# 12. Interior-point methods

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1 12. Interior-point methods Convex Optimization Boyd & Vandenberghe inequality constrained minimization logarithmic barrier function and central path barrier method feasibility and phase I methods complexity analysis via self-concordance generalized inequalities 12 1

2 Inequality constrained minimization minimize f 0 (x) subject to f i (x) 0, i = 1,...,m Ax = b (1) f i convex, twice continuously differentiable A R p n with ranka = p we assume p is finite and attained we assume problem is strictly feasible: there exists x with x domf 0, f i ( x) < 0, i = 1,...,m, A x = b hence, strong duality holds and dual optimum is attained Interior-point methods 12 2

3 Examples LP, QP, QCQP, GP entropy maximization with linear inequality constraints n minimize i=1 x ilogx i subject to Fx g Ax = b with domf 0 = R n ++ differentiability may require reformulating the problem, e.g., piecewise-linear minimization or l -norm approximation via LP SDPs and SOCPs are better handled as problems with generalized inequalities (see later) Interior-point methods 12 3

4 Logarithmic barrier reformulation of (1) via indicator function: minimize f 0 (x)+ m i=1 I (f i (x)) subject to Ax = b where I (u) = 0 if u 0, I (u) = otherwise (indicator function of R ) approximation via logarithmic barrier minimize f 0 (x) (1/t) m i=1 log( f i(x)) subject to Ax = b an equality constrained problem for t > 0, (1/t)log( u) is a smooth approximation of I approximation improves as t u Interior-point methods 12 4

5 logarithmic barrier function φ(x) = m log( f i (x)), domφ = {x f 1 (x) < 0,...,f m (x) < 0} i=1 convex (follows from composition rules) twice continuously differentiable, with derivatives φ(x) = 2 φ(x) = m i=1 m i=1 1 f i (x) f i(x) 1 f i (x) 2 f i(x) f i (x) T + m i=1 1 f i (x) 2 f i (x) Interior-point methods 12 5

6 Central path for t > 0, define x (t) as the solution of minimize tf 0 (x)+φ(x) subject to Ax = b (for now, assume x (t) exists and is unique for each t > 0) central path is {x (t) t > 0} example: central path for an LP minimize c T x subject to a T i x b i, i = 1,...,6 hyperplane c T x = c T x (t) is tangent to level curve of φ through x (t) c x x (10) Interior-point methods 12 6

7 Dual points on central path x = x (t) if there exists a w such that t f 0 (x)+ m i=1 1 f i (x) f i(x)+a T w = 0, Ax = b therefore, x (t) minimizes the Lagrangian L(x,λ (t),ν (t)) = f 0 (x)+ m λ i(t)f i (x)+ν (t) T (Ax b) i=1 where we define λ i (t) = 1/( tf i(x (t)) and ν (t) = w/t this confirms the intuitive idea that f 0 (x (t)) p if t : p g(λ (t),ν (t)) = L(x (t),λ (t),ν (t)) = f 0 (x (t)) m/t Interior-point methods 12 7

8 Interpretation via KKT conditions x = x (t), λ = λ (t), ν = ν (t) satisfy 1. primal constraints: f i (x) 0, i = 1,...,m, Ax = b 2. dual constraints: λ 0 3. approximate complementary slackness: λ i f i (x) = 1/t, i = 1,...,m 4. gradient of Lagrangian with respect to x vanishes: f 0 (x)+ m λ i f i (x)+a T ν = 0 i=1 difference with KKT is that condition 3 replaces λ i f i (x) = 0 Interior-point methods 12 8

9 Force field interpretation centering problem (for problem with no equality constraints) minimize tf 0 (x) m i=1 log( f i(x)) force field interpretation tf 0 (x) is potential of force field F 0 (x) = t f 0 (x) log( f i (x)) is potential of force field F i (x) = (1/f i (x)) f i (x) the forces balance at x (t): F 0 (x (t))+ m F i (x (t)) = 0 i=1 Interior-point methods 12 9

10 example minimize c T x subject to a T i x b i, i = 1,...,m objective force field is constant: F 0 (x) = tc constraint force field decays as inverse distance to constraint hyperplane: F i (x) = a i b i a T i x, F i(x) 2 = where H i = {x a T i x = b i} 1 dist(x,h i ) c 3c t = 1 t = 3 Interior-point methods 12 10

11 Barrier method given strictly feasible x, t := t (0) > 0, µ > 1, tolerance ǫ > 0. repeat 1. Centering step. Compute x (t) by minimizing tf 0 + φ, subject to Ax = b. 2. Update. x := x (t). 3. Stopping criterion. quit if m/t < ǫ. 4. Increase t. t := µt. terminates with f 0 (x) p ǫ (stopping criterion follows from f 0 (x (t)) p m/t) centering usually done using Newton s method, starting at current x choice of µ involves a trade-off: large µ means fewer outer iterations, more inner (Newton) iterations; typical values: µ = several heuristics for choice of t (0) Interior-point methods 12 11

