# CM2104: Computational Mathematics General Maths: 2. Algebra - Factorisation

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1 CM204: Computational Mathematics General Maths: 2. Algebra - Factorisation Prof. David Marshall School of Computer Science & Informatics

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3 Factorisation Factorisation is a way of simplifying algebraic expressions. As we have seen, this can be effective when finding the roots of an equation f (x) = 0. There are many other uses where factorisation can simplify the maths e.g. algebraic fractions Simple factorisation examples: 25ab 2 5a 2 b 40ab 2 24a 2 b = 5ab(5b 3a) 8ab(5b 3a) = 5 8 x 2 2x + = (x ) 2 x 2 3x + 2 = (x )(x 2) 2 / 26

4 Methods and Tools for Factorisation There are many methods and tools you can use to factorise expressions Common factors Common factors by grouping The ac method Know your algebra! - Practice makes Perfect! 3 / 26

5 Common factors The simplest form of factorisation: Extract the highest common factors (HCF) from an expression These can be variables and/or integers (coefficients). Example: 24x 2 y 2 8xy 3 The HCF of the coefficients is 6 The HCF of x is x The HCF of y is y 2 So 24x 2 y 2 8xy 3 = 6xy 2 (4x 3y) 4 / 26

6 Exercise: Common factors Factorise: 8x 4 y 3 + 6x 3 y 2 = 5a 3 b 9a 2 b 2 = 5 / 26

7 Common factors by grouping Multiple termed expressions can sometimes be factorised into binomial expressions by extracting common factors from each, e.g.: 2ac + 6bc + ad + 3bd = (2ac + 6bc) + (ad + 3bd) = 2c(a + 3b) + d(a + 3b) = (a + 3b)(2c + d) The trick here is to spot the factors! 6 / 26

8 Exercise: Common factors by grouping Factorise: x 3 + 4x 2 y xy 4y 2 = 7 / 26

9 Know your Algebra! Recap: General Rules of Algebraic Multiplication: c(a + b) = ac + bc (a + b)(c + d) = ac + ad + bc + bd (a + b) 2 = (a + b)(a + b) = aa + ba + ab + bb = a 2 + 2ab + b 2 (a b)(a+b) = aa+ab ba bb = a 2 +ab ab b 2 = a 2 b 2 8 / 26

10 Examples: Expanding/Simplifying Expressions We are quite used to expanding algebraic expressions: 3(6a + 3b c) 5(2a b + 3c) = 8a + 9b 3c 0a + 5b 5c = 8a + 4b 8c 2(3m n) + 4(m + 2n) 3(2m + 3n) = 6m 2n + 4m + 8n 6m 9n = 4m 3n (x + )(x + 6) = x 2 + x + 6x + 6 = x 2 + 7x + 6 (x + y)(m + n) = mx + nx + my + ny (x + 4) 2 = x 2 + 8x + 6 (x 3)(x + 3) = x / 26

11 Examples: Factorisation Factorisations of the following expressions are: 8x 2 2x = 4x(2x 3) 5x 2 + 5x 3 = 5x 2 ( + 3x) x 2 2x 5 = (x + 3)(x 5) x 2 + 9x + 20 = (x + 5)(x + 4) xz + 2yz 2y x = xz x + 2yz 2y = x(z ) + 2y(z ) = (z )(x + 2y) 2x 2 3x 2 = (2x + )(x 2) 0 / 26

12 The ac Method Guidance for factorising quadratics of the type ax 2 + bx + c where a 0 Obtain ac i.e. the numerical value of the product ac ignoring the sign of the product. Write down all the possible pairs of factors of ac If c is positive, we select the two factors of ac whose sum is equal to b : both of these factors have the same sign as b. If c is negative, we select the two factors of ac which differ by the value of b ; the numerically larger of these two factors has the same sign as that of b and the other has the opposite sign. In each case, denote the two factors obtained as f and f 2 Then ax 2 + bx + c is now written ax 2 + f x + f 2 x + c and this is factorised by finding common factors. / 26

13 Example:Factorising quadratics ax 2 + bx + c, a 0 Factorise: 6x 2 + x + 3 So we have a = 6, b =, c = 3 Therefore ac = 8 Factors of 8: (, 8), (2, 9), (3, 6) c is +ve therefore: f and f 2 should add up to b = Therefore the required factors are (2, 9) We therefore write: 6x 2 + x + 3 = 6x 2 + 2x + 9x + 3 = (6x 2 + 9x) + (2x + 3) = 3x(2x + 3) + (2x + 3) = (3x + )(2x + 3) 2 / 26

