# Chapter 3: Fundamentals of Mechanics and Heat. 1/11/00 Electromechanical Dynamics 1

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter 3: Fundamentals of Mechanics and Heat. 1/11/00 Electromechanical Dynamics 1"

Transcription

1 Chapter 3: Fundamentals of Mechanics and Heat 1/11/00 Electromechanical Dynamics 1

2 Force Linear acceleration of an object is proportional to the applied force: F = m a x(t) F = force acting on an object [N] m = mass of the object [kg] a = acceleration of the object [m/s 2 ] F m 1/11/00 Electromechanical Dynamics 2

3 Torque Torque is produced when a force exerts a twisting action on an object, tending to make it rotate Torque is the product of the force and the perpendicular distance to the axis of rotation: T = F r sinφ T = torque [Nm] axis of rotation F = applied force [N] φ r = radius [m] F r φ = angle of applied force T Example calculate the braking force needed for a motor with a 1 m diameter braking drum that develops a 150 Nm starting torque 1/11/00 Electromechanical Dynamics 3

4 Work Work is done whenever a force F moves an object a distance d in the direction of the force: W = F d W = work [J] F = force [N] d = distance [m] Example calculate the work done on a mass of 50 kg that is lifted to a height of 10 m 1/11/00 Electromechanical Dynamics 4

5 Work Work is performed on a rotating object by a torque when there is an angular rotation: W = T δ T = torque [N m] δ = angular displacement [radians] Example calculate the work performed by an electric motor that develops a 100 Nm torque at 1750 rpm on a pulley that lifts a mass in 25 s 1/11/00 Electromechanical Dynamics 5

6 Power Power is the rate of which work is performed P = power [W] W = work [J] t = time to do the work [s] Common units are kw and hp 1 hp = 746 W = kw Example calculate the power developed by an electric motor that lifts a mass of 500 kg to a height of 30 m in 12 s P = W t 1/11/00 Electromechanical Dynamics 6

7 Power The mechanical power output of a motor depends on the torque and rotational speed: 2 n P = π nt T P = mechanical power [W] T = torque [N m] n = speed [rpm] In more general terms: ω = speed [radian/s] Example P = ω T Calculate the power output on a motor rotating at 1700 rpm during a prony brake test the two spring scales indicate 25 N and 5 N, respectively 1/11/00 Electromechanical Dynamics 7

8 Transformation of Energy Forms of energy include: mechanical energy (potential and kinetic) thermal, chemical, and atomic energy electrical energy (electric and magnetic) Energy can be transformed from one form to another the term machine is the generic term for those devices that convert power from one form of energy into another conservation of energy: can not be created or destroyed conservation of power: power in plus stored released energy equals power out plus energy stored and power losses 1/11/00 Electromechanical Dynamics 8

9 Machine Efficiency Whenever energy is transformed, the output is always less than the input because all machines have losses: P i = Po + P P o = output power P i = input power P loss = power losses P The efficiency of a machine is defined as: η = Pi Po η = percent efficiency η = Po + Ploss Alternate forms of the definition: Pi Ploss η = P P i Machine 100% i 1/11/00 Electromechanical Dynamics 9 P o P Loss o 100% 100% loss

10 Kinetic Energy Kinetic energy is stored in moving objects energy must be added to an object to make it move 1 2 For objects with linear motion: E k = m v E k = kinetic energy [J] m = object s mass [kg] v = object s velocity [m/s] For objects with rotational motion: J = moment of inertia [kg m 2 ] ω = angular velocity [rad/s] 2 E k = J m ω J v ω 1/11/00 Electromechanical Dynamics 10

11 Inertia, Torque, and Speed To change the speed of a rotating object, a torque must be applied for a period of time The rate of change of the speed (angular acceleration) depends upon the inertia as well as the torque: tt ω = J ω = change in angular velocity tt n= 9.55 J t = time interval of applied torque T = torque J = moment of inertia Example a flywheel with an 10.6 kg m 2 inertia turns at 60 rpm. How long must a 20 Nm torque be applied to increase the speed to 600 rpm? 1/11/00 Electromechanical Dynamics 11

12 Speed of a Motor / Load System An electric motor applies a torque on the shaft A load applies a counter-torque on the shaft The net torque will accelerates or decelerate the shaft: T net = T m T ld Motor Load T m ω T ld 1/11/00 Electromechanical Dynamics 12

13 Speed of a Motor / Load System Torque-speed characteristics of an electric induction motor and a fan load Max torque 20 kn m Torque 10 motor fan operating point zero net torque constant speed rpm Speed 1/11/00 Electromechanical Dynamics 13