12 Convergence analysis number of outer (centering) iterations: exactly log(m/(ǫt (0) )) logµ plus the initial centering step (to compute x (t (0) )) centering problem minimize tf 0 (x)+φ(x) see convergence analysis of Newton s method tf 0 +φ must have closed sublevel sets for t t (0) classical analysis requires strong convexity, Lipschitz condition analysis via self-concordance requires self-concordance of tf 0 +φ Interior-point methods 12 12

13 duality gap Examples inequality form LP (m = 100 inequalities, n = 50 variables) µ = 50 µ = 150 Newton iterations µ = Newton iterations starts with x on central path (t (0) = 1, duality gap 100) terminates when t = 10 8 (gap 10 6 ) centering uses Newton s method with backtracking total number of Newton iterations not very sensitive for µ µ Interior-point methods 12 13

14 geometric program (m = 100 inequalities and n = 50 variables) minimize log subject to log ( 5 ( 5 ) k=1 exp(at 0k x+b 0k) ) k=1 exp(at ik x+b ik) 0, i = 1,...,m 10 2 duality gap µ = 150 µ = 50 µ = Newton iterations Interior-point methods 12 14

15 family of standard LPs (A R m 2m ) minimize c T x subject to Ax = b, x 0 m = 10,...,1000; for each m, solve 100 randomly generated instances 35 Newton iterations number of iterations grows very slowly as m ranges over a 100 : 1 ratio m Interior-point methods 12 15

16 Feasibility and phase I methods feasibility problem: find x such that f i (x) 0, i = 1,...,m, Ax = b (2) phase I: computes strictly feasible starting point for barrier method basic phase I method minimize (over x, s) s subject to f i (x) s, i = 1,...,m Ax = b (3) if x, s feasible, with s < 0, then x is strictly feasible for (2) if optimal value p of (3) is positive, then problem (2) is infeasible if p = 0 and attained, then problem (2) is feasible (but not strictly); if p = 0 and not attained, then problem (2) is infeasible Interior-point methods 12 16

17 sum of infeasibilities phase I method minimize 1 T s subject to s 0, f i (x) s i, i = 1,...,m Ax = b for infeasible problems, produces a solution that satisfies many more inequalities than basic phase I method example (infeasible set of 100 linear inequalities in 50 variables) number number b i a T i x max b i a T i x sum left: basic phase I solution; satisfies 39 inequalities right: sum of infeasibilities phase I solution; satisfies 79 solutions Interior-point methods 12 17

18 example: family of linear inequalities Ax b+γ b data chosen to be strictly feasible for γ > 0, infeasible for γ 0 use basic phase I, terminate when s < 0 or dual objective is positive Newton iterations Newton iterations γ Infeasible γ Feasible Newton iterations number of iterations roughly proportional to log(1/ γ ) γ Interior-point methods 12 18

19 Complexity analysis via self-concordance same assumptions as on page 12 2, plus: sublevel sets (of f 0, on the feasible set) are bounded tf 0 +φ is self-concordant with closed sublevel sets second condition holds for LP, QP, QCQP may require reformulating the problem, e.g., n minimize i=1 x ilogx i subject to Fx g n minimize i=1 x ilogx i subject to Fx g, x 0 needed for complexity analysis; barrier method works even when self-concordance assumption does not apply Interior-point methods 12 19

20 Newton iterations per centering step: from self-concordance theory #Newton iterations µtf 0(x)+φ(x) µtf 0 (x + ) φ(x + ) γ +c bound on effort of computing x + = x (µt) starting at x = x (t) γ, c are constants (depend only on Newton algorithm parameters) from duality (with λ = λ (t), ν = ν (t)): µtf 0 (x)+φ(x) µtf 0 (x + ) φ(x + ) m = µtf 0 (x) µtf 0 (x + )+ log( µtλ i f i (x + )) mlogµ i=1 m µtf 0 (x) µtf 0 (x + ) µt λ i f i (x + ) m mlogµ i=1 µtf 0 (x) µtg(λ,ν) m mlogµ = m(µ 1 logµ) Interior-point methods 12 20

21 total number of Newton iterations (excluding first centering step) #Newton iterations N = log(m/(t (0) ( ǫ)) m(µ 1 logµ) logµ γ ) +c N figure shows N for typical values of γ, c, m = 100, m t (0) ǫ = µ confirms trade-off in choice of µ in practice, #iterations is in the tens; not very sensitive for µ 10 Interior-point methods 12 21

22 polynomial-time complexity of barrier method for µ = 1+1/ m: N = O ( ( )) mlog m/t (0) ǫ number of Newton iterations for fixed gap reduction is O( m) multiply with cost of one Newton iteration (a polynomial function of problem dimensions), to get bound on number of flops this choice of µ optimizes worst-case complexity; in practice we choose µ fixed (µ = 10,...,20) Interior-point methods 12 22