14 Exercise:Factorising quadratics ax 2 + bx + c, a or 0 Factorise: 3x 2 4x + 8 = 8x 2 + 8x 5 = 3 / 26

15 Factors as Algebraic Fractions Trivially: Any factors which appear in BOTH the numerator and denominator are called common factors and can simply be cancelled Simple example: 8x 2 = 3x 6x This is a useful property to similarly apply to algebraic fractions: A fraction is expressed in its simplest form by factorising the numerator and denominator and cancelling any common factors. Example: Simplify x 2 (x )(x + ) x 2 = + 3x + 2 (x + 2)(x + ) = x x / 26

16 Cubic Equations If f (x) is a cubic function ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d then Note: the equation f (x) = 0 can have up to three real roots. The number of real roots will depend upon the values of a, b, c and d. Factors of the cubic clearly give us its roots. e.g.s: x 3 6x 2 + x 6 = 0 can be written as (x )(x 2)(x 3) = 0. Consequently, the values of x which satisfy this equation are x =, x = 2 and x = 3 5 / 26

17 Factor Theorem and Remainder Theorem () Factor theorem Definition: If for a given polynomial function f (x),f (a) = 0 then x a is a factor of the polynomial f (x). Example: Factorise 2x 3 + x 2 3x + 6 If a = then f () = (x ) is not a factor If a = then f ( ) = (x + ) is not a factor If a = 2 then f (2) = =0 (x 2) is a factor 6 / 26

18 Factor Theorem and Remainder Theorem (2) To find other factors of 2x 3 + x 2 3x + 6 we can now factor out x 2. We need to do arithmetic (long) division: 2x 2 +5x 3 x 2 )2x 3 + x 2 3x +6 2x 3 4x 2 5x 2 3x +6 5x 2 0x -3x +6-3x / 26

19 Factor Theorem and Remainder Theorem (3) It follows that 2x 2 + 5x 3 is also a factor of 2x 3 + x 2 3x + 6. Now 2x 2 + 5x 3 = (2x )(x + 3) Therefore (2x )(x + 3) are factors too So all the factors of 2x 3 + x 2 3x + 6 are: (x 2)(2x )(x + 3) 8 / 26

20 Exercise: Factor Theorem Use the factor theorem to factorise the following polynomial x 3 + 3x 2 x 3: What are the roots of the equation: x 3 + 3x 2 x 3 = 0? 9 / 26

21 Factor Theorem and Remainder Theorem (4) Remainder theorem: When f (x) is divided by (x a) remainder is f (a). Example: Find the remainder when x 3 + 6x 2 + 7x 4 is divided by x + 3 Using the remainder theorem a = 3 So f (a) = f (x = a = 3), (setting x = 3) x 3 +6x 2 +7x 4 = ( 3) 3 +6( 3) 2 +7( 3) 4 = = 2 20 / 26

22 Exercise : Remainder Theorem When the polynomial f (x) = x 3 + 8x 2 + kx + 0 is divided by x 2, there is a remainder of 84. Show that k = 7. 2 / 26

23 Exercise 2: Remainder Theorem Given that x + 3 is a factor of 2x 3 + 9x 2 + ax 6, find the value of a. Using this value of a, solve the equation 2x 3 + 9x 2 + ax 6 = / 26

24 Sum or difference of two cubes Another formula for factoring is the sum or difference of two cubes. The sum can be represented by and the difference by a 3 + b 3 = (a + b)(a 2 ab + b 2 ) a 3 b 3 = (a b)(a 2 + ab + b 2 ) 23 / 26

25 Quartic Equations Recap: A Polynomial of Order 4: f (x) = ax 4 + bx 3 + cx 2 + dx + e In principal, the solution to a Quartic uses the same tools as for a cubic and quadratic - it s just a little more long winded or more complex. The same idea, as just introduced with cubics, of using the Factor Theorem applies 24 / 26

