# Chapter 5 Control Volume Approach and Continuity Equation

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1 Chapter 5 Control Volume Approach and Continuity Equation Lagrangian and Eulerian Approach To evaluate the pressure and velocities at arbitrary locations in a flow field. The flow into a sudden contraction, It is desired to evaluate the pressure at point B. The pressure and velocity are known at the inlet. Lagrangian approach: locate the pathline that starts at the inlet, point A, and passes through point B. along this pathline, The Lagrangian and Eulerian approaches for quantifying the flow field in sudden contraction. The pressure changes with velocity according to Euler's equation. Integrating Euler's equation from A to B would yield the pressure at point B. If the flow is steady, the Bernoulli equation could be used between the two points. It is an enormous task to keep track of all the pathlines required to evaluate the flow properties at a given point in the flow field. Besides in unsteady flows, where different pathlines will pass through the same point at different times, problem becomes compounded. Eulerian approach: Solving the fluid flow equations to yield the flow properties at any point in the field. Develop a solution to the flow field that provides the flow properties at any point. Thus if the pressure were available as a function of location, p(x,y), then the pressure at point B would simply be obtained by substituting in the values of the coordinates at that point. The Eulerian approach the basic equations must be recast in Eulerian form. In solid body mechanics, the fundamental equations are developed using the free body concept in which an element in the field is isolated and the effect of the surroundings is replaced by forces acting on the surface of element. Same approach is used in fluid mechanics as shown in Fig. The volume enclosing a point is identified as a control volume. The effects of the surroundings are replaced by forces due to pressure and shear stress acting on the surface of the control volume. A control volume in a flow field In addition to the forces like those applied to the free body, there is a flow through the control volume that has to be taken into account. 5.1 Rate of Flow Discharge The discharge, Q, often called the volume flow rate, is the volume of fluid that passes through an area per unit time. For example, when filling the gas tank of an automobile, the discharge or volume flow rate would be the gallons per minute flowing through the nozzle. Typical units for discharge are ft3/s (cfs), ft3/min (cfm), gpm, m3/s, and L/s. The discharge volume flow rate in a pipe is related to the flow velocity and cross-sectional area.

2 Consider the idealized flow of fluid in a pipe as shown in Fig. in which the velocity is constant across the pipe section. Suppose a marker is injected over the cross section at section A-A for a period of time. The fluid that passes A-A in time,t is represented by the marked volume. The length of the marked volume is V so the volume is, where A is the cross-sectional area of the pipe. The volume flow per unit time past A-A is Taking the limit as 0 gives The discharge given by Eq. is based on a constant flow velocity over the cross-sectional area. In general, the velocity varies across the section such as shown in Fig. The volume flow rate through a differential area of the section is V da, and the total volume flow rate is obtained by integration over the entire cross-section Volume of fluid in flow with uniform velocity distribution that passes section A-A in time Laminar flows in circular pipes, the velocity profile is parabolic the mean velocity is half the centerline velocity Turbulent pipe flow, the time-averaged velocity profile is nearly uniformly distributed across the pipe, so the mean velocity is fairly close to the velocity at the pipe center. Volume of fluid that passes section A-A in time The volume flow rate equation can be generalized by using the concept of the dot product. The flow velocity vector is not normal to the surface but is oriented at an angle θ with respect to the direction that is normal to the surface. The only component of velocity that contributes to the flow through the differential area da is the component normal to the area, V n. The differential discharge through area da Velocity vector oriented at angle θ with respect to normal. If the vector, da, is defined with magnitude equal to the differential area, da, and direction normal to the surface, then V n da = V cos θ da = V.dA where V. da is the dot product of the two vectors. Thus a more general equation for the discharge or volume flow rate through a surface A is

3 If the velocity is constant over the area and the area is a planar surface, then the discharge is given as If, in addition, the velocity and area vectors are aligned, then Mass Flow Rate The mass flow rate,, is the mass of fluid passing through a cross-sectional area per unit time. The common units for mass flow rate are kg/s, lbm/s, and slugs/s. Using the same approach as for volume flow rate, the mass of the fluid in the marked volume in is, where ρ is the average density. The mass flow rate equation is Also if the velocity vector is aligned with the area vector, such as integrating over the crosssectional area of a pipe, the mass flow equation reduces to P 5.18 The rectangular channel shown is 1.5 m wide. What is the discharge in the channel? Problem 5.18 P 5.10 An aircraft engine test pipe is capable of providing a flow rate of 200 kg/s at altitude conditions corresponding to an absolute pressure of 50 kpa and a temperature of -18 C. The velocity of air through the duct attached to the engine is 240 m/s. Calculate the diameter of the duct.