14 Directional Flow of Power Power supplied to the mechanical system applied torque is in the same direction as rotation Power absorbed from the mechanical system applied torque is in the opposite direction of rotation Motor Load T m ω Power T ld Motor Load T m ω T ld Power 1/11/00 Electromechanical Dynamics 14

15 Heat Heat is a form of energy and the SI unit is the joule energy of vibrating atoms/molecules thermal potential is expressed as a temperature Thermal energy systems are analogy to DC circuits heat [J] electrical charge temperature [K, C] voltage heat flow [W] current thermal mass [J/ C] capacitance thermal conductivity [W/(m C)] conductance thermal insulation resistance 1/11/00 Electromechanical Dynamics 15

16 Temperature The temperature depends upon the received heat, mass, and material characteristics: Q = m c t Q = change in the quantity of heat [J] t m = mass of object [kg] c = specific heat [J/(kg C)] t = change in temperature [K, C] Example for a water heater, calculate the heat required to raise the temperature of 200 L of water from 10 C to 70 C assuming no losses (c H2O = 4180 J/kg C; 1 L H2O = 1 kg) Q m 1/11/00 Electromechanical Dynamics 16

17 Temperature Kelvin temperature scale is a measure of the absolute value Thermal mass is the mass of object times specific heat 1/11/00 Electromechanical Dynamics 17

18 Heat Transfer by Conduction By heating one end of a metal bar its temperature rises due to increase atomic vibrations the vibrations are transmitted down the bar the temperature at the other end of the bar rises Thermal conduction is similar to the flow of electric current: λ A P= ( t1 t P = heat transmitted [W] 2) d (t 1 - t 2 ) = temperature difference across object [ C] d = thickness of object [m] d A A = cross sectional area [m 2 ] P λ = thermal conductivity [W/(m C)] λ P t 1 t 2 1/11/00 Electromechanical Dynamics 18

19 Thermal Convection A continual current of fluids that provide cooling is called natural convection Fluids, like air, oil, and water, in contact with hot surfaces warm up and become lighter lighter fluids rise cooler fluids replace the rising fluids the warm fluids cool and sink The convection process can be accelerated by employing a fan or pump to create a rapid circulation called force convection 1/11/00 Electromechanical Dynamics 19

20 Heat Loss by Convection The heat lost by natural air convection is: P = heat loss by convection [W] A = surface area of the object [m 2 ] t 1 = surface temperature of the object [ C] t 2 = ambient temperature of the surrounding air [ C] Example a totally enclosed motor has an external surface area of 1.2 m 2 when operating at full-load, the surface temperature rises to 60 C in an ambient of 20 C calculate the heat loss by natural convection ( ) P = 3 A t t 1/11/00 Electromechanical Dynamics

21 Heat Loss by Convection The heat loss by forced air convection is: P = heat loss by convection [W] V a = volume of cooling air [m 3 /s] t 1 = temperature of the incoming (cool) air [ C] t 2 = temperature of the outgoing (warm) air [ C] Example ( t ) P = 1280Va t a fan rated at 3.75 kw blows 240 m3/min of air through a 750 kw moter to carry away the heat if the inlet temperature is 22 C and the outlet temperature is 31 C, estimate the losses in the motor 1 2 1/11/00 Electromechanical Dynamics 21

22 Radiant Heat Radiant heat energy (electromagnetic waves-infrared spectrum) can pass through empty space or vacuum All objects radiate heat energy as a function of temperature All objects absorb radiant energy from other surrounding objects An object reaches a temperature equilibrium point when it is the same temperature as that of its surroundings it radiates as much energy as it receives and the net radiation is zero 1/11/00 Electromechanical Dynamics 22

23 Radiant Heat Loss The heat that an object looses 4 by radiation: P = k A T 1 T2 P = heat radiated [W] A = surface area of object [m 2 ] T 1 = object s temperature [K] T 2 = temperature of surrounding objects [K] k = constant that depends on the nature of the object s surface Example ( 4 ) Type of surface k [W/(m 2 K 4 ) polished silver bright copper oxidized copper aluminum paint oxidized iron insulation enamel paint calculate the heat loss by radiation for the motor from the natural convection example, which has an enamel surface 1/11/00 Electromechanical Dynamics 23

24 Homework Problems: 3-5, 3-9, 3-12, 3-17, and /11/00 Electromechanical Dynamics 24

### Objectives. Power in Translational Systems 298 CHAPTER 6 POWER

Objectives Explain the relationship between power and work. Explain the relationship between power, force, and speed for an object in translational motion. Calculate a device s efficiency in terms of the

