\yq hnj t^m F sn-bn- nmv thƒ-uv

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1 1 sabv 2018

2 sabv

3 \yp hn-j t^m F sn-bv- n-mv thƒ-uv ]p-kv-x-iw 18 e- w 9 sabv 2018 Xm-fp-Iƒ a-dn- p-tºmƒ _-Z -am -K-߃ I-s -Øn-bn-s - n h-b - n-fn-iƒ F m-bn-søpw ]-d- p-b-cpw. FUn-t m-dn-b tum.tpm-kv ]m-d- -S-hn a-[p-hn-s sim-e-]mx-iw hw-i-sh-dn-bp-ss G- hpw H-Sp-hn-em-bn sh-fn-s - ap-jw am-{x-am-wv. Hmc- m-gvn-iƒ hni- n-t\- mƒ heptxm tamjww? dh. tamøn h n At m-kvx-eni ssish v ]n p-s -sb kn m w (Doctrine)AwKo-I-cn- mø Hcp F n-kvtim- k`-bm-wv knf-kvsf k` At m-kvxeni ssih v amxyp timin ]p -bv msv I -Øm-hn-t\m-Sv Rm ]- n-bn-cn- p- -Xn-\m, F-\n- v Zo -Lm-bp-kpw \- -bpw D-d- m-wv. 12 {In-tkm-kv- w Xn-cp-ta-\n-bpambn..Iq-Sn- m-gv-n- ta-p tp- -_v ^n-en-t m-kv 14 \-ap- v F-t m-gm-wv Zm-ln- p- Xv. F\n p Zmln- p p PÃnkv si.- n. txmakv am\-h-tkh Ahm Un\v A l-\mb tumivs Xs \q n-c mw hb-knepw I Ω-\n-c-X-\m-Wv. 17 apjm-apjw tum. Sn.-Sn. tpmk^v tp _v amωq-s 21 Pohn-X-Øn hy -amb Z i-\-t_m-[hpw e y-hp-ap- -hsc {]tem-`-\-߃ vtxm n- m Ign-bp-I-bn-. {]tem-`-\-ß-fn \n pw... n. tpm Pv _l- m sszh-øns t]cp-am- -Ww, AXm-sWs Bh-i-yw. 23 Zm vkv Bƒ bph tlmw ^mz Pn 25 an attempt to highlight on the basics of Christian faith Dr Abraham Verghese 3 sabv 2018

4 sabv 2018 sabv B-d p-f hn-am-\-øm-h-f hn-cp- k-a-c-øn-\p -ti-jw s]m-xp-p-\ {i- ]n-sn- p ] n-b P-\Io-b k-a-c-am- Wv Io-gm- q-cn-se h-b - n-fn-i-fp-tsxv? I-Æq Pn bn-se X-fn- d-ºp Su-Wn-eq-sS IS- p t]m-ip- \nc-øn-\p k-am- -c-am-bn \n -an- p-hm-\p-t±-in- p- ]m- X-bp-sS t]-cn-em-wv X - -ap- m-bxv. h-b \ni-øn ]m-x-bp- m- p- -Xn-s\ G-Xm-\amfp-Iƒ F-Xn -Ø-t mƒ Ah-sc A-Sn- -a -Øp-hm `-c-w-iq-sw {i-an- Xp-sIm- v s]-s - v kw`-hw am- [y-a-ß-fn k-po-h-ambn. `-cn- p- ]m - n-bp-ss A- \p-bm-bn-iƒ Xs hn-i-k-\-hn-cp- ka-cw \-S-Øp - Xv `-c-w-iqs-sø A-tem-k-c-s -Sp-Øp p. ]t, I- n-cm-{ o-b-øn-\-xo-x-am-bn ]-cn-ÿn-xn hn-j-b-ßfn Dd \n-e-]m-ss-sp- p-hm ti-c-f-øn-se km- [m-c-w P-\-߃ X-øm-dm-bn h-cp- p F v Cu kacw hy- -am- p p. hn-i-k\-sø I-ÆS- v F-Xn - p -Xv i-cn-b-s - v `-c-w-iq-sw ]-d-bp-sa- nepw hn-i-k\-sø I-ÆS- v kzmk-xw sn-øp- Xpw i-cn-b-s - p P-\-߃- v t_m- y-am-bn-øp-s-ßn-bn- p v. P-\-߃- v hn-izm-kw h -Xv B-d p-f k-a-c-tøm-ss-bmwv. hn-am-\-øm-h-f-øn-s t]-cn h-b \ni-øn `q-an- - h-sw \-S-Øp-hm-\p- ]- -Xn-sb B-Wv A-hnsS Ip-d- m-fp-iƒ F-Xn -ØXv. hn-am-\-øm-h-f-øn- \p- {]m-cw-` ]cn-tim-[-\-ifpw \-S]-Sn {I-a-ßfpw C m-sx X-s A-hn-sS h-b \n-i-ø Xp-S-ßnbn-cp p. C-t mgpw `q-cn-]- -am-fpiƒ Cu h-kvxp- X a-\- n-em- n-bn- n. F- m bm-ym - yw Xn-cn- -dn- Ip-d- m-fp-i-fp-ss k-a-c-øn I- n-cm-{ ob-ap- m-bn-cp- n F -Xp {i-t -b-amwv. s\ -h-b X-Æo -Ø-S kwc- -W \n-b-a-øn C- f-hp-iƒ h-cp-øp-hm ap -k - m {i-an- n-cp p. AØ-cw \o- ß-sf F-Xn Øp-sIm- v thm- p-hmßn A-[n-Im-c-Øn-se-Øn-b-h h-b \n-i-ø-en\pw Im-b ssi-tb- -Øn-\pw A-\pIq-e \n-e-]m-ss-sp- p- -Xn {]-I-Sn- n- p- A-Xyp- m-lw A-º-c- n- p- -XmWv. Xo-c-tZ-i-]-cn-]m-e-\ \n-b-a-øn h - C-f-hp-I-fp-am-bn ti-{μ-k - mcpw H- -ap v. a-g-bp-s - nepw P-e- m-aw cq- -am-ip- ti-c-f-øns A-]-I-Sm-h-ÿ a-\- n-em- n {]-Xn-I-cn- p-hm km-[m-c-w P-\-߃ ap-t m- p h-cp -Xv kzm-`m-hn-iamwv. P-e- m-aw BZyw h-e- p -Xv km-[m-c-w- m-sc-bmwv F -Xp X-s Im-cWw. hn-i-k-\-øn- \p -th- n h-b-ep-iƒ \n-i-øp-ibpw A-Xn-\m-bn Ip- p-iƒ C-Sn- p-ibpw sn-øp-tºmƒ P-e- m-a-ønte- p- C-c- - m-x-bm-wv Xp-d- pi. h - n- p h-cp- K-Xm-K-X-Xnc- v H-gn-hm- p-hm ]m- X-I-fp-sS hn-i-k-\hpw ]pxn-b ]m-x-ifpw B-h-iyat? ti-c-f-øn-se C -sø km-l-n-cy-߃ \nco- n- m ]m-x-i-fp-ss hn-ik-\w sim- v K-Xm-K- X-{]-iv-\w ]-cn-l-cn- -s Sn. hm-l-\-hn-ev-]-\-bn H mw ÿm-\-øm-wp ti-cfw. C-cp-N-{I-hm-l-\߃, Im-dpIƒ, {S- p-iƒ F- n-h-bp-ss hn-ev]-\ Hmtcm h -jhpw h - n- p p, _-kp-i-fp-ss hn-ev-]-\ Ip-dbp-Ibpw sn-øp p. hm-l-\-ß-fp-ss s]-cp- w Ip-d-bv- p-hm {i-an- m-sx tdm-up-hn-i-k-\-øn am{xw {i- h-bv- p- -Xn A - -an. apws_ ]q-\ F- ph-cn ]m-x-bn a-wn- q-dp-iƒ \o-fp- K-Xm-K-X-kv-Xw`-\w ]-{X-ß-fn ]-e-t mgpw hm -Ø-bm-Im-dp- -t m. P-e-K-Xm-K-X ]m- X-bp-sS ]p-\-cp- o-h-\w, sdbn K-Xm-K-X-hn-Ik- \w F- o _-Z -am -K-߃ k-po-h-am-bn ]-cn-k-wn- Ww. D-S sn-øm I-gn-bp -Xv s]m-xp-k-xm-k-x ku-i-cy-߃ D-]-tbm-K-s -Sp-Øp-hm P-\ß-sf t{]- cn- n- p-i-bmwv. H-cmƒ- v H-cp hml-\w F- C sø co-xn Bimkya. _-kv k -ho-kp-iƒ Imcy- -a-am- p-hm kz-im-cy-ta-je-sb t{]m- m-ln- n- Ww. F.kn. tem-^v-tfm _kpiƒ Hm-Sn- phm kz-im-cy-ta-j-e-sbbpw t{]-cn- n- v a-[yh -K bm- {X- m-sc Iq-Sn s]m-xp-hm-l-\-ß-fn-te- v B-I -jn- Ww. cm-{ o-b t\-xm- fpw km-aq-lni{]-h -Ø- Icpw s]m-xp-hm-l-\-ß-fp-]-tbm-kn- v amxr-i Im- Ww. hn-i-k-\-øn-\p th- n h-b \n-iøp-i F- F- fp- h-gn D-t]- n- v _-Z -am -K-߃ I-s -Øn-bns - n h-b - n-fn-iƒ F m-bn-søpw ]-d- p-b-cpw. tum. tpm-kv ]m-d- -S-hn , \yq hnj \yq hnj t^m t^m F sn-bn- nmv F sn-bn- nmv thƒ-uv thƒ-uv

5 - Hmc- m-gv-n-iƒ dh.tum. tam-øn h n shdp-sam-cp tam- mhm-tbm-scs I-f-f-s\- p hn-fn- n-t, Xm I-f-fs\ p hn-fn- nt? \ -Xp h-t mw tam- n- m-eps-s\ Ah-s\ sh-dptx I- -\m- pw \nß-ss N w am- p-i, am p-i N- -ßsf, A-h am- pw \n-ß-sf-b-s - n! (tam-jww: A-ø- -]-Wn ) a-æn-s a- ƒ v ]-bv - p- psh- v h -j-߃- p apºv kp-k-x-ip-am-cn So- F-gpXnb A- - m-sn Ub-dn ap-x ]-d-bm Xp-S-ßn-b-XmWv. P- n-ø Im-eØpw sim-tfm-wn-b `-c-w-im-eøpw P-\m-[n-]-Xy`-c-WIq- S-Øn Io-gnepw \-h A- m -Øo-Uv (neo apartheid) ImeØpw Cu A-h-ÿ-bv - v am- -an. Cu h-kv -Xp-X-Iƒ a-\- n-em- m H-cp ac-ww Iq-Sn th- n-h p. C-cp-fcpw ap-up-icpw Ip-dp-ºcpw k-l-h -Øn-Ø-tØm-sS I-gn- n-cp- A- - m-sn-bn \n- v ho pw hn-i- n-s \n-ehn-fn-iƒ D-b-cp p. Im-Sv a-cp-`q-an-bm-bn am-dp-tºmƒ tkm- {X-h -K- ta-j-e-i-fn hni- v h-b-dp-i-fn I-Øn- -S-cp- I-bmWv. a-[p-hn-s sim-e-]mx-iw hw-i-sh-dn-bp-ss G- hpw H-Sp-hn-em-bn sh-fn-s - ap-jw am-{x-am-wv. H-Uo-j-bn-se I-e-l-μn- Pn -bn [-\-am- n F BZn-hmkn bphmhn\v ssibn ]W-an- m-ø-xns t]-cn X-s `mcy-bp-ss ar-x-tz-lhpw Np-a-en-te- n ]Øp In.an. \-S-t - n-h- -t mƒ B kw-ÿm-\-øn-s ]n- m- m-h-ÿbn a-e-bm-fn k-aq-lw th-z-\-s p. cm-p-ÿm-\n-se cm-pv -k-a-μn ap-lω-zv A-{^m-kp F- bp-hm-hns\ eu Pn-lm-Zv B-tcm-]n- v Np p-sim- v sk -^n-sb-sp-øv kmaqln-i am-[y-a-ß-fn {]-N-cn- n- h-sc a-e-bm-fniƒ A-]-cn-jv-Ir-X F- p hn-fn- p. _o-^v IS-Øn F mtcm-]n- v Bƒ- p- w sim-e snbv-x D-Ø -{]-tz-ip-imc Pq-ss\-Zv Jms\ Hm -Øv a-e-bm-fn k-aq-lw I-Æo s]m-gn p. a-[p-hn-s A-cpw-sIm-e a-e-bm-fn Fß-s\ ImW-Ww `oxn-tbmsstbm AtXm B-fl-]p- -tømsstbm? 5 \yq \yq hnj hnj t^m t^m F F sn-bn- nmv thƒ-uv thƒ-uv F- m-wv a- [p snbv -X sx v? A-cnbpw ap-fipw tam- n- p-sh- txm? H-Sp- -an m- Ø hn-i- n-\v k- Zm-Nmc-hpw tam-j- W-Øn-s kmaqln-i hn-cp ss\-xn- I-Xbpw a-\- n-em-hn. I- hn d-^o- v A-lΩ-Zv C-{]-Imcw F-gpXn: H-Sp- -sø-søm-gn- n-s-dp-tºmƒ Xs (a-[p-hns ) ap-jn tim- -e-b-gn- p ho-gp p H-cp-]n-Sn A-cn NnX-dn ho-gp v (hcq, sim q...) ti-c-f bp-h-i-co-c-߃ C-{X {]-tim-]n-x-cm-im - F- m-wv Im-cWw? F m, C-Xv ti-c-f-øn-se BZy-tamj-WamtWm? FÆm-bncw tim-sn tam- n- hnp-bv a- y-tbm-spw, sxmæq-dm-bncw tim-sn tam- n- \oc-hv tamzntbmsw, F m _m- n-mv hm-bv-]m \n-b-a-ßfpw Im- n - døn hnuntbm-tim I-º-\n- v 3250 tim-sn hmbv ] A-\p-h-Zn Nμ sim mdnt\m-spw, 800 tim-sn I-h - hn{iw tim-ømcn-tbm-spw, Ipw-`tIm-W-߃ \-S-Øp- k - m-cp-i-tfm-spw, Bflo-b hm-wn-`w \-S-Øp h-tcmspw \nb-aw \n-b-a-øn-s h-gn- v F- p ]-d-bp- h F p-sim- m-wv a-[p-hns tam-jw-sø \n-b-ahy-h-ÿ-bv - v hn p-sim-sp- m- Xv? ta-z-kp-d- tic-f bp-h-x-bv- v \n-b-a-k-{º-zm-b-øn hn-izm-k-an m- ØXp-sImt m AtXm B-Zn-hm-kn-Iƒ v \n-b-a-]-cnc- e-`n- m A -l-x-bn m-øxp-sim-t m? B-Znhm-kn-Iƒ- v \n-b-a-]-cn-c- \n-tj-[n- p- p-sh- n A- Xv \-h A- m -Øo-Uv A m-sx ]n-s - mwv? A-K-fn-bn -\n- v ap Xp In.ao. AI-se sh- - pfsø B-Zn-hm-kn kv{xo c- n-bp-ss B-Zy-sØ A- v Ip- p-߃ Nm-]n- -bmb-xv t]m-j-im-lm-c- p-d-hp-aqe-amwv. k-t m-jv G- n- m-\-øns _n-cn-bm-wn F- sn-dp-i-y-bn ]-d-bp- Xp-t]m-se H-cp-hi-Øv F n -I-jW-ß-tfm-Sp-IqSn-b _n-cn-bm-wn Ip p-t]mse h-en-b-ip-gn-i-fn-te- v X- p -Xv I- -t mƒ hn-i- n- v a-cn p-t]m-b a-iƒ _-kv-a-xnsb Hm - p tkm- ]m bm-z-hn-s\-t m-se-bp- F{X-tbm-t] A- - m-snbn-ep v. I-gn \mep h -jw Aº-Xn-e-[nIw _-kv sabv sabv