23 Generalized inequalities minimize f 0 (x) subject to f i (x) Ki 0, i = 1,...,m Ax = b f 0 convex, f i : R n R k i, i = 1,...,m, convex with respect to proper cones K i R k i f i twice continuously differentiable A R p n with ranka = p we assume p is finite and attained we assume problem is strictly feasible; hence strong duality holds and dual optimum is attained examples of greatest interest: SOCP, SDP Interior-point methods 12 23

24 Generalized logarithm for proper cone ψ : R q R is generalized logarithm for proper cone K R q if: domψ = intk and 2 ψ(y) 0 for y K 0 ψ(sy) = ψ(y)+θlogs for y K 0, s > 0 (θ is the degree of ψ) examples nonnegative orthant K = R n +: ψ(y) = n i=1 logy i, with degree θ = n positive semidefinite cone K = S n +: ψ(y) = logdety (θ = n) second-order cone K = {y R n+1 (y y 2 n) 1/2 y n+1 }: ψ(y) = log(y 2 n+1 y 2 1 y 2 n) (θ = 2) Interior-point methods 12 24

25 properties (without proof): for y K 0, ψ(y) K 0, y T ψ(y) = θ nonnegative orthant R n +: ψ(y) = n i=1 logy i ψ(y) = (1/y 1,...,1/y n ), y T ψ(y) = n positive semidefinite cone S n +: ψ(y) = logdety ψ(y) = Y 1, tr(y ψ(y)) = n second-order cone K = {y R n+1 (y yn) 2 1/2 y n+1 }: y 1 2 ψ(y) =. yn+1 2 y2 1 y2 n y n, yt ψ(y) = 2 y n+1 Interior-point methods 12 25

26 Logarithmic barrier and central path logarithmic barrier for f 1 (x) K1 0,..., f m (x) Km 0: φ(x) = m ψ i ( f i (x)), i=1 domφ = {x f i (x) Ki 0, i = 1,...,m} ψ i is generalized logarithm for K i, with degree θ i φ is convex, twice continuously differentiable central path: {x (t) t > 0} where x (t) solves minimize tf 0 (x)+φ(x) subject to Ax = b Interior-point methods 12 26

27 x = x (t) if there exists w R p, Dual points on central path t f 0 (x)+ m Df i (x) T ψ i ( f i (x))+a T w = 0 i=1 (Df i (x) R k i n is derivative matrix of f i ) therefore, x (t) minimizes Lagrangian L(x,λ (t),ν (t)), where λ i(t) = 1 t ψ i( f i (x (t))), ν (t) = w t from properties of ψ i : λ i (t) K i 0, with duality gap f 0 (x (t)) g(λ (t),ν (t)) = (1/t) m i=1 θ i Interior-point methods 12 27

28 example: semidefinite programming (with F i S p ) minimize c T x subject to F(x) = n i=1 x if i +G 0 logarithmic barrier: φ(x) = logdet( F(x) 1 ) central path: x (t) minimizes tc T x logdet( F(x)); hence tc i tr(f i F(x (t)) 1 ) = 0, i = 1,...,n dual point on central path: Z (t) = (1/t)F(x (t)) 1 is feasible for maximize tr(gz) subject to tr(f i Z)+c i = 0, i = 1,...,n Z 0 duality gap on central path: c T x (t) tr(gz (t)) = p/t Interior-point methods 12 28

29 Barrier method given strictly feasible x, t := t (0) > 0, µ > 1, tolerance ǫ > 0. repeat 1. Centering step. Compute x (t) by minimizing tf 0 + φ, subject to Ax = b. 2. Update. x := x (t). 3. Stopping criterion. quit if ( i θ i)/t < ǫ. 4. Increase t. t := µt. only difference is duality gap m/t on central path is replaced by i θ i/t number of outer iterations: log(( i θ i)/(ǫt (0) )) logµ complexity analysis via self-concordance applies to SDP, SOCP Interior-point methods 12 29

30 Examples second-order cone program (50 variables, 50 SOC constraints in R 6 ) duality gap µ = 50 µ = 200 µ = Newton iterations Newton iterations µ duality gap semidefinite program (100 variables, LMI constraint in S 100 ) µ = 150 µ = 50 µ = Newton iterations Newton iterations Interior-point methods µ

31 family of SDPs (A S n, x R n ) minimize 1 T x subject to A+diag(x) 0 n = 10,...,1000, for each n solve 100 randomly generated instances 35 Newton iterations n Interior-point methods 12 31

32 Primal-dual interior-point methods more efficient than barrier method when high accuracy is needed update primal and dual variables at each iteration; no distinction between inner and outer iterations often exhibit superlinear asymptotic convergence search directions can be interpreted as Newton directions for modified KKT conditions can start at infeasible points cost per iteration same as barrier method Interior-point methods 12 32

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