### Model of a DC Generator Driving a DC Motor (which propels a car)

Model of a DC Generator Driving a DC Motor (which propels a car) John Hung 5 July 2011 The dc is connected to the dc as illustrated in Fig. 1. Both machines are of permanent magnet type, so their respective

### DYNAMICS MOMENT OF INERTIA

DYNAMICS MOMENT OF INERTIA S TO SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE No.1 1. A cylinder has a mass of 1 kg, outer radius of 0.05 m and radius of gyration 0.03 m. It is allowed to roll down an inclined plane until

### Thermodynamics I Spring 1432/1433H (2011/2012H) Saturday, Wednesday 8:00am - 10:00am & Monday 8:00am - 9:00am MEP 261 Class ZA

Thermodynamics I Spring 1432/1433H (2011/2012H) Saturday, Wednesday 8:00am - 10:00am & Monday 8:00am - 9:00am MEP 261 Class ZA Dr. Walid A. Aissa Associate Professor, Mech. Engg. Dept. Faculty of Engineering

### Physics 111. Lecture 36 (Walker: ) Heat Capacity & Specific Heat Heat Transfer. May 1, Quiz (Chaps. 14 & 16) on Wed.

Physics 111 Lecture 36 (Walker: 16.4-6) Heat Capacity & Specific Heat Heat Transfer May 1, 2009 Quiz (Chaps. 14 & 16) on Wed. May 6 Lecture 36 1/26 Heat Capacity (C) The heat capacity C of an object is

### ENERGY. Unit 12: IPC

ENERGY Unit 12: IPC WHAT IS ENERGY? Energy- is the ability to do work. Energy is the ability to cause a change. Energy can change an object s: motion shape temperature color THERMAL internal motion of

### Chapter 3 Basic Physical Principles Applications to Fluid Power Sy S stems

Chapter 3 Basic Physical Principles Applications to Fluid Power Systems 1 Objectives Identify and explain the design and operation of the six basic machines. Describe the factors that affect energy in

### 100 Physics Facts. 1. The standard international unit (SI unit) for mass (m) is. kg (kilograms) s (seconds)

100 Physics Facts 1. The standard international unit (SI unit) for mass (m) is. kg (kilograms) 2. The standard international unit (SI unit) for time (t) is. s (seconds) 3. The standard international unit

### Chapter 3. Basic Principles. Contents

Chapter 3. Basic Principles Contents 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Heat 3.3 Sensible Heat 3.4 Latent Heat 3.5 Evaporative Cooling 3.6 Convection 3.7 Transport 3.8 Energy Transfer Mediums 3.9 Radiation 3.10 Greenhouse

### N5 H AH Physical Quantity Symbol Unit Unit Abbrev. 5 absorbed dose D gray Gy

5 absorbed dose D gray Gy 5 absorbed dose rate D gray per second gray per hour gray per year Gys -1 Gyh -1 Gyy -1 5 6 7 acceleration a metre per second per second m s -2 5 6 7 acceleration due to gravity

### Unit Two Worksheet Matter and Energy WS PS U2

Unit Two Worksheet Matter and Energy WS PS U2 Name Period Section 4.1 Matching. Match the definition with the term that best correlates to it. 1. Chemical potential energy 2. Elastic potential energy 3.

### Chapter 6: Efficiency and Heating. 9/18/2003 Electromechanical Dynamics 1

Chapter 6: Efficiency and Heating 9/18/2003 Electromechanical Dynamics 1 Losses As a machine transforms energy from one form to another there is always a certain power loss the loss is expressed as heat,

### DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Dynamics of Machinery. Submitted

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Dynamics of Machinery Submitted 1 UNIT I - Force Analysis INDEX (1) Introduction (2) Newton s Law (3) Types of force Analysis (4) Principle of Super Position (5) Free

### Resistivity and Temperature Coefficients (at 20 C)

Homework # 4 Resistivity and Temperature Coefficients (at 0 C) Substance Resistivity, Temperature ( m) Coefficient, (C ) - Conductors Silver.59 x 0-0.006 Copper.6 x 0-0.006 Aluminum.65 x 0-0.0049 Tungsten

### What is Energy? Energy is the capacity to do work

What is Energy? Energy is the capacity to do work Work the product of force exerted on an object and the distance the object moves in the direction of the force. W=Fd W = work (Joules, J) F = force (N)

### Thermal Process Control Lap 4 Thermal Energy. Notes:

Thermal Process Control Lap 4 Thermal Energy Notes: 1) Temperature Measurement a) Define temperature i) A measure of the amount of heat contained in a solid, liquid, or gas ii) Result of molecular motion