6 a-xn-am t]m-j-im-lm-c- p-d-hp-aq-etam ]- n-wn-aq-etam A- - m-sn-bn a-cn- -t mƒ a-[p-hn-s\ X n-s m- bphm- -fp-ss [m -Ωn-I-tcm-jw F-hn-sS-t mbn? F m-h - jhpw B-Zn-hm-kn-Iƒ- v k - m A-\p-h-Zn- p tim- Sn-Iƒ hn-gp-ßp- cm-{ o-b D-tZym-K-ÿ {]-`p- -tfm-sv C- q - - v H pw ]-d-bm-\n-t? kzm-{i-b-ønepw kzm-x- { y-ønepw Po-hn- H-cp P-\-X C- v A-Xn-Po-h-\-Øns k - m k-_v-kn-un Im-Øp \n -t - n h-cp- -sx-ß-s\-sb v C- y-bn-se B-Zn-hm-kn-I-sf- p-dn- v B-[n-Imcn-I ]T-\w \-SØnb slbva tum ^ns tnm-zy-tøm- Sv kn-c-i-fn \oxn-t_m-[w Xn-f- pa-dn-bp- p`n-x bu-δ-\-߃- v Fv - m-wv ]-d-bm-\p-f-fxv? B-cm-Wv b-ym - -Øn tam- m ƒ? B-Zn-hm-kn k-aq-l-߃ tam- m- f ; tam-j-w-øn-s C- c-i-fmwv. Im-Sp-Ibdn-b \ms-øw \- SØn-b `q-an tam-j-w-øn-s C- ciƒ! Iq-Sn-tb- -Øn-s -bpw, Ir-jnbp-sSbpw hn-i-k-\-øn-s bpw t]- cn k - m kw-hn-[m-\߃ \nb-a-]-c-am-bn (\n-b-a-hn-cp- -ambn?) B-Zn-hm-kn tkm-{xp-\-x A-[n-hkn- p- ta-j-e-i-fn-emb-xv Kp- Wa, a-dn- v H-cn- epw A-h-km-\n- m-ø Zp-cn-X-ß-fm-Wv k-ωm-\n- Xv. P-e-tk-N-\ J\-\ Du - ]- -Xn-Iƒ hni-k-\ {]-h -Ø-\- ߃- m-bp- IpSn-sbm-gn- n- -ep- I-fn ap -\n-c-bn \n - p- p v. \n -_ n-x IpSnsbm-gn- n- -ep-i-sf- p-dn- v Ip-d-s - nepw ]pdw-tem-iw A-dn-bp- Xv \ Ω-Zm ]- -Xn-s -Xn-cm-bn F ]XpIfn D-b - p-h- {]-t m-`-ß-fn-eq-ss-bm-bn-cp p. `q-cln-x-cm- -s - -h-cp-ss ]-cn-tz-h-\-߃ `-c-w-iq-s-øn-s k-am-\-x-i-fn m-ø A-[n-Im-c-Øn-\v ap-ºn \n-jv -^-eam-ip p. Cß-s\ A-\p-Zn-\w `q-an A-\y-h - -c-w-øn- \v C-c-bm-Ip- B-Zn-hm-kn k-aq-l-ß-fp-ss {]-Xn-\n-[nbm-Wv a[p. a-[p tam- mh ; k-h -Æ Ip-Sn-tb- k-aqlw Im-Sp-Iƒ ssi-tb- w \-S-Øn-b-tXm-sS ]m-cº-cy `- y-[m-\y-߃ `q-ap-j-øp-\n- v A-{]-Xy- -am-b-xp-aqew \n-e-\n - p X-s A-]-I-S-Ønem-b k-aq-l-øn-s a-c-w-sø- mƒ h-ep-xm-wv hn-i-s - v Xn-cn- -dn- hcpss {]-Xn-\n-[n-bm-Wv. hy-h-ÿm-]n-xhpw ÿm-]- \-h -Ir-X-hpam-b kw-l-sn-x-tam-j-w-øn-s -bpw, ]-cn- [hpw a-[p-hn-s D-S-en a-c-w-xm-fi-h-amsn-b bp-hm- -fpss km-aq-ln-i-t_m-[hpw G-sd- p-sd H- p-x-s bmwv. ]-co-i- m-cp-ssbpw im-kv-{xn-am-cp-ssbpw \oxnt_m[-sø tb-ip A-Xn-cq- -am-bn ]-cn-l-kn- p- p: \n-߃ sim-xp-in-s\ A-cn-s -Sp- p-ibpw H- I-sØ hngp-ßn- -f-bpipw sn-øp- p (a-øm-bn 23:24). B-Zy-tIƒ-hn-bn sim-xp-in-s\ A-cn-s -Sp- p-isb -Xv \o-xn-bp-ss kq- v-a-`m-h-ß-sf- p-dn p- - Pm- {K-X-bm-sW- p txm- mw. F- m tbip Cu {]-tbm- K-Øn-\v ]-cn-lm-k-[z-\n-bm-wv \ -Ip- Xv. ]-co-i- mcpw im-kv-{xn-amcpw \o-xn-sb \yq-\o-i-cn- v D-]-cn-π-hhpw k- Zm-Nm-c-]-c-hp-am n. X- q-ew \o-xn-bp-ss \n -Δ-N-\-ßfpw {]-tbm-k-hpw k- p-nn-xhpw ]p-d- - p- -Xp hy- nbm- [n-jvtn-x-hp-ambn. \o-xn-bp-ss k-a{k-x A-Xn-s hn-tam- N-\m-fl-I-X-bp-am-bn _- -s - n-cn- p p; s]m-xp-\- -bm- Wv \o-xn-bp-ss D- -S w. \o-xn-bp-ss N- - q pw D- -S- hpw s]m-xp-\- -bpw, e yw km-aqln-i hn-tam-n-\- hp-am-ip-tºmƒ \o-xn-bp-ss {]-tbm-kw I-cp-W-bp-sSbpw a-\p-jy-xz-øn-s bpw B-tLm-j-am-Ip p. tb-ip-hn-s \o-xn-hy-h-lm-c-ß-fp-ss ap-j-ap-{z Im-cp- Wy-amWv, k-zm-nm-c-]-ca. \o-xn-im-kv -{X-k-a-ky-I-fp-sS s]m-cp-f-gn- m tb-ip D-]-tbm-Kn- hym-jym-\-xm-t m jv -Ir-Xhpw hn-i-k-\-]-c-hpam-b kw-hn-[m-\-ß-fp-ssbpw ssz-h-kv-t\-l-amwv. ]-co-i- m-cp-ss \o-xn-km-c- ]Tn- p- \-b-ß-fp-ssbpw C-c-bp-am-Wv a[p. ep-i-fn Im-cp-Wy-Øn-\v ÿm-\-an. X- q-ew \o-xn ti-cfob s]m-xp-k-aq-l-øn-s h- m- fm-b H- A-]-l-kn- -s -Sp p; ssz-h-\o-xn k-zm-nm-c-am-bn h-{iocp]- w bp-hm ƒ \o-xn-bp-ss t]-cn \-SØn-b \-c-\mbm- v I-cn- -s -Sp p. \yq-\o-i-cn- -s - Xpw h-{io-i-cn- -s - \o-xn-sb- p-dn- p- A- -Xbpw \oxn-tbm-sp- -Xpam-b \o-xn A- -c-ß-fn D-S- n- n-s- p- k-zm- X-s -bp- A-h-tl-f-\-hp-amWv. tb-ip-hn-s Po-hn-X- Nm-c-\n-b-a-߃ am-{x-amwv. A-hnsS H- -I-߃ c- -s - Ime-sØ a-x-ta-e-[n-im-cn-iƒ ]p-e Ønb \oxn-t_m- Sp p, sim-xp-ip-iƒ C-c-bm- -s -Sp p. th- - m-c c- sabv

7 v -s -Sp p; C-c in- n- -s -Sp p. H- -I-߃ c- s]-sm A-\p-h-Zn- p- \o-xn ssz-h-\o-xnb. sim-xp- IpIƒ in- n- -s -Sp -Xv \o-xn-bp-ss Pm-{K-Xb, h- {Io-I-c-W-amWv, k-zmnm-c kp-hn-ti-j-w-amwv. tim-sn- Iƒ hn-gp-ßp H- -I-߃ c- -s -Sp-I-bpw, A-cnbpw ap-fip-s]m-snbpw \n-hr- Øn-tISp-sIm- v tam- n- p sim-xp-ip-iƒ (a[p) sim -s -Sp-Ibpw sn-øp -Xv \o-xn \n -Δ- N-\-ß-fp-sS ]-cn-lmkyam-b ÿn-xn-hn-ti-jamwv. \o-xn-bp-ss hn-im-e-xbm-wv tb-ip-hn-s kphn-ti-j-kmcw. I-hn-bp- \o-xn-sb- m-wv tbip C-Xn-\v \ -Ip- hnti-jww. kzm-an ap-\n \m-cm-b-w-{]-km-zv A-km- [m-c-wam-b ss[-jwo- I an-i-thm-ss C-Xv hn-i- Zo-I-cn- p- p- v: I-hn-bp- \oxnsb Xv (Greater Righteousness) k- p-nn-x-øz-øn \n- v [ -Ω-\n-jvT-sb c- s -SpØn k-i-e-xns\bpw Dƒ-s m- p- Xm-b H-cp Z -i-\-øns hym-]-i-x-bn Dƒs -Sp-Ø-emWv. I-hn-bp- \o-xn k- p-nn-xhpw P-U-k-am-\-hpam-b [ - Ω-\n-jvTb, a-dn- v k -Δ-hym-]-Ihpw ssn-x-\y-h-øpam-b Pohn-X Z -i-\-amwv. tb-ip C-Xn-\v \ In-b a- s m-cp hn-tij-ww ssz-h-cm-py-sa- mwv. Cu kw-kv- Imcn-I {]-{Inb-sb ap-\n \m-cm-b-w-{]-kmzv Dialectical Revaluation AYhm tbm-km-fl-iam-b aq-ey-\-ho- Ic-Ww F- p ]-cm-h Ø-\w sn-øp p. i- -Øn hn-f-`q-an-bn - \n- p I-Xn tam- n- p ]-dn- p-xn- in-jy- m-sc \ym-bo-i-cn- m tb-ip {]- tbm-kn- hym-jym-\ B-bp[w I-hn-bp- \o-xn (a-ømbn 5:20) AYhm tbm-km-fl-i aq-ey \-ho-i-c-w-amwv. ZmhoZpw Iq- cpw hn-i- -t mƒ ]p-tcm-ln-x- m - v am{xw hn-ln-xam-b Im-gv -Nb w tam-jv -Sn kw`-hw tbip Hm - a-s -Sp-Øp p. H-c - -Øn in-jy- m-cpss tam-jwss{ikvxh k`bpss ImenI {]k- -amb ZuXysØ p-dn- p At\z-j-W-ßfpw, k`m then-iƒ -Xo-X-amb ss{ikvxh ZuXy-sØ- p-dn- p ]T-\-ßfpw N -Ifpw IqSn-h-c-hpIfpw, \oxnbv pw a\p-jz-xz-øn\pw ]cn-ÿn-xn kwc -WØn\pw th n-bp t]mcm- -ß-fn \ne-]m-sp-i-sf-sp p-hm hmb-\- msc t{]cn- n- pibpamwv kzx{ {]kn- o-i-c-w-amb \yphnj amkn-i-bpss e y-߃. hmb-\- m-cpss \n t m-`-amb kw`m-h-\-iƒ am{x-amwv amkn-i-bpss hcp-am\ t{kmx-kv. hmb-\- m \yp hnj IpSpw-_-Ønse AwK-ß-fpw. a-[p-hn-s sim-e-]m-xi-sø A-]-e-]n- p Xv tam-jwsø \ym-bo-i-cn- e. ti-cf-øn-se km-aqlni cm-{ o-b kw-hn-[m-\-߃ simsn-b ]- n- Wn-bn-te- v \n-jv - -cp-ww ]pd- n-b H-cp k-aq-l-tøm-sp- N-cn-{X-]-cam-b ]m-]-øn-\p- am- n-c- -emwv. a-[p-hn-s Ip-Spw-_-Øn-\p am-{xa, tic-f-øn-se F m B-Zn-hm-kn k-aq-l-߃ pw \o-xn D-d- m- m-\p- H-cp Pm-{K-X-bm- WXv. sø tb-ip \ym-bo-i-cn- p p. hn-i- n-s\- mƒ h-ep- X tam-j-w-sa- m-wv tb-ip \ -Ip- hn-i-zo-i-cww. C-Xv \ym-b-{]-am-w-øn-s ew-l-\a, a-dn- v k-tlm-zc ]- n-wn-in-s- m-sx t\m- -W-sa- p- \ym-b-{]-am- W-Øn-s \n _- w A-\p-k-cn- m-ø hn-izm-k-k-aql-øn-s \ym-b-{]-am-w-t_m-[y-ßfp-ss s]m- Ø-cw Xpd- p Im- emwv. i_-øns s]m-cpƒtx-sepw (a-øm-bn 12:1 8) Zp -_-eam-b a-\p-jym-h-ÿ-bp-ss ho-s -Sp- pamwv. tam-j-wamtwm, a-[p-hn-s hn-i- n-s ImTn-\yamtWm \-Ωp-sS \oxn-t_m[-sø \n -Δ-Nn- p- -Xv? t\m a aiv\nens {]-kn- amb Zv _nj vkv Im Un ÃnIvkv F- GIm \m-s-i-øn {][m-\ I- Ym-]m-{Xam-b _nj- v X-s A-c-a- \-bn-se sa-gp-ip-xn-cn- m-ep-iƒ tam- n- -bm-sf c- n- m t]m-eokpim-tcm-sv ]-d-bp- \p-wiƒ I- hn-bp- \o-xn-bp-ss A-]m-c-kuμcyw \n-d- ho-s -Sp- n-s imiz-x km-[y-x-bp-ss {]-Im-i-\- amwv. a-[p-hn-\v \n-tj-[n- -s - Xpw Cu I-hn-bp- \o-xn-bmwv. a-[p-hn-s sim-e-]m-xi-sø A-]-e-]n- p Xv tam-jw-sø \ym-bo-i-cn- e. ti-c-f-øn-se km-aqlni cm-{ o-b kw-hn-[m-\- ߃ simsn-b ]- n-wn-bn-te- v \njv - -cp-ww ]p-d- n-b H-cp k-aql-tøm-sp- N-cn-{X-]-cam-b ]m-]- Øn-\p- am- n-c- -emwv. a-[p-hns Ip-Spw-_-Øn-\p am-{xa, tic-f-øn-se F m B-Zn-hm-kn k-aq-l-߃ pw \o-xn D-d- m- m-\p- H-cp Pm-{K-X-bm-WXv. Fw. kp-ip-amcs ] Δ-Xß-sf \o- w snbv-x hn-vnbm-b hr- F- I-Y-bn X-s Po-hn-X-Im-eØv ] ΔXw \o- m I-gn-bn F- v A-dn- n pw A-Xn-\v {i-an- p- hr s hr-ym- zm-\w t]m-se-bmimw Cu hn-em]w. A-Xv {]-tbm-p-\hm-zn-iƒ- v \n-c - -I-am-bn-tØm- mw. ]- t \o-xnbpw \- bpw \n-e-\n - m kz- w Po-hn- Xw _en-sim-sp- p- a-\p-jy-kv-t\-l-am-wv a-\p-jycm-in-bp-ss {]-Xo-. a-[p-hn-s c- w `q-an-bn \n- p tnm-zn- p- p kq-cy-\p-zn- m C-\n-sb-{X kabw? (B[mcw a-ømbn 5:20;12:1 8;23:34) 7 sabv 2018

8 At m-kvx-eni ssish v ]n p-s -sb kn m w (Doctrine)AwKo-I-cn- mø Hcp F nkvtim- k`-bm-wv knf-kvsf k`. tbip-hns ssish p- m-bn-cp injy- m AXv XßfpsS ASpØ Xe-ap-d-b v ssiamdp-ibpw AXns ]n Xp-S - m-cmwv Xß-sf v hniz-kn- p-ibpw snøp- hcmwv ItØm-en-, bmt m_m-b, Hm Ø-tUm-Ivkv, am tømω k`-ifnse _nj- m. tdma ItØm-en bmt m-_mb k`-iƒ ]t{xmkv At m-kvx-es ]n Xp-S Ah-Im-is -Sp-tºmƒ tic-f-ønse Hm Ø-tUmIvkv k` txmakv At m-kvx-es ]n Xp-S Ah-Im-i-s - Sp- p. am tømω k`bpw txmakv At m-kvx-es ]n Xp-S -bmwv Ah-Im-i-s -Sp- -Xv. knf-kvsf k` Cu ssish v ]n Xp-S -sb kn m w Xs AwKo-I-cn- p- n-. At m-kvx-e- m a p- h v ssish v \SØn, injy- m v ]n Xp-S \ In-b-Xmbn ]pxnb \nb-a-øn sxfn-hp-i-fn- msb- -XmWv knf-kv-sf-bpss ] w. knfkvsfbpss sszh-imkv{x IΩn-j AwKhpw, IÆ-Ωqe sshzni skan-\mcn {]n kn- epw ]n osv Bw n- k` _nj- p-ambncp Znhw-K-X-\mb _nj v P{^n t]mƒ Bw n- k`-bpss amkn-ibmb Zv N vam-\n Fgp-Xnb tej\sø ASnÿm-\-s -SpØn Xøm-dm- nb tej-\-am-b-xn-\m adn p ]d-bm-ø-sx mw B tej-\-øn \n p D -c-wn-i-fm-wv. There is no evidence that any one of the twelve consecrated successors, and the only references to any ordinations at all are to those of Saint Paul, who, although he vigorously argued that he was an apostle, strenuously denied that he stood in the succession. His case is of particular interest.years after his call and the beginning of his apostolic work, he says that he did meet the other apostles and laid before them the Gospel that he preached, lest I should be running or had run in vain. Presumably, with his tremendous conviction that there can be but one Body of Christ, Saint Paul means that if the twelve had not recognized his work or accepted his Christians as real Christians, all his labours sabv would have been in vain; but he goes on at once to insist that he did not for an instant submit to the twelve by way of subjection. thz-]p-kvxiw ASn-ÿm-\-ambn FSp- p knfkvsf k`-bpw thz-]p-kvx-ihpw ]mc-º-cyhpw ASn-ÿm-\-ambn ImWp a v F n-kvtim- k`- Ifpw XΩn-ep hyxym-k-amwnhnss ImWn- p- - Xv. ]mc-º-cy-a-\p-k-cn v Hcn- ssish- p Hcp sa{xm-\n \n p ssish v e`n- m sshzn-i\pw sa{xm-\p-ambn amdmw. k`m hg v \S- p-tºmƒ tic-f-øn \n v sshzn-i cl-ky-ambn ioa-bn t]mbn ssish v hmßn _nj- mb Ncn-{X-߃ ticf-ønep v. At m-kvx-eni ssish n XpS - AhImi-s -Sp sa{xm- m v Hcn- In n-bm acww hsc AXn\v km[p-x-bp- m-ipsa mwv s]mxpth ]d-b-s -Sp- -Xv. Xmev]-cy-ap sshzn-i v sa{xm ] w simspø A\-h[n kw`h-߃ k`m Ncn-{X-Øn-ep- v. BZna k`-bn _nj- m D m-bn-cp- - Xn-\m B Ncn{Xw AwKo-I-cn p sim mwv _nj- m knf-kv-sf-bn BImsa v eb-\-n - Iƒ v t\xrxzw simsp-ø-h Xocp-am-\n- -Xv. _nj- m A[n-Imc ti{μ-ß-fmbn amdn, Zp Δn-\n-tbm- K-ap- m-ip-hm-\p km y-xbpw eb\ N -I-fn D m-bn. _nj- m,v knf-kvsf `c-w-l-s-\- bn ]d-bp Imcy-߃ am{xta snøp-hm A\phm-Z-ap- p-sh v hy -ambn Fgp-X-s - n- p- v. However, the constitution of the C.S.I did not leave it to everyone to interpret episcopacy as he wished. It did lay down certain definite guide-lines to its understanding of episcopacy. It underlined that it desired its Bishops to be constitutional Bishops by saying that the Bishops would perform the functions traditionally associated with their office, and then went on to enumerate them in the constitution. It declared that episcopacy has been accepted in the Church from very early times. It may therefore fitly be called historic -a deceptively simple assertion, to which it added the assurance that it is

