JET has shown the importance of q profile for ITB triggering in large machines C.Challis q Ion temperature (kev) radius radius Stabilizing effect of negative shear on electrons and ions 19/20

20 CONCLUSIONS JET is providing important information to clarify several ITER relevant transport issues due to Proximity to ITER range of ρ*,ν*,β T injection facility Good diagnostic capabilities Flexibility of heating systems Continuing JET operation during ITER construction would allow significant progress in physics understanding, thereby making use of ITER more effective 20/20

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