### Bell Ringer. What are the formulas to obtain the force, acceleration, and mass? And corresponding units. F= ma M= f/a A= f/m

Bell Ringer What are the formulas to obtain the force, acceleration, and mass? And corresponding units. F= ma M= f/a A= f/m F= N M= kg A= m/s^2 What did we learn about the acceleration rate and gravitational

### Physical Science midterm study guide. Chapter 1 and 2

Physical Science midterm study guide Chapter 1 and 2 1. Explain the difference between a scientific law and a scientific theory a. Laws generalize observations b. Theories explain observations 2. Select

### AP Physics QUIZ Chapters 10

Name: 1. Torque is the rotational analogue of (A) Kinetic Energy (B) Linear Momentum (C) Acceleration (D) Force (E) Mass A 5-kilogram sphere is connected to a 10-kilogram sphere by a rigid rod of negligible

### TEMPERATURE. 8. Temperature and Heat 1

TEMPERATURE Heat is the energy that is transferred between objects because of a temperature difference Terms such as transfer of heat or heat flow from object A to object B simply means that the total

### 12/21/2014 7:39 PM. Chapter 2. Energy and the 1st Law of Thermodynamics. Dr. Mohammad Suliman Abuhaiba, PE

Chapter 2 Energy and the 1st Law of Thermodynamics 1 2 Homework Assignment # 2 Problems: 1, 7, 14, 20, 30, 36, 42, 49, 56 Design and open end problem: 2.1D Due Monday 22/12/2014 3 Work and Kinetic Energy

### kinetic molecular theory thermal energy.

Thermal Physics 1 Thermal Energy The kinetic molecular theory is based on the assumption that matter is made up of tiny particles that are always in motion. In a hot object the particles are moving faster

### The Kinetic Theory of Matter. Temperature. Temperature. Temperature. Temperature. Chapter 6 HEAT

The Kinetic Theory of Matter Hewitt/Lyons/Suchocki/Yeh Conceptual Integrated Science Chapter 6 HEAT Kinetic Theory of Matter: Matter is made up of tiny particles (atoms or molecules) that are always in

### OUTCOME 1 MECHANICAL POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS TUTORIAL 3 FLYWHEELS. On completion of this short tutorial you should be able to do the following.

Unit 60: Dynamics of Machines Unit code: H/60/4 QCF Level:4 Credit value:5 OUTCOME MECHANCAL POWER TRANSMSSON SYSTEMS TUTORAL 3 FLYWHEELS. Be able to determine the kinetic and dynamic parameters of mechanical

### Lecture 4: Losses and Heat Transfer

1 / 26 Lecture 4: Losses and Heat Transfer ELEC-E845 Electric Drives (5 ECTS) Marko Hinkkanen Aalto University School of Electrical Engineering Autumn 215 2 / 26 Learning Outcomes After this lecture and

### Game Physics. Game and Media Technology Master Program - Utrecht University. Dr. Nicolas Pronost

Game and Media Technology Master Program - Utrecht University Dr. Nicolas Pronost Essential physics for game developers Introduction The primary issues Let s move virtual objects Kinematics: description

### Chapter 16 Temperature and Heat

Chapter 16 Temperature and Heat 16-1 Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics Definition of heat: Heat is the energy transferred between objects because of a temperature difference. Objects are

### Work by Friction. A box slides 10 m across a surface. A frictional force of 20 N is acting on the box.

Work by Friction A box slides 10 m across a surface. A frictional force of 20 N is acting on the box. What is the work done by friction? What happened to this energy? Work by Friction A box slides 10 m

### CPO Science Foundations of Physics. Unit 8, Chapter 26

CPO Science Foundations of Physics Unit 8, Chapter 26 Unit 8: Matter and Energy Chapter 26 Heat Transfer 26.1 Heat Conduction 26.2 Convection 26.3 Radiation Chapter 26 Objectives 1. Explain the relationship

### Engineering Systems & Investigation. Dynamic Systems Fundamentals

Engineering Systems & Investigation Dynamic Systems Fundamentals Dynamics: Linear Motion Linear Motion Equations s.u.v.a.t s = Displacement. u = Initial Velocity. v = Final Velocity. a = Acceleration.