9 needed for the shepherding and extension of the C.S.I, and this declaration was reinforced with the pledge that continuity with the historic episcopate will be both initially and thereafter effectively maintained. In a longer paragraph the Basis of Union said : In making provision for episcopal ordination and consecration, the C.S.I declares that it is its intention and determination in this manner to secure the unification of its ministry, but that this does not involve any judgment upon the validity or regularity of any other form of ministry, and the fact that other Churches do not follow the rule of episcopal ordination will not in itself preclude it from holding relations of communion and fellowship with them. When the Church of England asked it to reconsider this last statement the C.S.I said it could not do so. _nj v F ÿm\-øn\v a v k`-i-fn \n pw hyxy-ÿamb A hpw am\hpw \ I-W-sa v knfkvsf k`-bpss eb-\-øn\v t\xrxzw simsp-øh B{K-ln- p. It is shown also in the words found in the constitution of the C.S.I that it desires to express under Indian conditions and in Indian forms, the spirit, the thought, and the life of the Church Universal. I recall my first sight of Bishop Hollis, the C.S.I s first Moderator, who was addressing a meeting of students in Hampstead. A student rose to ask a question: My Lord, he began.... Not my Lord, interrupted Bishop Hollis ; we ve got rid of Lords in South India.There was a desire to discover a new pattern of episcopacy in the C.S.I and it did not want to fetter itself at the outset with too precise definitions. {]kvxpx tej-\-øn as mcp `mkøv C{]-Imcw ]d-bp- p. Bishop Sumitra, while Moderator and Bishop in Rayalaseema, wrote a charming sketch of the work of a Bishop as one having little independent administrative authority, primarily a teacher of his clergy and his flock at large, a father-in-god, a leader in evangelism, and a liturgical figure. He ends his sketch with the words, Thus a Bishop of the C.S.I has little leisure to dwell upon his status or authority in the Church. Bishop Legg similarly, writing in the volume of essays entitled Bishops and edited by your own Bishop of Llandaff, concludes with these words : Bishops in the C.S.I are fortunate in the ease with which in Indian conditions they can move amongst the people of town and village, offering and receiving friendship with learned and simple, exercising a personal ministry of reconciliation, admonition, and encouragement among ministers and people. The only authority that is worth much in the Christian Church is the spiritual authority that is rooted in service and flowers in trust and affection. Episcope is only fully Christian if it is a form of diakonia. He who called Himself the Good Shepherd also said, I am among you as he that serveth. It is hardly surprising that since the Bishops in general did embody these high ideals, their authority came to be gladly accepted even by those who had at first feared the very name of bishop. a- v F- n-kv-tim- k-`-i-fn sa-{xm-\mbm ]n- o-sv ssh-zn-i-s Ãm- -k-. kn F-kv -sfbn _n-j- v ap-jy C-S-b-\m-bn (Chief Pastor) Bflob CS-b-]-cn-]m-e\w \S-Øp-hm-\mWv Dt±-in- p- -Xv. Aflm-b-cpw sshzn-icpw _nj- m-cpapƒs -Sp- XmWv knfkvsf k`-bpss kn\-uv. a v F n-kvtim- k`-i-fn _nj- m am{xw Dƒs m p- -XmWv k`m kn\-uv. _nj- msc sxc- -Sp- p F m IΩn- n-i-fnepw sshzn-icpw Aflm-b- -cp-ap- m-ipw. kn\uv ktω-f-\-ß-fn _nj- m P\-ß-tfm-sSm w kzkn-emwv Ccn- p- -Xv. thzn-bn tamu-td- dpw HutZym-KnI `mc-hm-ln-ifpw am{xta ImWp-I-bp- p. a v F n-kvtim- k`-ifn thzn-bn F m _nj- mcpw D m-ipw. knfkvsf _nj- p-am-cpss Ip mbw sh -Ip- m-bhpw Ah v Xe-bn Inco-Shpw C. (Bw- n- k`bnse _nj- m Npa Ip m-b-hpw, Hu]-NmcnI NS-ßp-I-fn Inco-Shpw D]-tbm-Kn p p- v. Bw n- ]mc-º-cy-øn \n v Ch c pw knfkvsf FSp-Øn- ).- apjy CS-b-\m-sW- -dn-bp-hm Npa CS-s p am{xw. t\csø kqnn- n F nkvtim- k`-i-fnse _nj- m k\ym-kn-am-cmbn-cn- -W-sa v \n _- -ap- -t mƒ knf-kvsf k`-bnse _nj- p-am hnhm-ln-x-cm-wv. ItØm-en k`-bnse sa{xms\ ]nxmhv (Your Excellency, Beatitude) F pw bmt m-_m-b, Hm ØtUmIvkv am tømωm k`-i-fnse sa{xm- msc Xncp-ta\n F pw hnfn- p-tºmƒ knf-kvsf-bnse _nj- ns\ _njs mwv kwt_m-[\ snøp-i. Hcmsf _nj- m- -W-sa- n \nb-am-\p-krxw kwl-sn- n- -s F m IΩn- n-i-fpssbpw AwKo-Imcw hmßnb tijw kn\uv FIvkn-Iyq- nhv AwKo-Icn- pibpw _nj- mbn hmgn- m-\p A\phmZw tamu-td- v \ Ip-tºmƒ am{xta Hc- s\ _nj- mbn hmgn- m-\m-ip. At m-kvx-eni ]n Xp-S sb kn m w knf-kvsf k` AwKo-I-cn- m- Ø-Xn-\m knf-kvsf k`-bnse _nj- mtcm knf-kvsf tamu-td- tdm Bcp-sS-sb- nepw Xebn ssish- m sshzn-it\m _njt m BIn-. knfkvsf k`-bpss Z i-\hpw Dƒ m-gvnbpw hy -am- p Hcp ]pkvx-i-amwv knf-kvsf P\- d sk{i- -dn-bmbn Zo L-Imew tkh\w snbvx cmpøm Un t]mfns FIyp-an-\nkw C BIvj (Ecuminism in Action). eb\ N -Iƒ apx sabv 2018

10 Xmº-cØpIqSnb ]{ - m-asø kn\uv hscbp Ncn{Xw Cu ]pkvx-i-øn hnh-cn- p- p- v. knf-kvsf kn\-uv knf-kv-sf-bpss sszhimkv{x \ne-]m-sp-iƒ v cq]w \ Ip- -Xn-\m c p h j-øn-sem-cn- IqSp kn\-uns tcj- Iƒ Cu ]pkvx-i-øn-eq-ss-bmwv e`n- p- -Xv. a v Ncn{X tcj-ifn m-ø-xn-\m CXns {]k n h n- p- p. At±-l-Øns ]pkvx-i-øn F nkvtim- -kn-sb- p-dn v hni-zo-i-cn- p- p- v. A unique feature of the position the CSI has taken is in respect of Episcopacy. It accepts the historic episcopacy without accepting the doctrine of apostolic sucession.csi is an Episcopal Church (Page 14). It will be remembered that the non-episcopal churches came into the union with great hesitation. They had not had any experience of Episcopacy as a form of church-government nor had they come into sufficiently close contact with Bishops as individuals and as officials of the Church to know what exactly they stood for in the life of the Church...They agreed with the one episcopal church came into the union (namely, the Anglican Church in India) in their desire that the relation of the Bishop to his people should be that of chief pastor and father in God, and that he is called to feed the flock of God, taking the oversight thereof as Shepherd, not as Lord, either in act or in title but as an example to the flock.(page 43). a v F nkvtim- k`i-fn \n pw XnI pw hyxy-kvxamb k`-bmwv knf-kv-sf. tum. si. ]n. tbml- m\v knfkvsf k` F n-kvtim- ] Xzw \ In-bn- n- m-sb knfkvsf tamu-td- _nj v txmakv si DΩs {]kvxm-h\ hnhm-z-ßfp- m n. A\p-Iq-e-ambpw {]Xn-Iq-e-ambpw A\-h[n {]kvxm-h-\-ifpw tcj- Ifpw s^bvkv _p nepw am[y-a-ß-fnepw hcn-i-bp- m-bn. N -bn ]s -SpØ ]ecpw, knf-kvsf k`-bpss _nj v F ÿm\sø a v F n-kvtim- k`-i-fnse _nj- mcpambn Xmc-Xayw snbvxmwv {]Xn-I-cn- -Xv. knf-kvsf k`-bpss Xe-h-\mb tamu-td- _nj v txmakv si DΩ ]d- Xv, knf-kvsf k` ]pd-øn-d- nb knfkvsf k` sszh-imkv{x IΩo-js dnt m ns bpw kn\uv FIvkn-Iyq- n-hn-s an\n- vkp-i-fpssbpw shfn- -Øn-em-Wv. knf-kvsf bpss ]nxrxzw Ah-Im-i-s v ]c-ky-ßfpw {]kvxm-h-\- Ifpw h -t mƒ Hcp kn\uv {]Xn-\n-[n-bpsS tnmzy- Øn\v adp-]-sn-bm-bn- mwv tamu-td- Cu hni-zo-icww \ In-bXv. knf-kv-sf-bpss `c-w-l-s-\-b- \p-k-cn v ssish- n-\p A[n-Imcw tamu v sabv \ Ip- Xv kn\uv FIvkn-Iyq- n-hm-wv. At m-kvxeni ssish v ]n Xp-S AwKo-I-cn- m-ø-xn- \m knfkvsf k`bnse _nj- m v AXn- \p A[n-Im-c-an-. CXmWv tamu-td- Xs {]kvxm-h-\-bn-eqss hy -am- n-bxv. a v k`-i-fnse _nj- m Ah-Im-i-s -Sp- Xpt]mse At m-kvxeni ssish v A[n-Im-cw, knf-kvsf _nj- m v Ah-Im-i-s -Sm-\m-hn-. (At m-kvx-eni ssish v ]n Xp-S -bp -h Zpcp-]-tbmKw snbvx-xns ^e-ambn miww C v an F nkvtim- k`-i-fnepw _nj v `cw-l-s-\bv v hnt[-b-am-bn p thww {]h Øn- p-hm F \n_- -\-bp- m- n-bn-cn- p- -Xv). C y ] m-ø-e- Øn ]pxnb Dƒ m-gvn-tbmss ]pxnb ssien-bn {]h Øn- m-\mwv eb\ N Iƒ v t\xrxzw simsp-ø-h _nj-s ]Z-hn- knf-kv-sf-bn D m-h-w-sa- p- -Xn-eqsS B{K-ln- -Xv. AXp sim p Xs -bmwv knf-kvsf _nj- msc a v k`-i-fnse _nj- mcpambn Xmc-Xayw snøcpsx v eb\ N -Iƒ v t\xrxzw simsp- Ø-h B{K-ln- Xv. ap Xp h j-߃ v tijw knf-kvsf k`-bpss {]h Ø-\-߃ kn\uv Hcp IΩo-js\ sh v hne-bn-cpøp-ibp m-bn. B ]pkvxiøn kn-f-kvsf k`bpss eb\ N Iƒ v t\xrxzw simspøh v F n-kvtim- -kn-sb- p-dn- p ImgvN- m-sp-iƒ XInSw adn Xv hni-zo-i-cn- p- p- v. Though it is not the intention of the constitution, the Bishop at the Diocesan level and the Presbyter at the Pastorate level has emerged as powerful functionaries. This may be sometimes due to the lack of initiative and leadership among the people and their acquieescence to the authoritarian behaviour of the Bishop or the Presbyter concernd. Sometimes Bishops themeselves have been responsible for this state of affairs.... consequently, there is too much decision making power at the top, too much apathy at the grass roots and too much jockeying for positions in the middle. Further too much concentration of power and patronage and prestige in the Bishop has been responsible in some cases for the unseemly, undignified and unchristian race for Bishoprics (Page 49). _nj v F ]Z-hn-sb- p-dn v knf-kv -sf-bn ebn- AwK-k-`-I-fmb sax-un-ãv, tim {Kn-tKj, s{]kv_n-t -dn-b hn`m-k-߃ Db Ønb Bi- -Iƒ icn-bm-bn-cp psh v ap Xv h j-øn- \p tijw k`m kn\uv Xs \S-Ønb hne-bn-cp- Ø hy -am- p- p.k`-bpss ZuXy-sØ- p-dn pw FIyp-an-\n-k-sØ- p-dn- p-ap ]søm ]Xv Ccp- ]Xv \q m- p-i-fn-ep- mb N -Iƒ hmbn- ptºmƒ k` Cs -hn-ss-bmwv \n p- -sx- p tnmzyw

11 {]k- -am-ipw. bqtdm- n-ep- mb \thm- m-\- Øns ^e-ambn cq]w sim anj\dn {]ÿm-\- ߃ `mcxw t]mep cmpy-ß-fn kphn-tij the snbvx-xns ^e-ambn D mbxmwv knfkv-sf. a v F n-kvtim- k`-isf A\p-I-cn- phm {ian- p-sh- -Xn Nnet mƒ sx v ] n-bn- p v. knf-kvsfbpss eb\ N -I-fn D mb ASnÿm\ ImgvN- m-sp-iƒ ]e padn-bn- m-sb- Xp sim mwv sx mb Zni-bn Nnet m-sg- nepw Nen- p-hm-\n-s-bm-ip- -Xv. knf-kvsf kn\uv Xe-Øn \S p hcp t_m U ekv N v (Borderless Church) F sszh-imkv{x inev]-ime AXn-\p XpS- -am-wv. k`-bpss t{]jnx {]h Ø-\-ß-fnepw k`-bpss LS-\-bnepw PohnX ssien-bnepw kaqe am -߃ p XpS- -amwv kn\uv Xe-Øn XpS -bmbn \S p hcp AXn-cp-I-fn- mø k`sb- p-dn- p N -Iƒ. knfkvsf At m-kvxeni ssishbv]v ]n Xp-S AwKo-I-cn- p- n- msb v am{x-a, t{]jnx {]h Ø-\-ß-fnepw k`bpss {]h Ø\ ssien-bnepw XnI pw \qx\ ssien ]n Xp-S-c-W-sa- mwv eb\ N -Iƒ v t\xrxzw \ In-b-h B{K-ln- -Xv. tum.-amxyp timin ]p -bv msv ASn- p-dn- v. Cu tej-\-øn ]cma in p tcj-isf ASn-ÿm-\-s -SpØn tej-is hy n-]-c-amb hymjym-\- hpw, {]Xn-I-c-W-hp-amWv ChnsS simsp-øn-cn- p- -Xv. knf-kvsf k`-bnse F n-kvtim- -kn-sb p-dn v BZnak`m t\xr-xz-øn-\p- m-bn-cp ImgvN- m-sp-iƒ hy -am- p-i-sb- -XmWv Cu tej-\-øns Dt±iyw. Cu tej-\-øn Nq n- m-wn- n-cn- p Imcy-ß-fn hkvxpxm]c-amb sx p-ifps - n tcj-iƒ klnxw Zb-hmbn FUn- sd Adnbn -W-sa-`y n p p. {it -b-am-b A`n-{]m-b-߃ {]kn- o-i-cn- pw. FUn- sshfw-knf k tkm- hw thdn A\p-`-h-ambn timg-t cn : ka-im-eni kaq-l-øn\v t\cn pw hcpw Xe-ap-d-Iƒ v Bi-b-ß-fn-eq-sSbpw i n ]I-cp kmlnxy t{imxkmwv am {IntkmÃw henb sa{xm-t m-eo-øm-sb v ap tziob \yq\-] hnzym- `ymk IΩo-j-\wKw tum. kndn-b v txmakv ]d- p. sshfw-knf kwÿm\ Iƒ -d t_m Uns bpw en -td- t_m Un-s bpw kwbp B`n-ap-Jy-Øn amcm-a-æn \S k tkm- hw ]cn-]m-snbn apjy-{]-`m-jww \S-Øp-I-bm-bn-cp p At±-lw. Hcp hy nsbøs ti{μ-am n ]Øn-e-[nIw Fgp- Øp-Im ]pkvxicn\ \S-Øp- Xpw Htc hy nsbøs ti{μ-am n Hcp Fgp-Øp-Im-c Xs aq ne-[niw ]pkvx-i-߃ cnn- p- Xpw kmlnxy temi-ønse Hcp A p-x-am-sw v ktω-f\w DZvLm-S\w snbvx sshfw-knf tziob {]kn-u v tum se_n ^nen v amxyp ]d p. kwÿm\ snb am {]^. tpmbv kn tpm Pv A y- X hln- p. am {Intkm-ÃsØ n ]pkvxi cn\ \S-Ønb tpm Pv kn G{_-lmw, AUz iin ^nen- v, tum G{_lmw Icn w, tum kndn-b v txma-kv, AeIvkv sx \m- n, Ahn-\mjv Xp p-a-æn, {]^ txmakv Ipcp-hn-f, tum amxyp timin ]p -bv m-sv F n-h v sshfw-knf k K-ap{Z \ In BZ-cn- p. tic-f-ønse sszh-imkv{x ]T\ ti{μ-ßfpss hm jni kvac-wni Ahm Uv tim bw Hm ØtUmIvkv Xntbmf-Pn- skan-\m-cn, tim bw am tømωm Xntbm-f-Pn- skan-\m-cn, Xncp-h am tømωm F n-kvtim- Pq_nen C Ãn- yq v F nh v \ In. am {IntkmÃw tej\ cn-bn-xm- -fmb dh. tum. ssh. n. hn\-b-cm-pv, ent\mpv Nmt m F n-h v ]pc-kvimcw \ In. tziob h\n-xm-t^mdw D]m- y Ipamcn Ipcym-kv, kwÿm\ {Sj-dm tum amω kj-dn-b, kwÿm\ Iƒ -d t_m Uv snb am h Kokv Sn. aßm-sv, kwÿm\ en -td- t_m Uv snb am tum tdmbvkv a -ti-cn, kwÿm\ bqøv h v IΩn n snb am tam n sndn-bm, dopn- -W sk{i- dn t]mƒk txma-kv, dh. cmpp At -cn, ^m. ssj hn amxyp F n-h {]kw-kn- p. 11 sabv 2018