26 4 a a a a (b 2 3ac + 2d) 3 2b 3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd + 4(b 2 3ac + 2d) 3 +(2b 3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd) (b 2 3ac + 2d) 3 2b 3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd + 4(b 2 3ac + 2d) 3 +(2b 3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd) (b 2 3ac + 2d) 3 2b 3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd + 4(b 2 3ac + 2d) 3 +(2b 3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd) (b 2 3ac + 2d) 3 2b 3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd + 4(b 2 3ac + 2d) 3 +(2b 3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd) (b 2 3ac + 2d) 3 +(2b 3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd) (b 2 3ac + 2d) 3 +(2b 3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd) (b 2 3ac + 2d) 3 +(2b 3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd) (b 2 3ac + 2d) 3 +(2b 3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd) a 2 a 2 a 2 a 2 3 (b 2 3ac + 2d) 3 2b 3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd + 4(b 2 3ac + 2d) 3 +(2b 3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd) (b 2 3ac + 2d) 3 2b 3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd + 4(b 2 3ac + 2d) 3 +(2b 3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd) (b 2 3ac + 2d) 3 2b 3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd + 4(b 2 3ac + 2d) 3 +(2b 3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd) (b 2 3ac + 2d) 3 2b 3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd + 4(b 2 3ac + 2d) 3 +(2b 3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd) 2 3 4(b 2 3ac + 2d) 3 +(2b 3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd) (b 2 3ac + 2d) 3 +(2b 3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd) (b 2 3ac + 2d) 3 +(2b 3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd) (b 2 3ac + 2d) 3 +(2b 3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd) a 2 4 a 2 4 a 2 4 a 2 a 3 +4ab 8c 2b + 3 9abc+27c 2 +27a 2 d 72bd+ 4(b 2 3ac+2d) 3 +(2b 3 9abc+27c 2 +27a 2 d 72bd) b 3 9abc+27c 2 +27a 2 d 72bd+ 4(b 2 3ac+2d) 3 +(2b 3 9abc+27c 2 +27a 2 d 72bd) a 3 +4ab 8c 2b + 3 9abc+27c 2 +27a 2 d 72bd+ 4(b 2 3ac+2d) 3 +(2b 3 9abc+27c 2 +27a 2 d 72bd) b 3 9abc+27c 2 +27a 2 d 72bd+ 4(b 2 3ac+2d) 3 +(2b 3 9abc+27c 2 +27a 2 d 72bd) a 3 +4ab 8c 2b + 3 9abc+27c 2 +27a 2 d 72bd+ 4(b 2 3ac+2d) 3 +(2b 3 9abc+27c 2 +27a 2 d 72bd) b 3 9abc+27c 2 +27a 2 d 72bd+ 4(b 2 3ac+2d) 3 +(2b 3 9abc+27c 2 +27a 2 d 72bd) a 3 +4ab 8c 2b + 3 9abc+27c 2 +27a 2 d 72bd+ 4(b 2 3ac+2d) 3 +(2b 3 9abc+27c 2 +27a 2 d 72bd) b 3 9abc+27c 2 +27a 2 d 72bd+ 4(b 2 3ac+2d) 3 +(2b 3 9abc+27c 2 +27a 2 d 72bd) Closed form Quartic Solution A closed form solution for a quartic actually does exist: The four roots r,r2,r3,r4 of a quartic polynomial equation x 4 + ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d = 0 are given by r = a r2 = a r3 = a r4 = a 4 2b b b b b3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd + 2b3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd + 2b3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd + 2b3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd b b b b 3 2 2b3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd + 2b3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd + 2b3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd + 2b3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd + The four roots r,r2,r3,r4 of a quartic polynomial equation x First part enlarged: 4 + ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d = 0 are given by 4 2b (b 2 3ac+2d) 4 2b (b 2 3ac+2d) 4 2b (b 2 3ac+2d) 4 2b (b 2 3ac+2d) r = a 4 a b (b 2 3ac + 2d) + 2b3 9abc + 3 2b 3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd + 4(b 2 3ac + 2d) 3 +(2b 3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd) 2 3 r2 = a 4 a b (b 2 3ac + 2d) + 2b3 9abc + 3 2b 3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd + 4(b 2 3ac + 2d) 3 +(2b 3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd) 2 3 r3 = a 4 + a b (b 2 3ac + 2d) + 2b3 9abc + 3 2b 3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd + 4(b 2 3ac + 2d) 3 +(2b 3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd) 2 3 However, in practice, this is too unwieldy to be used for solving quartic equations r4 = a 4 + a b (b 2 3ac + 2d) + 2b3 9abc + (Source Formula.svg) 3 2b 3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd + 4(b 2 3ac + 2d) 3 +(2b 3 9abc + 27c a 2 d 72bd) / 26

27 Matlab to the Rescue We can use MATLAB to relieve the stress of factorisation: >> syms x ; >> f = 4 x ˆ4 3 x ˆ3 2 x ˆ2 + x ; >> f a c t o r ( f ) ans = x ( x ) (4 x ˆ2 + x ) >> d o u b l e ( s o l v e ( f ) ) ans = / 26

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