### Electric energy Radiant energy Nuclear energy

CHAPTER 7 LESSON 1: FORMS OF ENERGY Potential Energy Stored Energy Energy Kinetic Potential Work What is Energy? Mechanical Sound Thermal Electric Radiant Nuclear Potential is stored due to the interactions

### [7] Torsion. [7.1] Torsion. [7.2] Statically Indeterminate Torsion. [7] Torsion Page 1 of 21

[7] Torsion Page 1 of 21 [7] Torsion [7.1] Torsion [7.2] Statically Indeterminate Torsion [7] Torsion Page 2 of 21 [7.1] Torsion SHEAR STRAIN DUE TO TORSION 1) A shaft with a circular cross section is

### is acting on a body of mass m = 3.0 kg and changes its velocity from an initial

PHYS 101 second major Exam Term 102 (Zero Version) Q1. A 15.0-kg block is pulled over a rough, horizontal surface by a constant force of 70.0 N acting at an angle of 20.0 above the horizontal. The block

### P1 Quick Revision Questions. P1 for AQA GCSE examination 2018 onwards

P1 Quick Revision Questions Question 1... of 50 What type of energy is stored in a stretched elastic band? Answer 1... of 50 Elastic potential energy. Question 2... of 50 What type of energy is stored

### matter/index.html

http://www.colorado.edu/physics/2000/index.pl http://www.harcourtschool.com/activity/states_of_ matter/index.html Thermal Energy Ch 6-1 Temperature and Heat Objectives Explain the kinetic theory of matter

### Second measurement. Measurement of speed of rotation and torque

Second measurement Measurement of speed of rotation and torque 1. Introduction The power of motion is the product of torque and angular velocity P = M ω [W ] And since the angular velocity rad ω = 2 π

### General Physics Contest 2012

General Physics Contest May 6, (9:am-:5am), Total of 5 pages. Some useful constants: Gas constant R = 8.34 J/mol K Electron mass m e = 9.9-3 kg Electron charge e =.6-9 C Electric constant (permittivity)

### Energy, Temperature, & Heat. Energy, Temperature, & Heat. Temperature Scales 1/17/11

Energy, Temperature, & Heat Energy is the ability to do work (push, pull, lift) on some form of matter. Chapter 2 Potential energy is the potential for work (mass x gravity x height) Kinetic energy is

### Thermal Systems. What and How? Physical Mechanisms and Rate Equations Conservation of Energy Requirement Control Volume Surface Energy Balance

Introduction to Heat Transfer What and How? Physical Mechanisms and Rate Equations Conservation of Energy Requirement Control Volume Surface Energy Balance Thermal Resistance Thermal Capacitance Thermal

### Handout 10: Heat and heat transfer. Heat capacity

1 Handout 10: Heat and heat transfer Heat capacity Consider an experiment in Figure 1. Heater is inserted into a solid substance of mass m and the temperature rise T degrees Celsius is measured by a thermometer.

### 2,000-gram mass of water compared to a 1,000-gram mass.

11.2 Heat To change the temperature, you usually need to add or subtract energy. For example, when it s cold outside, you turn up the heat in your house or apartment and the temperature goes up. You know

### Chapter 14 Temperature and Heat

Chapter 14 Temperature and Heat To understand temperature and temperature scales. To describe thermal expansion and its applications. To explore and solve problems involving heat, phase changes and calorimetry.

### Laboratory Exercise M-2 Power measurements

SILESIAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY FACULTY OF ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF POWER ENGINEERING AND TURBOMACHINERY INSTRUCTIONS to Measurements of energetic quantities (Pomiary wielkości

### 4.1. Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4 - Heat GCKL UNDERSTANDING THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM. What is thermal equilibrium?

4.1 4 UNDERSTANDING THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM What is thermal equilibrium? 1. ( Heat, Temperature ) is a form of energy that flows from a hot body to a cold body. 2. The SI unit for ( heat, temperature) is Joule,

### Chapter: Heat and States

Table of Contents Chapter: Heat and States of Matter Section 1: Temperature and Thermal Energy Section 2: States of Matter Section 3: Transferring Thermal Energy Section 4: Using Thermal Energy 1 Temperature

### produce sugar, which contains stored chemical energy. Most of the energy that we use on Earth originally came from the Sun.

Conservation of Energy Energy can be in many different forms. Students should know sources and properties of the following forms of energy: Heat energy is the transfer of thermal energy (energy that is

### What is Energy? Energy- is the ability to do work. Energy is the ability to cause a change. Energy can change an object s:

Energy & Work What is Energy? Energy- is the ability to do work. Energy is the ability to cause a change. Energy can change an object s: motion temperature shape color http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-dpbvtabkju

### University of Jordan Faculty of Engineering & Technology Electric Power Engineering Department

University of Jordan Faculty of Engineering & Technology Electric Power Engineering Department EE471: Electrical Machines-II Tutorial # 2: 3-ph Induction Motor/Generator Question #1 A 100 hp, 60-Hz, three-phase

### PHYA5/2C. (JUN14PHYA52C01) WMP/Jun14/PHYA5/2C/E5. General Certificate of Education Advanced Level Examination June Section B