12 {In-tkm-kv- w Xn-cp-ta-\n-bpambn H-c-hn-Nm-cn-X Iq-Sn- m-gv-nta-p tp- -_v ^n-en-t m-kv a-lm-\m-b km-ap-h tpm -k-s Po-h-N-cn-{Xw F-gp-Xnbm-Wv sh-dpw km-[m-c-w- m-c-\m-bn-cp- spbnw-kv t_m-skz {]-i-kv-x-\m-b-sx- v ]-d-b-s -Sp- p. \q- m- p-iƒ- v ti-jw C-Xp Fs t m-se-bp- H-cp hn-\o-x-\p D-X-Im km-[y-x D- m-ip-sa- v a -a-d- km-bn- p-am A-dn-bp- p-t m B-thm? {In-tkm-kv- w Xn-cp-ta-\n-sb- - n F-s - n-epw F-gp- Xn ]n-sn- n- p {]-i-kv-xn-bp-ss Xm-gv-h-c-bn \n- v ap- I-fn-te- v t\m- p-hm {i-an- p-i-bm-wv F- v kmcw. Ip-º-\m- p-im-c-\m-b F-s `-h-\-øn \n- pw Xn-cp-ta-\n-bp-sS I-e-a-Æn `-h-\-øn-te- v shdpw H- -c-in-tem-ao- Zq-cw am-{xw. F- n- pw A-t±-l-sØ ti-c-f-øn-se- -, C- y-bn sh- v t]m-epw, Rm H-cn- -epw I- n-cp- n-s -Xm-Wv k-xyw. F- m I-e-a-Æn A-t±-lØns ]n-xm-hm-b D-Ω A- s\ Im-Wp-hm Rm t]m-bn- p- v. A-t±-lw hn-imcn P-\-d B-bn-cp-s -t m, am-cm-a I -h -j- \n {]-kw-k-i-cm-bn h- n-cp- km-bn- mcp-ss I- Sn- m s]m- m-ø `m-j ]-cn-`m-j-s -Sp-Øp- hy- nsb-t m-bp- A-dn-hv F-s k-a-{]m-b- m - dnbmam-bn-cp- p. a-i [ -Ωn-jvT A- -s t]-cv ti- ncp- p, ]-s Im-Wm `m-kyw D- m-bn- n-. sk v tpm -kv ssl-kv-iqƒ C-c-hn-t]-cq B- bn-cp- p F-s ]T-\-I-f-cn. D-Ω-\- -s C-f-b-a-I-\pw, {]k -h-z-\-\p-am-bn-cp- tum-œ X-ºn R-߃- v {]n-b- -c-\m-bn-cp- p. Im-c-Ww R-ß-fp-sS kv-iq-ƒ ^p- Sv-t_mƒ ssa-xm-\-øn-s sxm- -Sp-Øp X-s A-t±lw H-cp Un-kv-] -k-dn \-S-Ønbncp- p. \- -]m-z-cmbn ^p-sv-t_mƒ I-fn- n-cp- R-߃- v Iq -Øp-aq - Ø I- p-iƒ sim- v ap-dn-hp mip-tºmƒ X-ºn tum-œ-dm-bn-cp- p i-c-ww. ap-dn-th- -h-cm-bn sn p R-ßfpsS \- i-a-cym- m-c-\m-bn X-ºn tum-œ. ]-ø- m-tcm-sv Im-iv ta-sn- -cp-xv F- v A-t±-lw X-s tpm-en- m - v \n -t±-iw sim-sp-øn-cp- p, A-Y-hm Im-ip ta-sn- m X-s, hn-jw hm-ßm t]m-epw R- ß-fp-sS ssi-bn Im-in-s - v X-s Zn-hy-Zr- n-bm A-t±-lw {K-ln- n-cp- p. A-ß-bp-sS kv-a-c-wm - w G-Xm- v H-cp U-k-\n A-[n-Iw ]m-sp-iƒ F-s i-co-c-øn-s ]-e `m-k-ß-fn-epw {]-txy-in- v F-s C-cp Im-ep-I-fn-epw Rm kq- n- p-sh- n-cn- p- p. 1951em-Wv Rm ]-Ømw m-kv ]m-km-ip- -Xv \- am - p-s - n am-{x-sa bp.kn tim-tf-pv, B- ep-h-bn {]-th-i-\w e-`n- p-i-bp- p. B-ep-h timtfpn A- m-sx ]Tn- p-i-bn- F- v i-]-yw sn-bv- sabv Xn-cp- Im-ew. \- am - n-s A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn A- hn-ss A-Uv-an-j- e-`n- p. ]-s ÿ-e-sø {]-[m- \-s - H-cp hy- n-bn \n- v kz-`m-h k - n-^n- - v- k-ln-xw tim-tf-pn lm-p-cm-im-\m-wv D-Ø-c-hv. H- pw Xm-a-kn-bm-sX I-e-a-Æn-te-t m-sn. `m-ky-øn-\v D- Ω-\- ho- n D- m-bn-cp- p. t]-cpw, ho- p-t]-cpw, h-ey- -s Pm-X-I-hpw Xp-S-ßn F- mw A- tnm-zn- p. an-\n- p-iƒ- -Iw se- sl-un \- h\pw hniz-kv-x-\p-am-b Zm-k F- ap-{z-ip-ønø- p. timtf-pn sn- -t m-gm-wv A-dn-bp- -Xv. km-[p-p- \-tk-h-\ \n-c-x-\m-im tum-œ B-bn-s - n Pohn-Xw X-s ]m-gm-ipw F- p [-cn- F-\n- v H- mw {Kq- n-em-wv A-Uv-an-j e-`n- n-cn- p- -Xv. F- m H-cp am-kw I-gn- -t mƒ, A- -s kz-`m-h-k - n-^n- - n-s _-e-øn sk- v {Kq- n F-\n- v A- Uv-an-j e-`n- p. F-s k-l-]mtn-iƒ B-bn-cp- H -]-Xv t] A-h-cp-sS ]n - m-e Po-hn-X-Øn A-dn-b-s -Sp- tum-œ-d- m-cm-bn-øo - p. Rm tum-œ B-Im- - Xn-s ]n- n-se ssz-thm- -t±iyw F- m-bn-cp- p-sh- dn-bm h -j-߃ F-Sp-Øp. tum-œ B-Im-sX X- s a-l-øm-b km-[p-p-\-tk-h-\w km-[y-am-sw- v ssz-hw F-s ]-Tn- n- p. ap- -Øn-b- p h -j-߃- p apºv, {In-tkm-kv- w Xn-cp-ta-\n F-s am-{xw Im-Wm F p txm p- -t]mse Im-\-U-bn-te- v B-K-X-\m-bn. A- v C - s\- pw, sk -t^m-wpw C- m-bn-cp-s - n-epw Xn-cp-ta- \n-bp-ss h-c-hn-s B - p-hn-fn Im-\-U ap-gp-h ap-gßn-bn-cp- p. Im-\-U-bp-sS ssk-_o-cn-b F- A-]- c-\m-a-øn A-dn-b-s - n-cp- t^m - v am-iv-a-sd F- ÿ-e-øv k -tim F- -dn-b-s -Sp- G- -hpw h-en-b Hm-bn I-º-\n-bn Rm-\pw F-s `m-cy-bpw tpm-en sn-bv-xn-cp- Im-ew. Xn-cp-ta-\n h-cp- -Xv F- Uv-a -t m F- ]- -W-Øn-te- v am-{xw. a- p-]-etc-bpw t]m-se R-ß-fpw Xn-cp-ta-\o Z -i-\-øn-\mbn A- q-dv In-tem-ao- Xm- n A-hn-sS-sb-Øn. Ip- p-ip- n-iƒ k-ln-xw G-Xm- v \q-dn - -cw B-fp- Iƒ Xn-cp-ta-\n-bp-sS h- w Np- n \n - p- p.

13 Rm-s\m- v Nm-Ip- p-an-, A-h-\v ]- n-bn I-b-dm-\pw ]- p- n-. Xn-cp-ta-\n Xp- S - v ]-d- p, Rm-s\m-cp-h -jw A-t\-Im-bn-c-ß-sf Im-Wpw F- m-h-sc-bpw Hm -Øn-cn- m km-[n- -bn-. Rm D-S-s\ Nm-Im km-[y-x Ip-d-hm-b-Xn-\m \n-ß-fmcpw h-en-b i-]-y-ß-sfm- pw F-Sp- -cp-xv. A-Y-hm A-ß-s\ sn-bv-xm Po-hn-X-Im-ew ap-gp-h-\pw ]- n-{`- -cm-im km-[y-x h-f-sc Iq-Sp-X-em-Wv. C-\n-bpw tnm-tzym-ø-c ]w- n-bm-wv. Xn-cp-ta-\n t]-cv, \m-sv, ho- p-t]-cv Xp-S-ßn-b F- m hn-hc-ß-fpw tnm-zn- pw. Ir-Xy-am-b D-Ø-cw e-`n- m A-Sp-Ø-bmfn-te- v I-S- pw. F-s ts h- -t mƒ \m-sv Ip- º-\m-Sv F- v tiƒ- -bpw Xn-cp-ta-\n Nm-Sn F-gp-t - -Xpw H- n- m-bn-cp- p. A-t±-lw ]-d- p. F-Sm Rm A-dn-bm-Ø Ip-º-\m- p-im-c F-hn-Sn-cn- p- p. Rm H-cp sh-dpw Ip-º-\m-S am-{x-a-s - pw, txm-am-«olm B-Zyw sim-sp-ß- q Im-b-en ap- n-sb-sp-ø km- m \-ºq-Xn-cn ]m-c-º-cy-am-sw- pw, am tøm- Ωm k-`m ÿm-]-i ]n-xm- - m-cn H-cp-h-s sim- p-sim- p a-i-\m-sw- pw X- n-hn-sm txm- n-sb- nepw, H- pw ]-d- n-. Ip-º-\m-S F- - ap-{z- k-xyam-sw- p a-\- n-em- n-b {In-tkm-kv- w Xn-cp-ta-\n F-s `m-cy-tbm-sv ]-d- p, C-h F-s kz- -amfm-wv. \o C-h-s\ \- -Xp-t]m-se t\m- n-s m- -Ww. Xn-cp-ta-\n-bp-sS I-ev-]-\ F-s `m-cy \-{a-in-c-kv-ibm-bn G-s -Sp-Øp. C-t mƒ ^-ew A-dn-bm Xp-S-ßn. sxmæqdmw k- o -Ø-\-Øn-s ]-Ømw hm-iy-øn tam-si X- n-cn- p- hm-d- n ]n-cn-b-uv I-gn- n-cn- p- p. F-Uv-a t m-wn h- v Xn-cp-ta-\n c- p ^-en-x߃ ]-d- p. H-cp sn-dp- - m-c X-s aq- p Iq- p- Im-tcm-Sv ]-d- p, Rm-\pw, {In-tkm-kv- w Xn-cp-ta-\nbp-am-bp- A-Sp- w \n-߃- -dn-bn-. G-Xv Bƒ- q- -Øn-em-sW- n-epw Xn-cp-ta-\n F-s Xn-cn- -dn-bpw, B- enw-k-\w sn-øpw. Iq- p-im - v A-h-t\m-Sv h-en-b a-xn- pw, A-kq-b-bpw txm- n. k-ao-s]-bp- C-S-h-I-bn Xn-cp-ta-\n F-Øn-b-X-dn- v \-Ωp-sS I-Ym-\m-b-I-\pw, Iq- p-im-cpw I-S- p-sn p. Xn-cp-ta-\n C-cp- n-cp- apdn-bp-ss hm-xn - h-sc F-Øn-bn- pw, Xn-cp-ta-\n I- -Xm-bn t]m-epw `m-hn- p- n-. H-Sp-hn k-ln-si- v A-h Xn-cp-ta-\n-tbm-Sp tnm-zn- p, Xn-cp-ta-\n- v F-s a-\- n-em-bn-t? Xn-cp-ta-\n Rm I- -Xm-bn Hm - p- n- F- v ]-d- p. Xn-cp-ta-\n-sb Hm -an- p-hm A- h ]-e-xpw ]-d-s - n-epw, Xn-cp-ta-\n- v a-\- n-embn-. X-s Iq- p-imcp-ss ap-ºn ]-cn-lm-ky-\m-b-xn- \m A-h A-hn-sS-h- v H-cp Xo-cp-am-\-sa-Sp-Øp. Cu Xn-cp-ta-\n N-Øm am-{x-ta Rm C-\n ]- n-bn t]m-i-bp- p. h -j-߃ I-gn- n-cn- p- p. Rm-s\m- v Nm-Ip- p-an-, A-h-\v ]- n-bn I-b-dm-\pw ]- p- n-. Xn-cp-ta-\n Xp-S - v ]-d- p, Rm-s\m-cp-h -jw A- t\-im-bn-c-ß-sf Im-Wpw F- m-h-sc-bpw Hm -Øn-cn- m km-[n- -bn-. Rm D-S-s\ Nm-Im km-[y-x Ip-d-hm-b-Xn-\m \n-ß-fmcpw h-en-b i-]-y-ß-sfm- pw F-Sp- -cp-xv. A-Y-hm A-ß-s\ sn-bv-xm Po-hn-X-Imew ap-gp-h-\pw ]- n-{`- -cm-im km-[y-x h-f-sc Iq-Sp- X-em-Wv. Im-c-Ww I -Øm-hn-t\m-Sv Rm ]- n-bn-cn- p- -Xn-\m, F-\n- v Zo -Lm-bp-kpw \- -bpw D-d- m-wv. c- m-a-sø ^-en-xw, R-߃ Cu Xn-cp-ta-\n-am - v H-cp {]-txy-i kz-`m-h-ap- v. ]- a-e-bm-f-øn Iq- n- n-sn- n- F- v ]-d-bpw. s m-d-t m- m-cp-ss Ip- w F-Uv-a -t m -Im-tcm-Sv ]-d-bpw, A-h-cp-S Ip- w t^m - v am- p-d-bn sn- v ]-d-bpw. C-h-cp-sS-sb- mw Ip- w A-ta-cn- -bn ]-e-bn-s-øpw sn- p ]-d-bpw. C- h C-sX- m-a-dn- v X-Ωn h-g- v Xp-S-ßp-tºmƒ R߃ ÿ-ew hn- n-cn- pw. ]n-s h-g- m-bn, h- m- W-am-bn. h-g- v Xo - m R-ß-sf ho- pw hn-fn- pw.aß-s\-bm-wv R-߃ Cu ho- pw h-c-hv kw- L-Sn- n- p- -Xv. Cu h -j-øns B-Zyw Fs `m-cy-bpw ti-c-f- Øn h- n-cp- p. am-cm-a I -h -j I-gn- ncp-s - n-epw, B ÿ-e-sa- n-epw Im-Wp-hm-\p- B- {K-l-Øn, am-cm-a-æn R-ß-sf-Øn. R-ß-tfm-sSm- w Im -K-dn C-S-h-I-bn-se R-ß-fp-sS ap hn-im-cn _n-pp tpm -Pv A- -\p-ap- m-bn-cp- p. A- R-ßsf {In-tkm-kv - w Xn-cp-ta-\n-bp-sS A-c-a-\-bn-te- v sim- p-t]m-bn. \n -`m-ky-h-im Xn-cp-ta-\n A-hn-sS-bp- mbn-cp- n-. F- m {]-Ir-Xnkv-t\-ln-bm-b Xn-cp-ta- \n- h-f -Øp- ]- n ar-km-zn-iƒ- pw, hr- -e-xm-zn- Iƒ- pw Ip-i-ew A-dn-bn- -Xn-\p ti-j-am-wv R-߃ a-s-ßn-b-xv. {]nb Xn-cp-ta-\n, A-ßpw Rm-\pw H-tc \m- p-im, H-tc t]-cp-im. \-Ωƒ c- pw Po-hn- n-cn- p-tºmƒ X-s A-ß-sb- p-dn- v H-cp te-j-\w F-gp-Xm F- s {]m-]v-x-\m- n-b X-ºp-cm-\v Hcm-bncw \μn. am tømωm k`-bnse A - m Hcn- -ses Itk-c-bn CcpØn H p s]m n. Rm F n-kvtim- bmbn hmgn- -s Znh-kw. C\nbpw Ah-scs H p-iqsn s]m pw. s]m n t\sc hbv p- Xv Ipgn-bn-tem- m-bn-cn- p-sa-t -bp- p. {Intkm-kv w henb sa{xm-t m-enø 13 sabv 2018

14 {Iq-in In-S p-sim- v tb-ip ]-d- G-gp hm- N-I-ß-fn G- hpw lr-kzam-b hm-n-i-am-wv F-\n- p Zm-ln- p- p F- hmniw. \-ap- v F-t m-gm-wv Zm-ln- p- Xv. ssh-zy-im-kv{xw Zm-l-sØ - n ]-d- n-cn- p -Xv i-co-c-øn P-emw-iw Ip-d-bp-tºm-tgm, D- ns Af-hp Iq-Sp-tºmtgm B-Wv Zm-l-ap- m-hp- sx mwv. i-co-c-øn-s {]hr-øn-iƒ b-tym-nn- Xw \-S- -W-sa- n P-emw-iw H-c-f-hn Xm-sg t]m- Im ]m-sn. i-co-c-øns Cu \n-e-]m-sv \-Ωp-sS X- e-t m-dv A-dn-bp-tºmƒ ti-{μoir-x \m-uo-hyq-l-øn- \v \ -Ip- -k-tμ-i-am-wv Zm-lw F- hn-im-cw. P- emw-iw Ip-d-bp-tºm-gp- m-ip- Zm-l-Øn\v Extra cellular thirst F pw D- p- A-f-hn Iq-Sp-tºmƒ D- m-ip- Zm-l-Øn-\v Intra cellular thirst F pw B-Wv ]-d-bp- Xv. c- p Im-c-W-ß-ƒ sim pw D- m-ip -Xv Zml-sa- {]-Xn-I-c-W-amWv. tem-i-n-cn{xw tc-j-s -Sp-Øn-bn- p- -Xn G- hpw simsn-b Zm-lw D- m-bn- p-f-f-xv 1945 B-K-Ãv amkw Bdmw Xob-Xn P- m-\n-se ln-tcmjn-a F- \-K-c- Øn B- w t_mw-_v ho-w-t mfmwv. ]-{ - p N- Xpc-{i In-tem-ao- Np- -f-hn-ep- ap-gp-h P-\-ßfpw H-cp s\m-sn-bn-s- p-f-fn t_m_n\nc-bm-bn c- p e- w t] a-cn p. A-h-cn ]-Ip-Xn t] a-cn -Xv H-Spßm-Ø Zm-lw sim- mwv. H-cp Xp- n sh- -Øn-\p th- n s\-t m w Hm-Sn-b-t mƒ ln-tcm-jn-a-bn-se \-Znbn-te- v A-h NmSn. A-t mƒ sh- -Øn-s Nq-Sv B-bn-cw Un-{Kn-bm-bn- p-b - n-cp- p. (100 Un{Kn Nq-Sm- Ip-tºmƒ sh- w Xn-f- p-sa- -dn-bm-a-s m) C-hsc mw X -Ww sh- p a-cn p. {Iq-in- -s - tb-ip X-te-Znh-kw A-h-km\-sØ A-Øm-g-Øn-\p ho- p I-gn- -Xn-\p ti-jw ]n- o-sv H-cp Xp- n sh- w t]mepw Ip-Sn- n- p- m-hn. Zo - Lam-b \ym-b-hn-kv-xm-cw I-gn- v tdm-a ]-S-bm-fn- I-fp-sS Nm- -hm A-Sn-I-fp-sS H-cp ]c-º-c X-s G- p-i-gn- -t mƒ X-s i-co-c-øn-se P-emw-iw F- p-am{xw Xo - n- p- m-hp-sa v Du-ln- m-hp- -txbp p. A-Xn-s\-Øp-S - v F-Sp-Øm s]m-ßm-ø sabv PÃnkv si.- n. txmakv `m-c-tadn-b Ip-cnipw Np-a p-sim- v a-e I-bdn-b kabw A-t±-l-Øn-\v ap-tºm- p t]m-im I-gn-bm-sX h- -t mƒ Xm-sg ho-w-xmbpw A-Xph-gn h- in-tams\-s m- v Ip-cn-ip Xm-ßn- -Xmbpw \mw hm-bn- p p. B k-ab-øv tb-ip-hn-\v H-cp I-hnƒ Ft m IpSn m sim-spøp. ]-t tb-ip A-Xp Ip-Sn- n. Ip-cn-in-t tb-ip-hn-s\ InS-Øn hf-sc \o-f-ap- Im-cn-cp-ºm-Wn-Iƒ A-Sn- v sim-sna-cw t]m-se s]m- n \- -\m-bn \- p- -k-ab-øv In-S-t - n h- tbip-hn-s Zm-l-Øn-s Xo{h-X Du-ln- m -t]mepw Nn-e-t mƒ km-[n-s - p-h-cn. ]-s tb-ip-hn-\v Ip- Sn- m th- n kv-{xo-iƒ sim-sp-ø Np - A-t±lw kzo-i-cn- n-s - p hm-bn- p p. Cu sndn-b hmn-iw tb-ip ]-d- -Xm-bn tc-js -Sp-Ønb-Xv tbm-l- m F- kp-hn-ti-j-i am- {X-amWv. A-t±-lw F-gpXn-b `m-j-bn tb-ip ]-d- -hmn-iw k:tl\ F- mwv. B hmn-iw B-Zy- Ime-Øv ss{i-kv-x-h N-cn-{X-Øn hen-b N - -Iƒ- v C-S-\ -In-bn- p v. k-`-iƒ D-cp-Øn-cn- p h- \memw \q- m- n-se kp\-l-tzm-kp-iƒ- p- ti-jw I - -tzm-\y-bn h- v ]u-c-kv-xy-k-`-bpw, ]m- m- Xy k-`-bp-am-bn k-`-iƒ th -Xn-cn- -Xn-\v D m-b Imc-Ww tb-ip-hn-s kz-`mh-sø H-cp Iq Zz-bkz-`m-h-sa- pw, a-s -Iq- G-I-kz-`m-hw F pw itn- -Xn-s\ Xp-S - mwv. tb-ip H-tc ka-bw a-\p-jy\pw ssz-h-hp-am-bn-cp- p F- hm-z-øn-\v A-Sn-ÿm-\-ambn- -d- ]-e Im-c-W-ß-fn H v, {Iq-in h- v tb-ip Zm-ln- p- p F- p ]-d- -XmWv. tb-ip b- Ym - -Øn ssz-h-am-bn-cp- p F pw a-\p-jy-\mbn A-h-X-cn- -tx-bp- p F- G-I-kz`m-h hm-zw \- S-Øn-bh Cu hm-n-i-øn-\v a-s m-cp hym-jym-\-am- Wv I- Xv.