4 5.2 Control Volume Approach A system is a continuous mass of fluid that always contains the same matter. The shape of the system may change with time, but the mass is constant since it always consists of the same matter. The fundamental equations, such as Newton's second law and the first law of thermodynamics, apply to a system. A control volume is volume located in space and through which matter can pass. The system can pass through the control volume. Fluid mass enters and leaves the control volume through the control surface. The control volume can deform with time as well as move and rotate in space and the mass in the control volume can change with time. System, control surface, and control volume in a flow field. Intensive and Extensive Properties An extensive property is any property that depends on the amount of matter present. The extensive properties of a system include mass, m, momentum, mv (where v is velocity), and energy, E. Another example of an extensive property is weight because the weight is mg. An intensive property is any property that is independent of the amount of matter present. Examples of intensive properties include pressure and temperature. Many intensive properties are obtained by dividing the extensive property by the mass present. The intensive property for momentum is velocity v, and for energy is e, the energy per unit mass. The intensive property for weight is g. In this section an equation for a general extensive property, B, will be developed. The corresponding intensive property will be b. : are the differential mass and differential volume, respectively, and the integral is carried out over the control volume.

5 Property Transport Across the Control Surface When fluid flows across a control surface, properties such as mass, momentum, and energy are transported with the fluid either into or out of the control volume. Consider the flow through the control volume in the duct in the fig. If the velocity is uniformly distributed across the control surface, the mass flow rate through each cross section is given by Flow through control volume in a duct and The net mass flow rate out of the control volume [ the outflow rate minus the inflow rate] is The same control volume is shown in Fig. with each control surface area represented by a vector, A, oriented outward from the Control volume and with magnitude equal to the cross-sectional area. The velocity is represented by a vector, V. Taking the dot product of the velocity and area vectors at both stations gives Control surfaces represented by area vectors and velocities by velocity vectors. and Since at station 1 the velocity and area have the opposite directions while at station 2 the velocity and area vectors are in the same direction. Now the net mass outflow rate can be written as if the dot product ρv A is summed for all flows into and out of the control volume, the result is the net mass flow rate out of the control volume, or the net mass efflux. If the summation is positive, the net mass flow rate is out of the control volume. If it is negative, the net mass flow rate is into the control volume. If the inflow and outflow rates are equal, then In a similar manner, to obtain the net rate of flow of an extensive property B out of the control volume, the mass flow rate is multiplied by the intensive property b: This Equation is applicable for all flows where the properties are uniformly distributed across the area. If the properties vary across a flow section, then it becomes necessary to integrate across the section to obtain the rate of flow. A more general expression for the net rate of flow of the extensive property from the control volume is thus

6 Reynolds Transport Theorem The left side of the equation is the Lagrangian form; that is, the rate of change of property B evaluated moving with the system. The right side is the Eulerian form; that is, the change of property B evaluated in the control volume and the flux measured at the control surface. This equation applies at the instant the system occupies the control volume and provides the connection between the Lagrangian and Eulerian descriptions of fluid flow. The application of this equation is called the control volume approach. The velocity V is always measured with respect to the control surface because it relates to the mass flux across the surface. A simplified form of the Reynolds transport theorem can be written if the mass crossing the control surface occurs through a number of inlet and outlet ports, and the velocity, density and intensive property b are uniformly distributed (constant) across each port. Then where the summation is carried out for each port crossing the control surface An alternative form can be written in terms of the mass flow rates: Progression of a system through a control volume. where the subscripts i and o refer to the inlet and outlet ports, respectively, located on the control surface. This form of the equation does not require that the velocity and density be uniformly distributed across each inlet and outlet port, but the property b must be. 5.3 Continuity Equation The continuity equation derives from the conservation of mass, which, in Lagrangian form, simply states that the mass of the system is constant. The Eulerian form is derived by applying the Reynolds transport theorem. In this case the extensive property of the system is its mass, B cv = m sys. The corresponding value for b is the mass per unit mass General Form of the Continuity Equation