Centre Number Surname Candidate Number For Examinerʼs Use Other Names Candidate Signature Examinerʼs Initials Physics A General Certificate of Education Advanced Level Examination June 2014 PHYA5/2C Question

### Chapter 12. Temperature and Heat. continued

Chapter 12 Temperature and Heat continued 12.3 The Ideal Gas Law THE IDEAL GAS LAW The absolute pressure of an ideal gas is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature and the number of moles (n) of

### Encoders. Understanding. November design for industry: Help clean up the ocean. Horizon failure forensics

November 2013 www.designworldonline.com INSIDE: design for industry: Help clean up the ocean Page 18 3D CAD: FEA aids Deepwater Horizon failure forensics Page 37 Understanding NETWORKING: Enhancing enterprise

### Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer Mechanisms

18-6 Heat Transfer Mechanisms Thermal Radiation Radiation is an energy transfer via the emission of electromagnetic energy. The rate P rad at which an object emits energy via thermal radiation is Here

### COLLEGE PHYSICS Chapter 23 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION, AC CIRCUITS, AND ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGIES

COLLEGE PHYSICS Chapter 23 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION, AC CIRCUITS, AND ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGIES Induced emf: Faraday s Law and Lenz s Law We observe that, when a magnet is moved near a conducting loop,

### SPH3U1 Lesson 03 Energy

THERMAL ENERGY AND LATENT HEAT LEARNING GOALS Students will learn: Heat changes the amount of thermal energy in an object Temperature is a measure of the average thermal energy in an object Heat capacity

### UNITS AND DEFINITIONS RELATED TO BIOMECHANICAL AND ELECTROMYOGRAPHICAL MEASUREMENTS

APPENDIX B UNITS AND DEFINITIONS RELATED TO BIOMECHANICAL AND ELECTROMYOGRAPHICAL MEASUREMENTS All units used are SI (Système International d Unités). The system is based on seven well-defined base units

### ing. A. Kragten May 2008 KD 378

Basic knowledge about electrical, chemical, mechanical, potential and kinetic energy to understand literature about the generation of energy by small wind turbines ing. A. Kragten May 2008 KD 378 It is

### Q. 1 Q. 25 carry one mark each.

Q. 1 Q. 5 carry one mark each. Q.1 At least one eigenvalue of a singular matrix is (A) positive (B) zero (C) negative (D) imaginary Q. At x = 0, the function f( x) = x has (A) a minimum (C) a point of

### is energy in particles of matter. Chemical energy can be released, for example in or, when these particles react to form new substances.

TYPES OF ENERGY Energy can be in many different. Students should know sources and properties of the following forms of energy: is the transfer of energy (energy that is associated with the of the particles

### UNIT 4 FLYWHEEL 4.1 INTRODUCTION 4.2 DYNAMICALLY EQUIVALENT SYSTEM. Structure. Objectives. 4.1 Introduction

UNIT 4 FLYWHEEL Structure 4.1 Introduction Objectives 4. Dynamically Equivalent System 4.3 Turning Moment Diagram 4.3.1 Turning Moment Diagram of a Single Cylinder 4-storke IC Engine 4.3. Turning Moment

### Heat Transfer. Conduction, Convection, and Radiation. Review: Temperature

Heat Transfer Conduction, Convection, and Radiation Review: Temperature! Temperature is:! The quantity that tells how hot or cold something is compared with a standard! A measure of the average kinetic

### Lecture 22. Temperature and Heat

Lecture 22 Temperature and Heat Today s Topics: 0 th Law of Thermodynamics Temperature Scales Thermometers Thermal Expansion Heat, Internal Energy and Work Heat Transfer Temperature and the Zeroth Law

### gear gravity heat inclined plane

Equal and opposite forces which occur in pairs Upward force acting on objects when they are placed in water Substance which allows electric current to pass through it Force applied at one point of a machine

### Tutorial 1 - Drive fundamentals and DC motor characteristics

University of New South Wales School of Electrical Engineering & elecommunications ELEC4613 ELECRIC DRIVE SYSEMS utorial 1 - Drive fundamentals and DC motor characteristics 1. In the hoist drive system

### EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA SCIENCE FOR TECHNICIANS OUTCOME 3 - ENERGY TUTORIAL 1 MECHANICAL WORK, ENERGY AND POWER: WORK

EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA SCIENCE FOR TECHNICIANS OUTCOME 3 - ENERGY TUTORIAL 1 MECHANICAL WORK, ENERGY AND POWER: WORK 3 Energy Mechanical work, energy and power: work - energy relationship,

### Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Forms of Energy Lesson 2 Energy Transformations Lesson 3 Thermal Energy on the Move Chapter Wrap-Up

Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Forms of Energy Lesson 2 Energy Transformations Lesson 3 Thermal Energy on the Move Chapter Wrap-Up What is energy, and what are energy transformations? What do you think?