15 {Iq-in In-S -t mƒ tb-ip ]-d- -samgn- I-fn X-s i-co-cm-h-iy-øn-\p-th- n ]-d- G-I-hmN-Iw C-Xm-bn-cp p. F-\n- p t\m-hp- p F-t m, Atøm F-\n- p th-z-\n- p- p Ft m, tb-ip-hn-\p Ae-dn ]-d-bm-\p- F m km-l-n-cy-ßfpw D- m-bn-cp p. X-te- p `- - Ww I-gn- -Xn-\p-tijw Cu ka-bw h-sc H-cp Ij-Ww A w-t]mepw `- n- m km-[n- m- Ø tb-ip-hn-\v F-\n- p hn-i- p- p F-s - nepw ]-d-bm-am-bn-cp p. A-ß-s\-bp- sxm pw ]-d-bm-sx tb-ip {Iq-in InS- p ]-d- {]-kn- am-b Ggp-sam-gn-I-fn X-\n- p th- n ]-d- G-I-hm-NIw, F-\n- p Zmln- p- p F- m-wv. Cu hmn-iw D- -cn -Xv tbm-l- m-s kp-hn-ti-j-øn am-{x-amwv. A-t±-lw kp-hn-ti-jw F-gp-Xnb-Xv F.Un. 110 B-bn-cp p. A-Xmb-Xv tb-ip-{iq-in- -s - -Xn- \p F-gp-]-Xp-h -jw I-gn- m-wv A-t±-lw kphn-ti-jw F-gp-Xn-bXv. a- p aq- p kp-hn-ti-jß-fnepw D- -cn- m-ø Cu hm-niw, ]u-temkn-s H-cp te-j-\-ønepw D- -cn- m-ø Cu hmn-iw tbm-l- m am{xw D- -cn- -Xn F- s - nepw Im-c-W-ap-t m F- p Rm A- t\z-jn- n- p v. tb-ip Po-hn- n-cp- -t mƒ th-sd k-μ -`ß-fn Zm-ln- bpw hn-i- p-ibpw sn-bv-xn-cp- B-fm-sW- v kp-hn-ti-j-ß-fn kq-n-\-ifp v. i-a-cy-bnse kp-jm (Sukhar) ]- -W-Øn sn- -t mƒ In-W- n \n pw sh- w tim-cp- -Xn-\p h- ia-cy kv-{xo-tbm-sv tb-ip F-\n- p Ip-Sn- m Ipd- p sh- w Xcptam F p tnm-zn p. i-a-cy mtcm-sv b-lq-z- m sxm- p-iq-smbv-a B-N-cn- n-cp- Ime-am-bn-cp p. AXp-sIm- v B-kv-{Xo- v A- p-xw txm n. A-h X-Ωn Cu Im-cy-sØ - n kw-kmcn p I-gn- -t mƒ tb-ip A-h-tfm-Sv ]-d Xv Cu sh- w Ip-Sn- p- -h F mw ]n-s bpw Zm-ln- pw. {Iq-in In-S -t mƒ tb-ip ]-d- -samgn-i-fn X-s i-cocm-h-iy-øn-\p-th- n ]-d- G- I-hmN-Iw C-Xm-bn-cp p. F-\n- p t\m-hp- p F-t m, Atøm F-\n- p th-z-\n- p- p Ft m, tb-ip-hn-\p Ae-dn ]-d-bm-\p- F m km-l-n-cy-ßfpw D- m-bncp p. X-te- p `- -Ww I-gn- -Xn-\p-tijw Cu ka-bw h-sc H-cp Ij-Ww A w-t]mepw `- n- m km-[n- m-ø tb-iphn-\v F-\n- p hn-i- p- p F- s - nepw ]-d-bm-am-bn-cp p. A- ß-s\-bp- -sxm pw ]-d-bm-sx tb-ip {Iq-in InS- p ]-d- {]-kn- am-b Ggp-sam-gn-I-fn X-\n- p th- n ]-d- G-Ihm-NIw, F-\n- p Zm-ln- p- p F- m-wv. F- m Rm sim-sp- p- sh- w Ip-Sn- m ]n- o-sv H-cp \mfpw Zm-ln- -bn. A-Xv A-h-\n \n-xy- Po-h-\n-te- p \nd- p h-cp- \o-cp-d-h B-bn- Øocpw. Cu kw-`-h-øn \n pw sh-fnhm-b c- p Im-cy߃; H- v tb-ip-hn-\v b-ym - -Øn im-co-cn- Iam-b Zm-l-ap- m-bn-cp- Xp-sIm- m-wv kv-{xo-tbm- Sv sh- w tnm-zn- Xv. c v, Cu k-μ -`w D-]-tbm-Kn- v Zm-l-sØ- - n-bp- D- -X-am-b a-s m-cp Z i-\w tb-ip A-hn-sS {]-I-Sn- n- -Xv \n-߃- p b-ym - - Øn D- m-ti- Zm-lw Poh-\p- sh-f-f-øn-\p th- nbmh-ww F- -Xm-bn-cp p. tb-ip-hn-s ]c-ky ip-{iqj-bp-ss Im-e-ß-fn in-jy mtcm-sv bp-km- y-sø - n kw-kmcn p-sim- n-cp- k-μ -`-Øn c- p hn-`n- P-\-ßsf A-t±lw `m-h-\-bn I p. H-cp Iq- -sc - n A-t±-lw Cß-s\ ]- d p. F-\n- p Zm-ln- -t mƒ \n-߃ F-\n- p Ip-Sn- m X p. a-s -Iq- -sc - n A-t±-lw ]-d -Xv F-\n- p Zm-ln- t mƒ \n-߃ F-\n- p Ip-Sn- m X- n. C-h c pw {K- 15 sabv 2018

16 ln- p-hm in-jy- m - p km-[n- m- -t mƒ tbip hn-i-zo-i-cn -Xv C-ßs\-bmWv. \n-ß-fp-ss C-S-bn ]-Z-ß-fm-bn Im-Wp- hym-jym-xm- ƒ D- v. ssz-h- -Xpw, \n-xy-po-h F -Xp kam-\ A - -ap- G- hpw _-e-lo-\cm-b B-fp-Iƒ- p \n-߃ sn-øp- tøm-sp-iq-ss-bp- a-\p-jy-s Po-hn-X-am-Wv \n-xy- -sxm-s bpw F-\n- p sn-øp- -Xpw, a-dn- v A-h - Po-h F- v A-h hym-jym-\n- p Xv. p-th- n H pw sn-øm-xn-cp- m A-Xv F-\n- p A-ß-s\-bm-sW- n ssz-h-tøm-sp Iq-Sn a-\p-jy th- n \n-߃ H pw sn-bv-xn F pw A-s{X. Po-hn-Xw tn - p -Xp h-gn \n-xy-po-h-\n-te- p- tbm-l- m tb-ip ]-d- F-\n- p Zm-ln- p- D-d-h Xp-d p-i F- ZuXyw B-Wv tb-ip ]q -Øo- p F- - hmn-iw D- -cn- p- -Xn-s ]- mø-ew I-cn- Xv. {Iq-io-I-c-W-Øn-s G- hpw D-Zm-Øam-b Iq-Sn C-Ø-cp-W-Øn Im-tW- -XmWv. tbm-l- m `m-hw tb-ip F- a-\p-jy {Iq-in In-S p-sim- 19:28. A-Xn-\p-ti-jw k-i-ehpw ]q -Øn-bm-bn-cn- p- v X-s Zu-Xy-\n -Δ-l-W-Øn kw-xr-]v-xn {]-I- p F- -dn- v Xn-cp-sh-gp-Øp \n-d-th- p- -Xn-\v Sn- n- p- -Xm-bn-cp p. tb-ip-hn Iq-Sn sszh-sø th n F-\n- p Zm-ln- p- p F- p ]d p. G-Xv Z -in- m km-[n- p- H-cp cw-k-am-wv {Iq-in \- Xn-cp-sh-gp-Øm-Wv AXn-t\mS-Iw \n-d-th- nb-xv F- v ap- v Im-Wp-hm km-[n- p- Xv. ^n-en-t m-kv am ]cn-tim-[n- m k- o -Ø-\w 69mw A- ym-b-øn-s {In-tkm-kv- w hen-b sa-{xm-t m-en-øm H-cn- C- 21 mw hm-iy-øn Cß-s\ Im-Wp p. F-\n- p Zmln- -t mƒ A-h F-\n- p ]p-fn- ho- p \ In. hpw a-l-\o-bam-b cq-]w a-\p-jy-\n Iq-Sn F-\n- {]-Im-cw ]-d p. R-߃ tb-ip-hn Z -in- G- A-tX A- ym-b-øn-s 19 ap-x 21 h-sc-bp- hm- p sszh-sø a-\- n-em- m km-[n- p F- -XmWv. Iy-߃ Zm-ho-Zv c-nn -Xv {Iq-io-I-c-W-k-a-b-Øn-\p ssz-hw a-\p-jy-\m-bn F-\n- p Im-Wm Rm B- th- n ap -Iq- n \-SØn-b H-cp `m-h-\ B-bn-cp- p {K-ln- p- G- hpw a-tlm- -Xam-b cq-]-hpw, `m-hhpw F v kv] P F- hn-iz-{]-kn- \m-b k- o -Ø- tb-ip X-s -bmwv. A-ß-s\-bm-sW- n {Iq-in \ hym-jym-xm-hv ]-d- n- p v. In-S p-sim- v tb-ip F-\n- p Zm-ln- p- p F- p ]-d -Xv im-co-cn-iam-b Zm-l-am-bn-cp- n. A-Xv sszh-øn-s Zm-l-am-bn-cp p. ssz-hw X-s Zu-Xy-\n - {Iq-io-I-c-W-tØm-Sp-Iq-Sn X-s ZuXyw ]q -Ønbm- n F- kw-xr-]v-xn tb-ip-hn-\p- m-b-xn-\p tijw tb-ip ]-d- -hm-n-i-amwv F-\n- p Zm-ln- p- Δ-l-W-Øn-\p Xnc-s -Sp-Ø tb-ip X-s G - n- {]-hr-øn-iƒ ]q -Øo-I-cn- p I-gn- -t mƒ a-\pjy-s ho-s -Sp- n-\p th- n ]n-xmhmb ssz-h-øn- p F v. A-ß-s\-bm-sW- n A-t m-gp m-b Zmlw tih-ew im-co-cn-iam-b tb-ip-hn-s Zm-l-am-bncp- n. a-\p-jy-h KØn-s ho-s -Sp- n-\p-th- n ]n- \p m-b Zm-l-Øn-s {]-Xn-[z-\n-bm-Wv \mw tb-iphn Iq-Sn ti- Xv. a-\p-jy-cm-in \n-xy-po-h-\n-te- v Xmhmb ssz-h-øn-\p m-b Zm-lw tb-ip {]-I-Snh-cp-hm-\p ssz-h-øn-s A-`u-a-am-b, A-{]Xn-tcm- n p-i am-{x-am-wv sn-bv-xxv. a-\p-jy-cm-in ssz-hcm-py-øn-te pw A-Xph-gn \n-xy-po-hn-x-øn-te pw [yam-b hm- -bp-ss iw-j-\m-z-am-bn-cp p F-\n- p Zmln- p- p F- hm-n-i-øn Iq-Sn apg-ßn ti- Xv. \-bn- s -Sp- -Xn-\v ]n-xm-hv tb-ip-hn-s\ G-ev]n- Zu-Xy-am-Wv tb-ip ]q -Øo-I-cn- Xv. ssz-h-cmpyw F {IntkmÃw Xncp-ta\n ]s -SpØ Hcp ktω-f-\-øn Hcp s] Ip n \ mbn Um kv snøp- Ibpw ]m p ]msp-ibpw snbvxp. ]cn-]msn F mw Ign p Xncp-ta\n B s] Ip- nsb hnfn `n-\-μn- p. IqsS Xncp-ta\n c p Imcy-ßfpw IqSn ]d- p. \o kpμ-cn-bm-wv. \o C n-cn- p- - {Ukv at\m-lc-am-bn-cn- p- p. Ip nbv v CXn IqSp-X F v A\p-tam-Z-\-amWv In p-hm. Ip n kt mjw sim p Xp n- m-sn-sb v ]d-bp- -XmWv icn. Ip n ho n sn v A -t\mspw AΩ-tbmSpw C mcyw ] n- p. amxm-]n-xm- - m pw henb kt m-jw. Ip n amxm-]n-xm- -tfmsv c p Imcyw Bh-iy-s - p. H v, {]mb-am-ip-tºmƒ Fs hnhmlw \S-tØ- Xv {IntkmÃw Xncp-ta-\n-bm-bn-cn- -Ww. c v, Xncp-ta\n \ {Ukm-sW v ]d Cu {Ukv Xs -bm-hww hnhm-l-øn\p Rm D]-tbm-Kn- p-i. amxm-]n- Xm- ƒ ]d- p. {IntkmÃw Xncp-ta\n A s - n A v Xncp-ta-\nsb \ns I ymww \S-Øphm Wn- mw. \ns A`n-\-μn Imcyw ]d-bp-tºmƒ Xncp-ta\n ht - mw. c m-asø Imcyw \ns {Ukns Imcy-am-Wv. A v \n\ v Cu {Ukv tnc-øn-. C v \ -sx v Xncp-ta\n ]d- Xv C sø kmlncy-øn-em-wv. Cu DZm-l-cWw thz-]p-kvxiw ]Tn- p- -h a\- n-em- -Ww. thz- ]p-kvx-i-øn ]d-bp Imcy-߃ A sø kmaqlni kmkvim-cni Ncn{X Imcy-߃ A]-{K- Yn p thww a\- n-em- p-hm. ss_ªn- sl a-\yq- nivkv AXmWv snøp- -Xv. knf-kvsf kn\uns B`n-ap-Jy-Øn snss -bn \S ]cn-ÿnxn sszh-imkv{x ]T\ If-cn-bn dh tum tamøn h n ]d- Xv sabv