7 However, dm sys /dt = 0, so the general, or integral, form of the continuity equation is If the mass crosses the control surface through a number of inlet and exit ports, the continuity equation simplifies to where m cv is the mass of fluid in the control volume. Note that the two summation terms represent the net mass outflow through the control surface Problem 5.46 Two streams discharge into a pipe as shown. The flows are incompressible. The volume flow rate of stream A into the pipe is given by QA = 0.02t m 3 /s and that of stream B by QB = 0.008t 2 m 3 /s, where t is in seconds. The exit area of the pipe is 0.01 m2. Find the velocity and acceleration of the flow at the exit at t = 1s. solution Continuity principle Q exit = Q A + Q B V exit = (1/A exit )(Q A + Q B ) = (1/0.01 m 2 )(.02t m 3 /s t 2 m 3 /s) V exit = 2t m/s + 0.8t 2 m/s Then at t=1sec V exit = 2.8 m/s Accelaration a exit = V/ t+ V V/ x, Since V varies with time, but not with position, this becomes a exit = V/ t =2+1.6t a exit = 2+1.6=3.6 m/s 2 Problem 5.47 Air discharges downward in the pipe and then outward between the parallel disks. Assuming negligible density change in the air, derive a formula for the acceleration of air at point A, which is a distance r from the center of the disks. If D = 10 cm h = 1 cm, r = 20 cm and the discharge is given as Q = Q 0 (t/t 0 ), where Q 0 = 0.1 m 3 /s and t 0 = 1 s. For the, what will be the acceleration at point A when t = 2 s and t = 3 s?

8 Q = Q 0 (t/t 0 ), Q 0 = 0.1 m 3 /s and t 0 = 1 s Q=(0.1 t )m 3 /s V r = Q/A = Q/(2πrh)= Q 0 (t/t 0 ) /(2πrh) a c = V r V r / r = (Q/(2πrh))( 1)(Q)/(2πr 2 h) a c = ( Q 0 (t/t 0 )) 2 /[r 3 {2πh} 2 ] a l = V / t = / t(q/(2πrh)) a l = / t[q 0 (t/t 0 ) /(2πrh)]= (Q 0 /t 0 ) /(2πrh) At t = 2s, Q = 0.2 m 3 /s, a c = (0.2) 2 /[(0.2 ) 3 {2π(0.01)} 2 ] = 1266 m/s 2, a l = (0.1/1)/(2π ) = m/s 2 a = a l+ a c = =1258 m/s 2 At t = 3s, Q = 0.3 m 3 /s, a c = (0.3) 2 /[(0.2 ){2π(0.2)(0.01)} 2 ] = 2850 m/s 2, a l = (0.1/1)/(2π ) = m/s 2 a = a l+ a c = = m/s 2 Continuity Equation for Flow in a Pipe Position a control volume inside a pipe, Mass enters through station 1 and exits through station 2. The control volume is fixed to the pipe walls, and its volume is constant. If the flow is steady, then m cv is constant so the mass flow formulation of the continuity equation reduces to For flow with a uniform velocity and density distribution, the continuity equation for steady flow in a pipe is If the flow is incompressible, then If there are more than two ports, then the general form of the continuity equation for steady flow: If the flow is incompressible

9 5.4 Cavitation Cavitation is the phenomenon that occurs when the fluid pressure is reduced to the local vapor pressure and boiling occurs. Under such conditions vapor bubbles form in the liquid, grow, and then collapse, producing shock waves, noise, and dynamic effects that lead to decreased equipment performance and, frequently, equipment failure. Engineers are often concerned about the possibility of cavitation, and they must design flow systems to avoid potential problems. Cavitation can also be beneficial. Cavitation is responsible for the effectiveness of ultrasonic cleaning. Supercavitating torpedoes have been developed in which a large bubble envelops the torpedo, significantly reducing the contact area with the water and leading to significantly faster speeds. Cavitation plays a medical role in shock wave lithotripsy for the destruction of kidney stones. Cavitation typically occurs at locations where the velocity is high. The pipe area decreases velocity increases [according to the continuity equation] the pressure decreases [the Bernoulli equation]. For low flow rates small drop in pressure at the restriction water remains well above the vapor pressure and boiling does not occur. As the flow rate increases, the pressure at the restriction becomes progressively lower until a flow rate is reached where the pressure is equal to the vapor pressure as shown in Fig. At this point, the liquid boils to form bubbles and cavitation ensues. Cavitation can also be affected by the presence of contaminant gases, turbulence and viscosity. The formation of vapor bubbles at the restriction is shown in Fig. a. The vapor bubbles form and then collapse as they move into a region of higher pressure and are swept downstream with the flow. When the flow velocity is increased further, the minimum pressure is still the local vapor pressure, but the zone of bubble formation is extended as shown in Fig. b. In this case, the entire vapor pocket may intermittently grow and collapse, producing serious vibration problems. Severe damage that occurred on a centrifugal pump impeller and serious erosion produced by cavitation in a spillway tunnel of Hoover Dam. Cavitation should be avoided or minimized by proper design of equipment and structures and by proper operational procedures. Experimental studies reveal that very high pressure, as high as 800 MPa develops in the vicinity of the bubbles when they collapse damage to boundaries such as pipewalls, pump impellers, valve casings, and dam slipway floors. Flow through pipe restriction: variation of pressure for three different flow rates. Formation of vapor bubbles in the process of cavitation. (a) Cavitation. (b) Cavitation higher flow rate.

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