### What does temperature have to do with energy? What three temperature scales are commonly used? What makes things feel hot or cold?

Heat and Temperature Section 1: Temperature What does temperature have to do with energy? What three temperature scales are commonly used? What makes things feel hot or cold? 1 Intro: Discussion A person

### Preview of Period 17: Induction Motors and Transformers

Preview of Period 17: Induction Motors and Transformers 17.1 Induced Current How can we use induce current in a wire? 17.2 Generators How is electricity generated? 17.3 AC and DC Induced Current Is the

### Ch 100: Fundamentals for Chemistry

Ch 100: Fundamentals for Chemistry Chapter 4: Properties of Matter Lecture Notes Physical & Chemical Properties Physical Properties are the characteristics of matter that can be changed without changing

### ENGINEERING COUNCIL DYNAMICS OF MECHANICAL SYSTEMS D225 TUTORIAL 4 MOMENT OF INERTIA. On completion of this tutorial you should be able to

ENGINEEING COUNCIL DYNAMICS OF MECHANICAL SYSTEMS D5 TUTOIAL 4 MOMENT OF INETIA On completion of this tutorial you should be able to evise angular motion. Define and derive the moment of inertia of a body.

### Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Forms of Energy Lesson 2 Energy Transformations Lesson 3 Thermal Energy on the Move Chapter Wrap-Up

Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Forms of Energy Lesson 2 Energy Transformations Lesson 3 Thermal Energy on the Move Chapter Wrap-Up What is energy, and what are energy transformations? What do you think?

### Unit 6 Forces in Nature gravity; Law of Universal Gravitation; current; series/parallel circuits; magnets; electromagnets

8 th grade Physical Science comprehensive study guide Unit 2 Nature of Matter atoms/molecules; atomic models; physical/chemical properties; physical/chemical changes; types of bonds; periodic table; states

### 4.1. Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4 - Heat GCKL UNDERSTANDING THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM. What is thermal equilibrium?

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4 - Heat GCKL 2010 4.1 4 UNDERSTANDING THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM What is thermal equilibrium? 1. (, Temperature ) is a form of energy that flows from a hot body to a cold body.

### Texas A & M University Department of Mechanical Engineering MEEN 364 Dynamic Systems and Controls Dr. Alexander G. Parlos

Texas A & M University Department of Mechanical Engineering MEEN 364 Dynamic Systems and Controls Dr. Alexander G. Parlos Lecture 6: Modeling of Electromechanical Systems Principles of Motor Operation

### Unit 2: Energy THERMAL ENERGY HEAT TRANSFER POTENTIAL VS. KINETIC ENERGY WORK POWER SIMPLE MACHINES

Unit 2: Energy THERMAL ENERGY HEAT TRANSFER POTENTIAL VS. KINETIC ENERGY WORK POWER SIMPLE MACHINES Bellringer Day 01 1. What is energy? 2. There are different forms of energy. Name two. What is Energy?

### Chapter 5: The First Law of Thermodynamics: Closed Systems

Chapter 5: The First Law of Thermodynamics: Closed Systems The first law of thermodynamics can be simply stated as follows: during an interaction between a system and its surroundings, the amount of energy

### PHYA5/2C. General Certificate of Education Advanced Level Examination June Section B. Monday 27 June am to 10.45am (JUN11PHYA52C01) PMT

Centre Number Surname Candidate Number For Examinerʼs Use Other Names Candidate Signature Examinerʼs Initials General Certificate of Education Advanced Level Examination June 2011 Question 1 2 Mark Physics

### Thermal Energy. Chapter 6 2 Transferring Thermal Energy

Thermal Energy Chapter 6 2 Transferring Thermal Energy Objectives Compare and contrast conduction, convection, and radiation. Compare and contrast conductors and insulators. CLE 3202.2.3 Examine the applications

### Electric Machines I Three Phase Induction Motor. Dr. Firas Obeidat

Electric Machines I Three Phase Induction Motor Dr. Firas Obeidat 1 Table of contents 1 General Principles 2 Construction 3 Production of Rotating Field 4 Why Does the Rotor Rotate 5 The Slip and Rotor

### Physics 1501 Lecture 35

Physics 1501: Lecture 35 Todays Agenda Announcements Homework #11 (Dec. 2) and #12 (Dec. 9): 2 lowest dropped Honors students: see me after the class! Todays topics Chap.16: Temperature and Heat» Latent