17 tum.-sn.-sn. tpmk^v am\-h-tk-h-\-øns DZmØ amxri ae- c am tømωm kpdn-bm\n k`-bpss 2017se am\-h-tkh Ahm Un\v A l-\mb tumivs Xs \q n-c mw hb-knepw I Ω-\n-c-X-\m-Wv. a - -f-fn v ASpØ apc-wn-bn amxm-]n-xm- -fpss 10 m asø ai-\mbn P\n Ip - F Hma\ t]cp- Im-c amxm-hns B{K-l-{]-Imcw sszhthebv mbn PohnXw Dgn- p-h- p. Xan-gv\m- n am tømωm k`-bpss BZysØ kphn-ti-j-{]-h - Ø\w Bcw-`n- Xv s]mf-fm- n-bn-emwv. kphn-ti-j- {]Nm-c-W-Øn\v \nc- cw b-xv\n hy n-bmwv tpmk^v. sszhw \ Inb \ Ifpw -k-ºøpsa mw kphn-ti-j-{]-h Ø-\-߃ p- th n hn p-sim- Sp- p-hm bmsxmcp ssha-\kyhpw At±lw Im nbn Fgp-]-Øn-c p h jsø tkh-\-øn \n pw e`n Xp -amb hcp-am-\-øns Zimw-i- Øn \n pw At±lw the-sn-bvxn-cp hs- n-]mf-b-øn Ipd p ÿew hmßpibpw at\m-l-c-amb Hcp anj `h-\w \n Ωn- pibpw snbvxp ]me- m v {InkvXp-Zmk B{i-a- Øn Hcp k - -kp-hn-ti-j-i-\mbn mbn-cp p XpS- w. hyxy-ÿ-xbm ip{iq-j-i-fn-eqss At\Iw Pohn-X-߃ v B ym-fln-i-x-bp-ssbpw Poh-Im-cp- Wy-Øn-s bpw hgn-i-fn-eqss {]tnm-z-\hpw km z- \hpw \ In. B{i-a-Ønse Xma-khpw Pohn-X-co- Xnbpw B-{i-amw-K-ß-fp-am-bp-ff kvt\l-_- hpw B{i-a-hp-ambn At±-lsØ KmV-ambn _ n- n- p. Hcp thmf n-bdmbpw Aw-K-am-bpw, ÿncmw-k-ambpw HSp-hn tkh-i-\mbpw ip{iqj snøp- -Xn-\pff Ah-k-chpw `mkyhpw e`n- p. ]Øp h jsø B{ia-hp-ambn _ -s - p-ff Pohn-X-amWv tpmk- ^ns\ cq]-s -Sp-Øn-b-Xpw, cq]m- -c-s -Sp-Øn-bXpw. Cu Ime-b-f-hn A ym-]-i-]-cn-io-e-\hpw, tlmantbm- -Xn, -su n-ãdn {]m-howyhpw t\sn. e`n sshzy]cn-io-e\w ]n osv ]me- m v Hcp su tlmantbm n\n v Bcw-`n- p-hm Imc-W-am-bn. \yqhn-j am-kn-ibv v th n Ct±-l-hpam-bp-ff Hcp -Iq-Sn-Im-gvNbv v s]mf-fm- n-bn almenw-k-]p-cøv ap Xmw \º sxcp-hnse ho n R߃ sn p-tºmƒ At±-lw {]`m-x-øn-ep-ff Ipfnbpw Ign v hkv{xhpw amdn ]qap-jøv h ncn- p-i-bmbn-cp- p. kabw GXm v ]tø-ap- m. hfsc {]-k hz-\-\mbn Rßsf kzoi-cn ncp-øn. A-Ω- n-bpw C-d-ßn-h- v R-ß-tfm-sSm- w-iq-sn. Xan-gv\m- n \qdp hb-kp-hsc Pohn- p- Ibpw Btcm-Ky-tØmsS Ccn- p-ibpw snøp Hcmsf sszh-xp-ey-\mbn mwv ImWp- -Xv. AXpsIm v ChnsS tumivs Hcp sim p-sszhamwv. ]ecpw A\p-{Klw hmßp-hm\pw {]m n- phm\pw At±-l-Øns ASp- hcpw. \qdmw ]nd mƒ BtLmjw BZysØ the kvye-amb hs- n-]m-fbw ]f-fn-bpss ssaxm-\sø ] -enembn-cp p s]mxp ktω-f-\-øn henb Xncpta-\nbpw k n-ln-x-\m-bn-cp- p. A v Xan-gv\mSv \nb-a-k-`-bnse U]yq n kv]o -dm-bn-cp Fw.- F. F h v Ipºn v hw-ßn-b-t mƒ Xncp-ta\n At±-l-tØmSv tnmzn p F mwv Cßs\ snøp- -sx- v. At±lw Xncp-ta-\n-tbmSv ]d- Xv Xangv\m- nse acym-z-{]imcw ]q Æ Btcm-Ky-tØmsS \qdmw hbkv ]n n-sp- -h sszh-x-pey BsW mbncp- p. ]g-b-im-cy-߃ A - Hm p pt m? Fs sndp w apx-ep-ff Imcy-߃ Hs hy -ambn Hm p- p- v. Hm abv v Hcp Du\hpw X n-bn- n-. snhnbv v \ tiƒhn-bpw IÆn\v \ ImgvN-bpap- v. Xan-gv\m- nte v hcm ImcWw 1947 ImeØv Xan-gv\m- n s]mffm n Xmeq- n tπkv F v ]I -hym[n s]m n ]pd-s - p. sshzy-k-lm-b-øns A`mh-Øn At\-Iw-t] 17 sabv 2018

18 acn- p. s]mf-fm- nbv v ASp-Øp-ff ]pdhn ]mfbønse \m p-cm-pmhv Fs kao-]n v sshzyk-lm-b-an- msx acn- p-sim- n-cn- p- Xs P\- ßsf c n- p-hm IS- p-h-c-w-sa- -`y n- p. A`y \ kzoicn v Znh-tk\ D -I-gn v \m pcm-pmhv Ab- h n-bn ]m-e- m p \n pw t]mbn tcmkn-isf NnIn kn- p-sim- n-cp- p. Aß-s\-bncns s]mf-fm- nbv v ASp-Øp-ff hs- n-]m-fbw F {Kma-Øn Hcp tcmknsb t\m n acp v simspøn v ]nt -Zn-hkw AXns ]ptcm-kxn t\m p-hm sn p-tºmƒ sxm v ASp-Ø-ho- n \n pw Hcp bphm-hns ihw FSpØp sim p-t]m- Ip ImgvN-bmWv I -Xv. hnhcw At\zjn -t mƒ tπkv tcmk-øm ac-w-s - -Xm-sW- -dn- p. F psim v Xte-Zn-hkw ASp-Ø-ho- n h -t mƒ NnIn k v Fs Adn-bn- n F v tnmzn- -t mƒ tumivssd hnfn- m ssibn h p-x-cm Hcp cq]m t]mepw C m-ø-xn-\m-em-sw v Ic- p- sim v B AΩ ]d p. CXv F\n v henb Hcm-LmXambn. Zp:JnX-\mbn Rm AhnsS \n -t mƒ BtcmFt msv ]d-bp- -Xmbn txm n You do it freely AXv sszh-i-_vz-a- msx as m- m-bn-cp- n F v Rm Xncn- -dn- p.a[niw Xma-kn-bmsX \m p-cm-pm-hns klm-b-tømspw HØm-i-tbmSpw IqSn hs- n-]m-f-bøv Hcp n\n v Bcw-`n- p. t{kkv saun- lmƒ F v t]cpw \ In. DZvLm-S-\-Øn\v h p-iq-snb-h-tcmsv Rm ]d p {]nbsc \n߃ Fs amxmhpw ]nxmhpw ktlm- Z-c\pw ktlm-z-cn-bp-am-wv. AXp-sIm v C\n-ta NnIn kbv vh-cp BtcmSpw Rm ]Ww tnmzn- -bn-. ]W-an- m-ø-xp-sim v NnIn kbv v hcm- Xn-c-n bpw snø-cp-xv. Bcpw acp v In msx acn- p-hm CS-bm-I-cp-Xv. tumivs v Hcp cq]m -simsp- m-\n- -t m-sb v Icp-Xn-b-Xn-\m-emWv Ign bmgvn-bn Hcp ktlm-z-c ac-w-s - -Xv. C\n Cu Bip-]-{Xn-bn hcp- -h bmsxmcp ^okpw Xtc- -Xn-. ^okv tnmzn- Ibpan-. Ign-hp-f-f-h Bip-]-{Xn-bpsS \S-Øn- n-\mbn kw`m-h\ X m am{xw kzoi-cn- pw. Cß-s\-t]m-bm A[nIw Xmakn-bmsX AS- p-]q-t - n-hcpw F p-ff Hcp kvt\ln-xs hna i-\-øn\v Rm ]d p sszh- Øn am{xw B{i-bn psim- mwv Rm\nXv Bcw- `n- n-cn- p- -Xv. sszh-ir] F mwv CXn\v t]cn- n-cn- p- -Xv. hnizm-k- -Øn ]Øp h jw Pohn- -h- \mwv Rm. ] n-wnbpw {]bm-k-ßfpw A\p-`-hn- n- p- v. H nepw `b-s -SmsX sszh-øn am{xw Bi-bn v apt -dm-sa- p-ff hnizmkw F\n- p- v. XpS v CXv Hcp {_m mbn s]mf-fm- n-bn-te v am n. Rm sxmæq- n-sbm ]Xv hb-kp-hsc AhnsS {]miv okv snbvxp. IqsS `mcy Ip - Ωbpw. Ct mƒ tumivs-dmb ai Gs -SpØp \S- sabv Øp- p. hnhm-l-po-hn-xøns Hm a-iƒ Fs mw? hnhm-l-sø- n Nn n- -t mƒ hfsc i - bp- m-bn-cp- p. bmsxmcp hcp-am-\-hp-an- msx Rm Fßs\ IpSpw-_-Po-hnXw \bn pw? Fs BZ i߃ \p-k-cn v Pohn- p-hm GsX- nepw s] Ip- n- X-øm-dm-Iptam? Hcp ]cnjv m-c-hp-an- m- Ø, sshzypxn t]mep-an- mø Cu Ip{Km-a-Øn Bcp-h- p- Xm-a-kn pw. Cu tnmzy-߃ Hs Fs Ae- n-b-t mgpw hnhm-l-po-hn-x-øn-te v IS- -W-sa \n _ w IqSn- qsn h p. Rm-s\mcp Xocp-am\w FSp-Øp. Fs hnizmk{]am-wsø AwKo-I-cn- p-hm\pw ] n-wn-in-s v acn- m k - -Xbp `uxni Poh-nX-Øn bmsxmcp Db bpw B{K-ln- m-ø-h-fp-amb Hcp s] Ip- n- h-cn-i-bm-sw- n hnhmlw Ign- pw F -Xmbncp p B Xocp-am-\w. F m Imcy-ßfpw Dƒs m-ffn v Ccp-]-Øn-sbm p tnmzy-߃ Xbm-dm n. CXns\ mw Xr]vXn-I-c-amb adp-]sn Xcp s] Ip- nsb hnhmlw Ign- m-sa v ho p-im-tcmsp ]d- p. ho p-im Btem-Nn v c v aq- n-s-ß-fn s]æp-im- Wm t]mbn. s] Ip- n-tbbpw amxm-]n-xm- tfbpw CcpØn Fs Xocp-am\w ]d- p.rm\p- m- nb Ccp-]-Øn-sbm p tnmzy-߃ Hmtcm- mbn tnmzn- p-hm XpS-ßpw \me p tnmzy-߃ BIptºm-tg pw CsXm pw \S- m-ø- Im-cy-߃ BsW v ]d v Ah tz-jy-s - p-t]m-ipw. A p cq]m-bn IqSp-X hne-bp-ff kmcn DSp- p-hm ]msn F p-ff BZysØ tnmzyw- ap-x tpmenbp-s n Dt]- n- p-hm Xøm-dmtWm F Ccp-]-Øn-sbm masø tnmzyw hscbp-ff hnizmk-{]-amww A\p-k-cn v Pohn- p-hm Bcpw Xømdm-bn-. Ip Ω BZyw Ccp-]Xp tnmzy-߃ v Xr]vXn-I-c-ambn adp-]sn \ In. ]s ti{μ -K-hs n ss-en-{km^v Un m vsa n \ iº-ftøm-ss-iq-sn-bp-ff tpmen Dt]- n- p-hm BZyw asn Ip Ω Ah-km\w AXn\v kω-x-am-sw v Adn-bn- -txmss 1950 HIvtSm-_ 19\v hnhmlw \S- p. IpSpw-_-Po-hnXØns Pohn-X-c-lkyw Rm I m-bn tlman-tbm-s m-xnbpss D]-cn-]-T-\Øn\p tn -t mƒ Ip -Ωbv tlman-tbm- tim-tf-pnepw AUvan-j\v In n. `mcybpw Hcp tumivs-dm-bn-cp-s - n {]h Ø-\-cwKw Iptd- qsn hn]p-eo-i-cn- m-sa Fs tamlw ]qh-wnbm CXv Imc-W-am-bn. Ign Adp-]-Øn-tbgp h j-ambn F pw cm{xn Dd-ßp- -Xn\v apºv A - sø Imcy-߃ R߃ XΩn ] p-h-bv p ]Xnhv D m-bn-cp- p. C pw B NnSv XpScp p. Fs mw A`n-{]m-

19 b-hy-xymkap m-bmepw Dd-ßp- -Xn\v apºv AXv ]cn-l-cn s - n-cn pw. Ct mƒ ai\pw IpSpw-_hpw IqsS Xma-kn- p- p. aiƒ IpSpw-_-ambn ]me- m v Xma-kn- p- p.acn- p-tºmƒ Rm\pw Ip -Ωbpw Hcp-an v acn- pitbm As - n ASp-Ø-SpØv acn- p-itbm snøwsa- -mwv Rß-fpsS B-{Klw. ac-wm-\- c Pohn-XsØ n-bp-ff {]Xymi? kz K-Øn t]mip-sa v F\n v Dd hnizmkw D v. ]t AhnsS sn p-tºmƒ F{Xt] v Cu hgn ImWn- p-sim-sp-øn- p v F p-ff tnmzyw Fs apºn Ct mgpw Ah-ti-jn- p- p. Ipsd-t sc hnizm-k-øn-te v sim p-h-cp-hm F\n v Ign- n- p- v. Ct mgpw I Øm-hn\v IS- m-c-\mwv F t_m yw F\n- p- v. Cu {]mb- Ønepw F m Bthmfw {]b-xv\n- p- p. [mcmfw A\p-`-h-k-º-Øp-ff Hcm-sf \ne-bn A - s\ kv] in Hcp kw`hw? sxmæq- n-\memw hb-kn F\n v D mb Hc-\p-`hw ]d-bmw, Hcp cm{xn-bn F\n v lrz-b- Øn\v sndnb BL-mX-ap- m-bn. ]nt -Zn-hkw Bip- ]-{Xn-bn t]mbn C.-kn.-Pn. ]cn-tim-[n lrt{zm-khn-z-kv, lrz-b-øn\v XI-cm-dp-s pw DSs\ sf.-kn. bp hn AUvan v snøwsa pw Hm -tdj AXymh-iy-am-sW pw ]d- p. Rm tumivstdmsp ]d p \n߃ Fs - nepw acp v \n t±in- m axn Rm ho n t]mbn InS p acn-t mfmw. acn- m F\n v `b-an-. sf.-kn.bphn InS- m Btcbpw ImWm km[y-a- -t m. aq p e w cq]m NnIn km-sn-ehp hcpw. AXp aps- m CjvS-an- m-ø-xp-sim- mtwmsb v Hcp tumivs tnmzn- p.rm ]d p sszhw F\n v C{Xbpw Bbpkv X -Xn kwxr-]vx-\m-wv. C\nbpw Pohn- -W-sa v sszh-øn-\n-jvs-ap-s n Rm Pohn- pw. Rm ho n t]mbn {]m n pw, tlmantbm acp v Ign pw Ign- p-iq-sn. ho pw ssãn\v sn -t mƒ Fs lrt{zmkw amdn-b-xmbn I p. Fs Bbpkv \o m aq p e w cq]m BIp-sa v ]d- Xv Fs kv] in- p. B aq p e w cq]m Rm kzcq-]n v aq p \ Imcy߃ mbn sne-h-gn- p. hnhmlw \S-Øm Ignhn- msx Ign Hcp s] Ip- n-bpss hnhmlw \S- Øn-sIm-Sp-Øp. hosn- msx ZpcnXw A\p-`-hn- p Hcp IpSpw-_sØ Is Øn Ah p hosp-sh- psim-spøp. D]-cn-]-T\w B{K-ln- p Hcp km[p- Ip- nsb Is Øn. πãq Ign v ]Tn- m \nhrøn-bn- msx hnj-an- p Hcp ka \mb Ip n v Ahs B{K-l-{]-Imcw _ntimw+ kn.f timgvkn\v tn p ]Tn- n- p-hm km[n- p. ]mkmb-tijw e`n tpmen ths v sh v sszh-hn-fnti v kphn-ti-j-th-e- nd-ßn. Ct mƒ anj-\dn A -\m-im Xntbm-f-Pn v snss -bn ]Tn- p- p. Aßs\ aq p-e w cq]- n-fhv \ Inb sszh- Øn\v \μn ]d v aq p \ Imcy-߃ snbvxp. sszh-øn hniz-kn- p- -hsc sszhw Hcp \mfpw ssihn-sp-i-bn sb p-ffxn\v ]e A\p-`-h-߃ A - s Pohn-X-Øn D m-bn- p- t m AXn Hc-\p-`hw ] p-sh-bv mtam? ]Ømw mkn ]Tn- p-sim- n-cp Hcp s] Ip n (kn- p) Ae Pn-bpsS NnIn kbv mbn Fs n\n- n hcp-am-bn-cp- p. tcmkw ]cn-]q Æ-ambn amdm Ipsd-\mƒ acp- p-i-gn- Wambn-cp- p. n\n- n hcp-tºmƒ Hs bpw F mw hfsc {i -tbmss Ahƒ ho n- p-am-bncp- p. ]Ømw mkns ]co- -bn \ am v e`n- m {]m n- -W-sa v Ahƒ ]d- p. ]mkmbn πãqhn\v tn -t mƒ Ahƒ Ft msv ]d p Ahƒ pw Fs -t mse Hcp tumivs-dm- I-W-sa- v. F- mwv AXn-\p-ff DtØ-P\w F v tnmzn- -t mƒ ]d p ChnsS hcp ]e tcmkn- Ifpw hfsc {]i-kvx-cmb tumivs am NnIn kn- p -t`-z-am-imsx hcnibm-sw v ]d-bp- Xv ti n- p- v. AXn\v tumivs ]-d-bp adp-]sn Rm {i n- n- p- v. Ah-tc- mƒ Hcp tbmky-xbpw F\n- n-. F m sszh-øn B{i-bn v Rm acp v \ Imw. sszh-øn hniz-kn- p- -hsc sszhw ssihn-sp-i-bn- -sb v ]d v tumivs Ah v acp v simsp- p- Xpw Ah kujyw {]m]n- p- Xpw {i n- n- p- v. Ah v tumivs-tdm- Sp-ff kvt\lhpw Icp-Xepw Fs hfsc BI jn- p. {]Xn-^-te IqSmsX tumivs-sd -t]mse ]mhßsf ip{iq-jn v kujy-am- p-hm F\n pw B- {K-l-ap- v. F\n pw Hcp tumivs-dm-iww tumivs F\n- p-th n {]m n- m sszhw tiƒ p-sa v F\n v Dd- p-s pw Ahƒ ]d- p. CXp-tI v Ah-fpsS A ]d p \o F p {`m mwv ]dbp- Xv Rm ]mh-s - -h-\mwv,h-enb ]Tn-Ø-Øns\m pw \ns hn v ]Tn- n- p-hm Fs ssibn ]W-an-. th mø tamlw a\- n Icp-tX m Ahƒ H pw ]d-bmsx kam-[m-\-tømss t]mbn. ASp-Ø -X-hW n\n- n h -t mƒ Ahƒ ]d p tumivs F\n- p-th n {]m n- -Ww. AXv C{]-Imcw thww. F\n v πãq-hn\v \ am v e`n- -Ww. Fw.-_n.-_n.-F-kn\v AUvan-j In Ww Fs A s ssibn ]W-an-. AXn- \m A s\ _p n-ap- n- msx F\n v Fw.-_n.- _n.-f-kv. ]Tn- m-\p-ff hgn sszhw Is -Ø-Ww. sszhw Xo -bmbpw {]m \ tiƒ pw. Ah-fpsS hnizmkw I v Rm kvx_v - \mbn \nd a\-t mss {]m n- p. Ahƒ Hcp km[m-cw kviqfn ]Tn- p- p. AXn-k-a -bp- 19 sabv 2018