### Lecture 3: Electrical Power and Energy

Lecture 3: Electrical Power and Energy Recall from Lecture 2 E (V) I R E Voltage Similar to water pressure Unit: Volts (V) I Current Similar to water flow Unit: Amperes (A) R Resistance Similar to water

### Units (Different systems of units, SI units, fundamental and derived units)

Physics: Units & Measurement: Units (Different systems of units, SI units, fundamental and derived units) Dimensional Analysis Precision and significant figures Fundamental measurements in Physics (Vernier

### Thermochemistry. The study of energy transfers and chemical reactions

Thermochemistry The study of energy transfers and chemical reactions Energy Energy is the ability to do work Work = Force x distance SI unit is the Joule (J) 1000 J = 1 kj other unit: calorie (cal) 1000

### Optics Definitions. The apparent movement of one object relative to another due to the motion of the observer is called parallax.

Optics Definitions Reflection is the bouncing of light off an object Laws of Reflection of Light: 1. The incident ray, the normal at the point of incidence and the reflected ray all lie in the same plane.

### ADMISSION TEST INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION ENGINEERING

UNIVERSITÀ DEGLI STUDI DI PAVIA ADMISSION TEST INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION ENGINEERING September 26, 2016 The candidates are required to answer the following multiple choice test which includes 30 questions;

### Solar Flat Plate Thermal Collector

Solar Flat Plate Thermal Collector INTRODUCTION: Solar heater is one of the simplest and basic technologies in the solar energy field. Collector is the heart of any solar heating system. It absorbs and

### Efficiency = power out x 100% power in

Work, Energy and Power Review Package 1) Work: change in energy. Measured in Joules, J. W = Fd W = ΔE Work is scalar, but can be negative. To remember this, ask yourself either: Is the object is losing

### Recap. There are 3 different temperature scales: Celsius, Kelvin, and Fahrenheit

Recap Temperature, T, is related to the average kinetic energy of each atom/molecule the given material consists of: The ideal gas law relates pressure to density and temperature: There are 3 different

### Physics 231. Topic 13: Heat. Alex Brown Dec 1, MSU Physics 231 Fall

Physics 231 Topic 13: Heat Alex Brown Dec 1, 2015 MSU Physics 231 Fall 2015 1 8 th 10 pm correction for 3 rd exam 9 th 10 pm attitude survey (1% for participation) 10 th 10 pm concept test timed (50 min))

### l Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an

Motion and Machine Unit Notes DO NOT LOSE! Name: Energy Ability to do work To cause something to change move or directions Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but transferred from one form to another.

### Phys101 Lectures 19, 20 Rotational Motion

Phys101 Lectures 19, 20 Rotational Motion Key points: Angular and Linear Quantities Rotational Dynamics; Torque and Moment of Inertia Rotational Kinetic Energy Ref: 10-1,2,3,4,5,6,8,9. Page 1 Angular Quantities

### Name: Date: Period: AP Physics C Rotational Motion HO19

1.) A wheel turns with constant acceleration 0.450 rad/s 2. (9-9) Rotational Motion H19 How much time does it take to reach an angular velocity of 8.00 rad/s, starting from rest? Through how many revolutions

### Properties of Matter. Heat. Summary

Properties of Matter Heat Summary Heat is a form of energy that is measured in joules (J). The temperature of an object is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in the object and is

### Heat and Temperature

Heat and Temperature Temperature What does temperature have to do with energy? What three temperature scales are commonly used? What makes things feel hot or cold? Intro: Discussion A person from Seattle

### ENGR 292 Fluids and Thermodynamics

ENGR 292 Fluids and Thermodynamics Scott Li, Ph.D., P.Eng. Mechanical Engineering Technology Camosun College Timeline Last week, Reading Break Feb.21: Thermodynamics 1 Feb.24: Midterm Review (Fluid Statics

### Thermal Effects. IGCSE Physics

Thermal Effects IGCSE Physics Starter What is the difference between heat and temperature? What unit is thermal energy measured in? And what does it depend on? In which direction does heat flow? Heat (Thermal

### the ability to do work or cause change (work is force exerted on an object causing it to move a distance)

Vocabulary Terms - Energy energy the ability to do work or cause change (work is force exerted on an object causing it to move a distance) heat Heat is a form of energy that flows between two substances

### Preview of Period 4: Transfer of Thermal Energy

Preview of Period 4: Transfer of Thermal Energy 4.1 Temperature and Thermal Energy How is temperature measured? What temperature scales are used? 4.2 How is Thermal Energy Transferred? How do conduction,