20 a-. Zcn-{ZbpamWv. Ahƒ Bh-iy-s -Sp- -sx mw sszhw hnnm-cn- m am{xta km y-am-iq. {]m n v Ign v kam-[m-\-tømss Ahƒ t]mbn. πãq ]co Ign v Ipd- p-\mƒ Ign- t mƒ Ahƒ Ah-fpsS A -t\bpw AΩ-tbbpw Hcp t^mt m-{km-^-tdbpw Iq n n\n- n h p. Rm Bh-iy-s - -sx mw XmØ sszh-tømsp {]m n- nt? sszhw {]m -\- ti p F\n v πãqhn\v tã n aq mw dm v In n. Fw._n.-_n.- Fkn\v -K-h-s v timtf-pn Xs AUvan-j e`n- p. aq mw dm v hsc-bp-f-f-h v Kh-s v kvtimf jn- p- v. Hcp ss]kmbpw aps- msx F\n v tumivs-dm-imw. A s\ _p n-ap- n-t - - Xn-. CXp ti v kt m-j-øm Rm Ic- pt]m-bn. F\n v XmØ-bpsS IqsS \n v Hcp t^mt m F-Sp- -Ww. F n v B t^mt m Cu n\n- n hbv -Ww. Bsc- nepw tnmzn- p-tºmƒ {]m \ tiƒ p sszh-ap-s v Fs IY- ]-d v Gh-tcbpw sszh-hn-izm-k-øn sim ph-c-ww. Cu Ip ns hnizmkw I v Rm hm-b-\- m-cp-ss {i- -bv- v \yp hn-j am-kn-i- v hmb-\- m {Ia-ambn \ Ip kw-`m-h-\-ifpw kl-i-cww sim- p-am-wv 1992 ap- X H-cp e- -hpw ap-s-ßm-sx Ign Ccp-]-Øn-b p h jw R߃ v {]kn- o-i-cn- m- km[n- -Xv. ti-c-f-øn \n- v {]-kn- o-i-cn- p- ss{i-kv-x-h {]-kn- o-i-c-w-ß-fn G- - hpw an-i- -sx- v km-aq-lni kmw-kv-im-cn-i km-ap-zm-bn-i t\- Xm- ƒ km- y-s -Sp-Øp- -Xv R-߃- -`n-am-\w \ -Ip- p. \yq-hn-j am-kn-i- v H-cp h -j-tø- v 200 cq-]-bpw c- p h -j-tø- v 350 cq-]-bpw aq- v h -j-tø- v 500 cq-]- bp-am-wv \ ti- -Xv. kw-`m-h-\-bpw h-cn-kw-jy-bpw _m- v h-gn-bm-bn A-b- p- -h -, Rß-fpsS _m p-ifpw A u v \º-dp-Ifpw Zb-hmbn {i n- p-i. SBI Manganam -IFSC:SBIN Account No Federal Bank Kozhencherry- IFSC : FDRL Account No _m- v h-gn ]-Ww A-S- p- -h F- samss_-en-tem F Csa-bnentem hnhcw Adn-bn- Ww. Fkv-Fw-Fkpw Csa-bnepw IqSp-X kuicyw. ]Ww Bcv Ab- -Xm-sW- -dn-bp-hm Cu {Iao-I-cWw hfsc klm-b-i-c-am-wv. sn pw {Um^v pw awn-tbm Udpw Ab- p- -h amt\-p, \yphn-j, ap I- msw aμncw, amßm\w ]n.-h, tim bw F hnem-k-øn Ab- p-i. Cu ip{iqjbv v Xm -fpss ZimwiØn \n pw Hcp ] p kw`m-h-\- bmbn Ab p Xc-W-sa v A`y n p p. Xm -fpss hne-tb-dnb kl-i-cww {]Xo- n p p. amt\-pnmv FUn- timcn-ø-cn- p-t]m-bn- am-{x-a Cu n\n- n hcp- -h v Ahƒ Hcp km y-am-i-w-sa v ]d- Xv Fs hfscb[niw kv] in- p. A - s PohnX clkyw? sszh-øn B{ibw A msx as m- pa m F pw shfp- ns\ \mec v Fgp-t v A p awn apx Bdchsc {]m -\-bnepw [ym\- Ønepw apgp-in-bn-cn- pw. {]bm-k-ßfpw {]iv\-ßfpw hcp-tºmƒ sszhw Ft msp tnmzn pw Rm \nt m-sp-iq-ss-bnt ]ns F n\v hymip-e-s - Sp p CsX-\n v henb Dd pw ss[cyhpw Xcp- p. k o Ø-\- m-c ]d- -Xp-t]mse sszhw ASpØ Xe-ap-d-tbmSv Rm \ns `pp-tøbpw hcphm-\p-ff F m-h-tcmspw \ns hocy-{]-h- Øn-tbbpw Adn-bn- p-thmfw hm -Iyhpw \cbpw Df-f- Im-etØmfw Fs Dt]- n- -cptx F -Xp- Xs bmwv Fs {]m \. B {]m \ sszhw ti p. A`n-apJw \bn- Xv tp _v amωq-s sabv

21 {]tem-`-\-ß-fn \n pw Dƒ m-gvn-bn-te v Hcp Iº-\n-bnse lyqa dntkmgvkv Un- m vsa n Und-Iv -dmwv ^ntbm-w. kpμ-cn-bpw, AXn-k-a bp-amb Ah Iº-\n-bpsSbpw F v. B. Un.bpsSbpw Hgn- p-iq-sm hømø hy n-xz-am-bn-cp- p. Hcp-Zn-hkw Iº-\n-bn-tebv v hcp-tºmƒ Hcp Imd- ]-I-S-Øn Ah X Ww acn- p. Ah-cpsS Bflmhv s]s v Xs ]c-tem-i-sø-øn. ]Xn-hpt]mse sk v ]o Ahsc AI-tØ v Wn- p. ]s Hcp Imcyw At±lw Ah-tcmSv ]d- p. BZyam-bn- mwv Hcp F v. B. Un. Un-d-Iv Chn-sS-sb- Øp- -Xv. AXp-sIm v \nß-fpss Imcyw s]s v Xocp-am-\n- m hnj-a-am-wv. ""F m-bmepw Rm kz K-Øn-te v Ib-ds '' Ah ]d- p. ""AXn F\n v FXn s m- p-an ]s kz K-Øn-te v hcpw aptº Hcp-Zn-hkw \c-ihpw kμ in- -Ww. AXp- I-gn v FhnsS t]miww F v \n߃ v Xocp-am-\n- mw''. sk v ]o ]d- p. Aßs\ At±lw ^ntbm-wsb Hcp Fen-th- -dn Ib n \c-i-øn-te v hn p. Ah Fen-th- -dn \n pw Cd-ßn-bXv at\ml-c-amb Hcp tkmƒ^v timgvkn-te- m-wv. Ah A p- X-tØmsS F mw I p. Ipd- p-zq-sc-bmbn Hcp I {Sn v. AhnsS F m-hcpw Hcp-an v ^ntbm-wsb kt m-j-tømss kzoi-cn- p. Nne h v Ahsc lkvx-zm\w snbvxp. Nne si n- n-sn v BenwK\w snbvxp. ]ecpw kzbw ]cn-n-b-s -Sp-Øp- p. F m-hcp-ss-bpw FIvkn-Iyq- ohv ssãen-ep thjw ^ntbm- Wbv v \ mbn CjvS-s - p. Ah F m-hcpw Iptdt\cw tkmƒ^v Ifn- p. AXn-\p-tijw hn`-h-k-ar- amb Un. tkm^v v {Un vkpw, tlm v {Un vkpw Bhiyw t]mse. F m-hcpw ^ntbm-w-bpss CS-s]- S-en-s\bpw Cw o-jn-ep Bi-b-hn-\n-a-b-sØbpw \ mbn {]iw-kn- p. Ccp-]-Øn-\mev awn- q t]mb- Xdn- n-. F m-hcpw IqsS Ahsc bm{x-bm- n. Fenth- -dn Ah kz K-Øn-se-Øn. C\n kz K-Øn Hcp- Zn-hkw Ign-b-Ww. AhnsS Ah tal-i-ie߃ n-s-bn ]d- p-\-s- amem-j-am-tcm-ssmøv ]m v ]msn. amem-j-am-cpss kwko-txm-]-i-c-w-ß-fpss \mz- {_- -Øn BÀm-Zn v ebn p. Ahn-sSbpw kabw n. tpm Pv _l- m Iu k-e & sxdm- n-ãv t]mb-x-dn- n-. ""C\n \nxyx kz K-Øn-emtWm \c-i-øn-emtwm F Imcyw Ct mƒ \n -bn mw'' sk v ]o ]d- p. ^ntbmw kwi-bm-xo-x-bmbn ]d- p. Rm \ciw Xs Xnc-s -Sp- p- p. ImcWw AsX-\n v hfsc \ m-bn v txm n. sk v ]o Ahsc s]s v Xs Fenth- -dn Ib n Xmtg v hn p. Ah BÀm-Z-tØmsS Fen-th- -dn \n pw Cdßn. Np p-]mspw t\m n. hrøn-si Duj-c-`qan Hcp-`m-K-Øv, N pw Nhdpw Ip p-iqsn InS- p p adp-h-i-øv, No -fn km[- \-߃ NnX-dn- n-s- p- p. a\w asp- n- p Zp K- w. Ah- BZyw I p-ap- nb Iq p-im-cn-iƒ Nm p-hkv{xw [cn v Hcp ssibn sxm n-bpw, adp-ssi-bn Nqepambn N p-n-h-dp-iƒ hmcn Nm n \nd-bv p- p. F mh-cpssbpw apjøv hnjm-z-`m-hw. s]s v kmøm HmSn-h v ^ntbm-w-bpss txmfn ssish v Ahsc kzoi-cn- p. ""Chn-sS-sb- mwv \S- p- -Xv, C se Rm h -t mƒ tkmƒ^v Ifn-bpw, I {Sn pw, Un -dp-sam-s bmwv Rm A\p-`-hn- -Xv. Ah apdp-ap-dp-øp. Fs Iq pimsc mw apjn hkv{xw [cn v ]Wn snøp- p. CsX p ] n. At mƒ kmøm Aev]w ]p ncn-tbmss IÆn-dp n ]d- p. C se \nßsf dn{iq v snøp Znh-k-am-bn-cp- p. C v \n߃ Chn-SpsØ Ãm^mbn ]Wn XpS-ßp- p.'' taml-\-kp-μc hmkvzm\ßsf-bpw, \nd-]-in- m Pohn-X-sØ- - n-bpap hmnm-e-amb hm p- Iƒ - p-d-øp bmym yw a\- n-em- m-\p- \Ωp-sS-sb mw A]-Iz-X-bs \ΩpsS Pohn-X-Øns ]cm-p-bw. CXn\v Hcp kwi-bhpw th. hgn-sx n Ducm- p-sp- p-i-fn FØp bph-x-e-ap-d-bpss A\p- 21 sabv 2018

22 `-h-߃ {]tem-`-\-߃ kωm-\n- -Xp-X-s. {]tem-`- \-ß-fpsS a\x-im-kv{x-h-i-߃ i -am-bn, bp - ambn D]-tbm-Kn- p- -h-cmwv ]cky Iº-\n- m. Bscbpw hogvøm GXv siwnbpw {]tbm-kn- m C q- Xøm-dm-Wv. BZmapw lδmbpw sxm p Zo L-Im-esØ ]mc-º-cy-amwv {]tem-`-\-߃ p- -Xv. \ap v Np p-]mspw {]tem-`-\-ß-fp- v. {]tem- `-\-ßsf ImWm-sX, \ap v Pohn- m km[n- n-. ]s AXns\ ^e-{]-z-ambn ssiimcyw snbvxm AXv \ -bpss hgn-bm-ipw. {]-tem-`-\-ß-fn hogp- h-cpss {][m\ e Ww ]IzX C m-bva-bm-wv. {]tem-`-\-߃ \ Ip hmkvzm-\-ß-fpss A p-d-øp Hcp bym temi-sø- - n-bp Z i-\-an- m-bva-bmwv {]tem-`-\-ß-fn hogm \sω t{]cn- n- p- -Xv. {]tem-`-\-ßsf ]ecpw Ah-k-c-ß-fm n am p- -Xmbn ImWmw. {]tem-`-\-ß-fpw, Ah-k-c-ßfpw hy -ambn th Xn-cn v ImWm \ap v Ign-bp- n-. Ah-k-c-߃ \n߃ v Hcn- se D m-iq. ]s {]tem`-\-߃ ]e-x-hw \nßsf kao-]n- pw. {]tem-`-\-ßfpw ]oum-\p-`-h-ß-fp-amwv Hcp hy nsb al-øz-øn-te v \bn- p- -Xv. CXv c n-s\bpw ka -ambn t\cn-sp-i-bpw, ssiimcyw snøp-ibpw snøp-tºm-gmwv \Ω-fnse \ tx v an\p- -s -Sp- - Xv. AXp-sIm v {]tem-`-\-ßsf \jvs-s -Sp-Ø-cp-Xv. Hcp hy n {]tem-`-\-ßsf t\cn- p-sim- mwv aløzw B n- p- -Xv. aløzw Pohn-X-Øn {Inbm-fl-I-am-Ip- Xpw {]tem-`-\-ßsf ssiimcyw snbvxp-sim- m-wv. s\t m-fn-bs\ {]kn- -amb hm eq bp - Øn ]cm-p-b-s -Sp-Ønb {_n ojv P\-d-em-bn-cp p B X sh n. C y-bnse \m p-cm-pm- - msc ]cm- P-b-s -SpØn sacp- m-\p {_n o-jp-im-cpss ] -XnbpsS Np m ]nsn- -Xpw sh n Bbn-cp- p. Hcn- {_n o-jp-im-cpss \b-]-cn-]m-sn-iƒ a\- n-em- m Hcp \m p-cm-pmhv sh - nsb kao-]n- p. ]s ]e {]-[m- \-s cl-ky-ßfpw shfn-s -Sp-Øm sh n Xømdm-bn-. At mƒ \m p-cm-pmhv A ]Xn-\m-bncw {_n ojv ]u v sh - n v h p-\o- n. ]s B henb XpI-bn-eq-sS-bp {]tem-`-\-øn\v sh n hgßn-bn-. cmpm-hn\v GXv cl-kyhpw kq n- m-\p Ign-hp- -Xp-t]mse F\n pw clkyw kq n- m- \p Ign-hp-s v sh n cmpm-hns\ ]d v a\- n-em- n. AXm-bn-cp p P\-d sh - n-bpss al- Øzw. AXp-sIm v At±lw Uyq v Hm^v sh nw-kvs Bbn. Pohn-X-Øn hy -amb Z i-\-t_m-[hpw e y-hp-ap- -hsc {]tem-`-\-߃ v txm n- m Ign-bp-I-bn-. {]tem-`-\-߃ hcp hgn-iƒ hn`n- ß-fm-Wv. ]e-t mgpw a\- n-em- m km[n- p- -Xn-\- p-d-hp-am-wv. {]tem-`-\-ßsf sshim-cn-i-ambn Hcn- epw kao-]n- -cp-xv. hnth-i-øn-eq- n -thww {]tem-`-\- ßsf t\cn-sm. {]tem-`-\-ß-fp-ss, Xmev m-eni kpjß-sfbpw kui-cy-ß-sfbpw Bflo-bhpw _u n-ihp-amb Xe-ß-fn hni-i-e\w snøp-i-bpw, hne-bncp-øp-ibpw snøp-tºmƒ {]tem-`-\-ß-fpss ap\-sbm- Sn-bpw. Hmtcm {]tem-`-\-ßfpw \n߃ v Bg-ta-dnb Dƒ mgvn \ In-sIm- n-cn- pw {IntkmÃw Xncp-ta-\n- amxm Aar-Xm-\-μ-a-bntbmsSm w thzn ] n- -t mƒ hfsc cl-ky-ambn GXm\pw an\n p-iƒ kwkm-cn- Xv Nm\-ep-Iƒ `wkn-bmbn kw{]t -Ww snbvxp apx-em- n. am tømω k`-bn Cu kw`hw ]e-tcbpw snmsn- n- p. AXn-\-SpØ hmcw \yq U ln-bn Hcm-gvNsØ ]cn-]m-sn- mbn Xncp-ta\n t]m-bn. A v cm{xn Xncp-ta\n Ft m-ssm w ` Ww Ign p sim n-cp- -t mƒ Rm kqnn- n- p. \mfsø ao nmn Xncp-ta-\n-tbmSp tnmzyw tnmzn- p-hm Ipsd A - m Xøm-dmbn Ccn- p-i-bmsw- v. Xncp-ta\n tnmzn- p, km B ao nmn ImWptamsb- v. Rm ImWp-sa v ]d- -t mƒ Xncpta\n ]d- p, F m ]ns km B clkyw Aßv ]d-t -cv. Ft msv ]d-bmø B clkyw Rm\-ßs\ ]d-bp-sa v tnmzn- -t mƒ, Xncp-ta\n B clkyw Ft msv ]d- p. Aß-s\-b- m-sb v ]d-bp-hm Aar-Xm-\-μ-abn hcp-hm km y-x-bn- m-ø-xn-\m, ss[cy-ambn AXßv ]d-t - p-hm Fs Gev]n- p-ibpw snbvxp. ]ns -Zn-h-ksØ ao nmn Xncp-ta-\n-tbmSv tnmzyw tnmzn- p-hm A - m h n-cn- p- Xv Rm I p. Fs {]kw-k-øn Rm Xncp-ta-\nbpw Aar-Xm-\-μ-a-bn-bp-ambn \S clky N ]c-ky-ambn ]d- p. kn F-kvsF k`-bn Ct mƒ kvxo A - msc _nj- m- nbn- p- v. Ipsd Ign-bp-tºmƒ AXv am tømω k`-bnepw hcp-hm km y-x-bp- v. AXp-sIm v GsX- nepw k`-bn tncp-hm Xocp-am-\n- p-i-bm-sw- n am tømω k`-bnte tncmhq F mwv Xncpta\n cl-ky-ambn Aar-Xm-\-μ-abntbmSv ]d- -Xv. Cu hnhcw a\- n-em- msxbmwv Nm\-ep-Iƒ hnhm- Z-am- n-b-xv. tnmzyw tnmzn- p-hm h -h-sc mw Nncn p t]mbn. ({IntkmÃw Xncp-ta-\n-sb- p-dn v ]pkvxiw Fgp-Xn-b-hsc BZ-cn- p-hm amcm-a-æn sshfw-knf hnfn p Iq nb ktω-f-\-øn \yq hnj amkn-i-bpss apjy]{xm-[n-]- tum.-kn-dn-b v txmakv ]d- -Xv.) sabv

23 Zm vkv Bƒ bph tlmw ^mz Pn sszh-øns kz w a ƒ sszh-øns t]cn ]c-kv]cw sh n IpØn acn- -Xns tikv hn-nm-cw \S- p tims-xn-bn-emwv \msns\ \Sp- nb B kw`hw D m-b-xv. PUvPn cp{zm- ]n tikv hmzw ti p-sim ncns tims-xn-bn-sem-cmƒ Dds A -l-kn- p: 'PUvPn-bpsS Itk-c- Snbn t_mw_v, Ct mƒ s]m pw.' hmznbpw {]Xnbpw Poh-\pw-sIm v timsxn hnt m-sn. hm v B v hm Uv A -l-kn- -hs\ ssitbmss ]nsn-iq-sn. cp{zm- ]n tim pw simt m-snbpw hen-s -dn v HmSp-hm Fgp-t - t mƒ A -l-kn- -h ho pw B Ø- -l-kn p: "PUvPn-km Fgp-t -cp-xv, Fgp-t - m t_mw_n-t mƒ s]m pw.' PUvPn s^bn mbn Xmf-Sn-bmbn Itk-c-bn howp. c v B Pntbm πmãnbpw Hcp Hm lm pw Ign {^msp lm mwv At±l-Ønt Xv! "\obm-cm?' t]meokv tnmzn- -t mƒ saen- p- W-ßnb ko\n-b kn n-k ]d p: 'Rm Xcy- Xv, dn -tbuv ae-bmfw A -ym-]-i, {^w i - cmsn]d-ºv. dntam v ]pd-øm-wv, Fs Fs - nepw snbvxm t_mw_p-s]m- pw. F\n p ]d-bm-\p- Xv PUvPn kmdn-t\msv ]d-bm A\p-h-Zn- m AX-ym- ]Øv Hgn-hm- mw. Rm c pw I n- m.' AtXmsS si.-]n. ]nsn hn p. t_mt[m-zbw {]m]n cp{zm- ]n ]d p: "AXns\ skbn- ^mbn Fs apºn sim p hcq.' PUvPn tnmzn p: "amjn-s\- mwv th Xv? ]dt m-fp, Zb-hmbn t_mw_p s]m n- -cp-xv. Fs {]nb-xa _mem-awn Hcp-hiw Xf v InS- n-em-wv. Ah v Rm am{x-ta-bp- p. Fs sse^n ssih-bv -cp-xv, πokv.' Xc-yXv ]d p: kmsdm pw hnj-an-. t_mw_v kx-y-ap- -Xm. {]tim-]\an msx AXv s]m n-. Itk-c-bn ss[c-y-am-bn- n-cp-t m-fp. Fs \nth-z\w ASn-b- c l Pn-bmbn kzo-i-cn- v, ASnb- n-cambn km Hm U Cd- -Ww. "]d-t mfp amtj, ]d-t m-fp. FIvkvtπmSp snømsx t\m tw' sszh-øns t]cp-am- -Ww, AXm-sWs Bhi-yw. "tkmuv' Fs mcp bqwn-th-gvk s\bnw At±l-Øp-\p t m, AsX- n\m am p- -Xv? bph tlmw, sszh-øn\v H Hcm-bncw t]cm-wp- -Xv. Hmtcm ax-øn-tebpw AXnse D]hn`m-K-ß-fp-tSbpw sszh-߃ v t]cp-iƒ ]e- Xm-Wv. AXn\pw ]pd-sa-bmwv t]cn\v Xebpw hmepap timsn- -W- n\v Bƒ sszh-߃. "FIvk-yqkvan anã Xc-y-Xv, sszh-߃ v ]e -t]-cp-i-fp mb-xp-sim v F mwv t{]mªw?' Ct mƒ ChnsS hnnm-cw \S- p tikns ]n nse hnjbw c p ax-ßfnse ax- {`m- am XΩn-ep ASn-bt bph tlmw? c pt]-cp c p sszh-ß-fpss A\p-bm-bn-I-fm- W-h, hmkvx-h-øn sszhw F{X-bp p km? "H en h ' sbkv bph tlmw, F m ax-ßfpw ]d-bp- Xv sszhw GI-\m-Wv, AZr-i-y-\m-Wv, ]cw-s]m-cpfm-wv, k Δ-i- -\m-wv, Rm\m-Ip- -h Rm\m- Ip A\m-an-bmWv Fs m-s -bm-wv. B sszh- Øn\v ]e t]cn- -XmWv ax-kv] pw el-f pw Imc-Ww. "Xc-yXv amjv ]d-t m-fp.' ]e tzhm-e-b-ßfpw ]e t\ -s - n-ifpw ]e- Xcw Bflob t\xm- am-cp-ap mbxv {]iv\-ambn km. Bflob t\xm- am Hmtcmtcm sszh-ßfpss ]S-߃ am n hc- v, s{^bnw snbvxp-h v Aedp-hm XpS-ßn. ]mhw ]m]n-i-fmb P\-߃ AhnsS-sbms hgn-]m-sn- p. {Zh-ym-{K-ln-Ifpw A[n-Im-cs m-xn-b m-cp-amb Bflob t\xm- ƒ Itkc Dd- n- m\pw td nmvv h n- n- m\pw dh-\yp Iq m-\pambn hn`-p-\-ßfpw hnhm-z-ß-fp-ap m n. ssatemuv, {]iv\-]-cn-lm-c-øn\v hgn-sbm-t -bp p: Hscm sszhw, Hscm axw. 23 sabv 2018

24 "h tkm-uv, h dnen-pn-b F kn m w GtXm t\xmhp ] p ]d- n- p t m, CsXmcp ]pxnb Imc-y-a- -t m?' ]d- p, icn-bm-wv. B Hscm axw Rß-fpsS ax-am-sw p ]d v AXns t]cn ]pxn-sbmcp ax-ap m n km. "tkm-uns t]cp am n-bm Fßs\ t{]mªw tkmƒhv snøpw?' C -y-bn \qdp-i-w- n\v \m p-cm-p-y-ßfp mbn-cp- -t mƒ F pw bp -a m-bncpt m? ]t kmdv F m-ønt\w Iq n-t Øv C y F Hscm cmp-y-am- n-b-t mƒ ASn-sb{X Ipd p? sszh-øn\v t] p Hscm t]cpw AXns Iogn tzhm-e-b-ßfpw BI-W-sa v \nbaw h m hym-p amcpw Ah XΩn-ep ASnbpw Xocpw. "an. Xc-y-Xv, sfunb s_ãv. ]s F p t]cmwv sszh-øn-\n-sp-i? Ct mƒ a\p-j-ycp m nb tkmuvkv AXn\p kω-xn- p-tam?' sszh-øn\v "kvt\lw' F t]cv km {]t mkp snbvtxm-fp. B m-sw-xn m Ignbp-I? F m ax-ßfpw kvt\l-sø- - n-bm-wt m X n-hn-sp- -Xv? "Bƒ C ym s^bvxvt_m Uv' F Bflob kwl-s\ cpn-ã snbvxv, AXn-s\mcp `c-w-l-s-\-bp m n, F m hni-zm-kn-ifpw AXns Iogn {]-h -Øn- -W-sa- v \n -_- -am-bn \n-jv- -jn- p-i. B-N-m-c- -ß-fpw D-]m-k-\-I-fpw tz-hm-eb-ß-fp-ss a- pw am-xn-cn-bpw B-flo-b t\-xm- -fp-ss {]- - th-j-ß-fpw A-h-c-h-cp-sS C-jv -Sw-t]m-se B- Imw. ]-s aq -Øn H-t -H- p am-{xw: "kv-t\-lw.' Bflob t\xm- am v t_m Uns snehn kvt\lsszh-tøbpw Ab m-c-t\bpw kvt\ln- p-hm-\p Xpd-hnbpw k at\m-`m-hhpw e`n- p t\xr-xz ]cn-io-e\w \ I-Ww. Hcp-]mSv XntbmfPn ]T\w Bh-i-y-an-. BZnbpw A -hp-an- mø ]cw-s]m-cp-fn-s\- n B mwv B[n-Im-cn- I-ambn ]d-bp-hm Ign-bp-I? kvt\l-aq-e-y-ß-sf- n hni-zm-kn-iƒ p ]d p simsp- p-hm\pw kvt\laq Ønsb Bcm-[n- m kwhn-[m\w Hcp- p-ibpw am{x-am-bn-cn- Ww Bflob t\xm-hns Uyq- n. hn`m-ko-b-xbpw hnl-s-\-hm-z-hp-ap m p {Inan-\- ep-isf Ccp-º-gn- -I-Øm- m\pw s^bnøv t_m Uv `c-w-l-s-\-bn hip p m -Ww. Zm vkv Bƒ bph tlmw. "an. Xc-y-Xv, Zm vkv Ata-knMv {]t m-k. `c- W-L-S\m t`z-k-xn- mbn Rm DSs\ sd sat j Hm U-dn-Smw.' bph tlmw, shdpsx sd -sa v snbvxm t mcm, kp{]ow timsxn simfo-pn-b-øn- sabv \mbn {]tx-yiw dni-zãv snø-ww. 't\m t{]mªw an. Xc-y-Xv. C{X sndnb Imc-y- Øn-\mbn \nß-sf- n-\mwv A ssa snb t_mw_v h -Xv? timsxn \S-]-Sn-Iƒ XS- -s -Sp-Ønb-Xn\pw PUvPns sse^v A]-I-S-Øn-em- n-b- Xn\pw bp Untk hv ]Wn-jvsa v' bph tlmw, Cu \m n Hcp-I-mcyw \S-Øn- n- m _ v, hgn-x-s-b, {]t m-]-ww, s]mxpap-x \in- n- p-i, slcm-thm, Xohbv]v XpS-ßnb A{Ia ]cn-]m-sn-i-fmwv ax- -cm-jv{sob ]m n-iƒ kzo-i-cn- p- -Xv. P\-ß-fpsS Bh-i-y-߃ A\p-`mh-]q Δw tiƒ p kwhn-[m-\amwv hntz-i-cm-p-yß-fn-ep- -Xv. AhnsS ]uc\v PUvPn-bpsS Ccn- n-s- Øn t_mw_p hbv msx Imcyw \S-Øn- n- pw. "Hms, an. Xc-y-Xv, t_mw_v FIvkvtπm-Sm- -cp- Xv, πokv' bph tlmw F\n v ]m n-bn-, h Kob kwl-s-\-bn AwK-X-z-an-. ax-{`m- am Fs aq p ktlm-z-c am-sc-bmwv sszh-øns t]cn sh n-s m p Ipgn p aqsn-b-xv. AhcpsS hn[-ham pw A\m-Y-cmb Ip n-iƒ pw \oxn-\- SØns msp- m, thm p-sx n hcp t{^mup- Iƒ pw, C m- nse tims-xn pw Ign- n- n k. kmdns timsxn B tikv X n- -fn- m XpSßn-bn v h jw Ggm-bn. R߃ P\-߃ \ Ip Xp p-sim mwv C m- nse \oxn-\-ymb \nb-a-]m-e- I A -kmbn Pohn- p- -Xv. R߃ v \oxn In nbn-s - n BZyw Ipcbv pw, ]ns ISn- pw, HSphn ISn- p-io-dpw. B P\-ap-t kabw A[nIw AI-se-b-. t\m v Z t]mb v, bph tlmw. cp{zm- ]n -bpss Hm U-dns X\n ]I v: C p apx F m hni-zm-kn-i-fp-ssbpw GI sszh-øns t]cv "kvt\lw' F m-bn-cn- pw. kvt\lw Zo L-ambn an- p- p, Zb ImWn- p- p, kvt\lw kv] n- p- n-. kvt\lw \nk-fn- p- n-, No p- n-, Atbm- K-y-ambn \S p n-, tzz-j-y-s -Sp- n-, tzmj-øns IW p kq n- p- n-. A\o-X-nbn kt mjn- msx kx-y-øn kt m-jn- p- p. F mw s]mdp- p- p, F mw hni-z-kn- p- p, F mw {]X-ym-in- p- p. F mw kln- p- p. sszhw kvt\l-am-ip- p. kvt\l-an- m-øxpw kvt\l-a- m-ø-xp-sa mw sszh-hp-ambn bmsxmcp _ -an- m-øxpw- hym-p-hpw Ip -I-chpw Bbn-cn- pw.

25 Dr Abraham Verghese Vellore. In this paper, I shall make an attempt to highlight on the basic tenets of Christian faith as I understand,and also to elaborate on my reactions to some of the controversial areas in Christian theology. A combination of various factors, such as influence of parents, teachers, friends, the church, the society at large, contribute to the crystallization of one s Christian faith and philosophy. I was born in a middle class, Marthoma Syrian Christian family, neither rich nor poor. My parents were deeply religious people and my younger days were spent during a period of Christian missionary revival. I grew up in the shadow of three Christian institutions, the Mundakappadom Agathi Mandiram, the Manganam Christava Ashram and the Chemmarappally Bethel Marthoma parish. Four people who deeply touched my younger school days were, Rev CT Oommen from Kuzhickala who was posted as vicar of Horeb and Thalappady Marthoma parishes and who was staying with us; Sree PCGeorge of Agathi mandiram; Sadhu Mathaichen of Christava Ashram and Chemmarappally John Kaseesa who was the vicar of the Bethel Marthoma parish. When I was in college, I was greatly influenced by the Student Christian Movement[SCM].These experiences and other socio religious inter actions formed the basic foundations of my religious faith and philosophy.in this paper, I would make an attempt to highlight on the basics of Christian faith, as I understand them. BASICS OF CHRISTIAN FAITH. What are the basics of our Christian faith. They are quite simple. Even ordinary fisherfolk like Peter and co, could understand them Sometimes, the theologians try to make it appear complicated. God created the whole universe. He created man in His own image so that He can have meaningful fellowship with man. Man was given the freedom of choice. This is the story of creation. But man misused his freedom of choice and wanted to become like God. He rebelled and this is the story of the original sin. But God will not let go of man and went on trying to bring him back to Him. Through centuries He did this through the prophets who appealed, pleaded, rebuked and warned. But man refused to repent and come back to God. As a last resort, God sent His only begotten son, Jusus Christ with the mission of convincing man that God is the loving Father who wants man to come back to Him..God knew that man may reject His son also. But he took a risk. The main message of Christ was that God is love and we must love God with all our heart, with all our mind and with all our soul and love our neighbor as ourselves.he taught that this law contains all other laws. He healed the sick, fed the hungry, raised the dead, forgave the sinners, comforted the sorrowful, chided the religious hypocrites. He announced the coming of the Kingdom of God. He taught that our lives must center around Love and not Law. The Jews could not digest this. They did not want any one to tamper with their Law. They called him a traitor and crucified him. God the father allowed this to happen because He knew that only suffering love can change an errant man and melt his hard hearted mind. And Christ in obedience to his Father went through this worst suffering in human history. This is the story of the cross. The third day, he left the empty tomb and appeared before the disciples to comfort them and promised that he will be going to the Father and come again to complete the establishment of the Kingdom of God. He commissioned them to continue the work he started and promised that he will send the holy spirit to empower them. This is the story of Resurrection. This baton of Christ s commission is now in the hands of the Christian church. Christ has promised that He will come again to establish the Kingdom of God where God is the king, who is in control of every thing. We as Christians are invited to be the co-workers of God. Wherever we are, whatever we do in our spheres of influence, we can become co-workers of God. It is a great privilege and this gives meaning to our lives. We are commissioned to be the disciples of Christ, to organize our lives on the principles which characterize the life of Christ, to love God with all our heart, with all our mind and with all our soul and to love our neighbor as ourselves.how can we do this? This is possible only by the grace of the holy spirit. It is possible only by our surrender to God, by 25 sabv 2018

26 incessant prayer, bible study, participation in the various church programmes, especially the holy communion.,which is the most important sacrament of God s grace. These basic theological facts will not lead to any disagreement or conflict among the different church denominations. The history of the Christian church shows that it is the minor and nonessential theological facts, such as trinity, prayer to the saints, prayer for the dead, child baptism, speaking in tongues etc, which have created divisions in the church. After sketching the basic tenets of Christian faith, as per my belief and understanding, I would like to note my reactions to some of the areas of Christian faith which have been argued about and discussed in theological circles. CREATIONISM sabv AND EVOLUTION. Some Christians believe that God created man and the universe literally as is given in the book of Genesis. But many scientists believe that the universe came into being by chance and that man s creation was through the process of evolution. I believe that the universe is too complicated and intricate to come into being by chance. I believe that God created the universe and man through the process of evolution. God is the creator of the DNA which is the basic unit of life. There is no need for any controversy between creationism and evolution. Both are complementary. THE SUBSTITUTION THEOLOGY. The doctrine of sacrifice has been a Jewish tradition and belongs to the Old testament dispensation and is replaced by the doctrine of love in the New testament. Our salvation depends on God s love and our repentance. No sacrifice is required. In the story of the prodigal son, no sacrifice was required for his father to accept him. No sacrifice was required for the thief on the cross to be with Jesus in the paradise. The cross is the symbol of God s love for mankind. The blood of Jesus cannot save us unless we repent. StPaul has developed the theory of substitution because of his deep roots in the Jewish law of sacrifice for the salvation of mankind. THE CHRISTIAN FUNDAMENTALISM is a distortion of christian faith. Religious excluvism, no respect for other religions, dogmatic belief in literal inspiration of the bible, the born again doctrine, emphasis on adult baptism, the doctrine of otherworldliness, etc are the main characterestics of Christian fundamentalism. Many instances of violence against Christians in North India are to a large extent, a reaction to Christian fundamentalism which tends to decry other religions and convert non Christians to Christianity by various kinds of incentives and aggressive type of evangelization. Christ s declaration, No one goes to the father except by me[ St John, 14-6] is often misinterpreted. I believe that those who keep the commands of Christ, those who have a life style similar to that of Christ are the ones who go to the Father. The famous evangelist Dr Stanley Jones once remarked, I cannot imagine a heaven where Mahatma Gandhi is not present. Even non-christians who keep the commands of Christ can go to the Father. It is not an exclusive privilege of the so called members of the Christian church. One can be a Christian outside the institutional church, although being part of a church group will facilitate christian living. In believe that a personal relationship with God must be manifested in a life based on the main command of Christ : Love your God with all your heart, with all your mind and with all your soul and love your neighbor as thyself. As Marthoma Valia Methropolitha Bishop Chrysosyum, suggests, there is only one God. I believe that God has been revealing to mankind and the different religions are expressions of response to this by different groups of people. As Raymond Panicker s book, Unknown Christ of Hinduism suggests, Christ is present in all religions. We must respect all religions and try to understand the basic values in other religions. Spirituality is a common factor of all religions. The consequences of Christian fundamentalism can be quite serious. It can cause hatred, suspicion and misunderstandings between various religions. In a multireligious society as ours, this can cause communal disturbances. More importantly, christian fundamentalism can lead to conflicts among the various Christian denominations. We now witness lot of violence in the world today and it is the responsibility of the Christian church to become an agent of peace and harmony. A divided and exclusive church can not do this. Thus in summary, I have been making an attempt in this paper to elaborate on the basics of Christian faith,as I believe them, and summarise my reactions to some of the controversial areas of Christian theology.

27 27 sabv 2018

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