# Outline. Advances in STAR-CCM+ DEM models for simulating deformation, breakage, and flow of solids

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1 Advances in STAR-CCM+ DEM models for simulating deformation, breakage, and flow of solids Oleh Baran Outline Overview of DEM in STAR-CCM+ Recent DEM capabilities Parallel Bonds in STAR-CCM+ Constant Rate Damage Model Maximum Packing Random Injector Particle Depletion Model Abrasive Wear Model Simulation studies Compression of brittle material Rock drilling Erosion in a pipe bend Erosion due to water jet Summary 2

2 Discrete Element Modeling (DEM) - Overview DEM is used to model particles of different sizes and shapes DEM resolves the collisions between particles Particles can be bonded together to form deformable / breakable material 3 DEM Governing Equations Momentum conservation m i dv i dt = j F ij + F g + F fluid m i and v i are mass and velocity of particle i, F g = m i g is gravity force, F ij is contact force between particle i and element j - DEM is a meshless method - DEM is computationally intensive method Conservation of angular momentum d dt I iω i = T ij j i, I i and ω i are the momentum on inertia and rotational velocity of particle i. T ij = r ij (F ij + F r ) is the torque produced at the point of contact and it is the function of the rolling friction force F r 4

3 Contact forces Particle A Particle B Normal component of contact force Normal restitution Young s modulus (stiffness) Tangential component of contact force Friction Tangential restitution 5 Contact models in STAR-CCM+ Basic models Hertz-Mindlin Walton-Braun Linear Spring Classical nonlinear contact force model for rigid bodies Linear model for deformable particles Linear model for rigid bodies Optional models Rolling Resistance Linear Cohesion Artificial Viscosity Heat Conduction Parallel Bonds Three models for resisting rolling Constant attractive force Velocity dependent damping model Heat flow through contact Bonds resisting to tension, bending, twist 6

4 Stress on bond Parallel bonds in STAR-CCM+ Massless bar, subject to breaking under load Two STAR-CCM+ models use same bond physics Parallel bond contact model Bonds are formed after injection at each new contact User specifies time interval of bonding Bonded particle model Used to create clumped particles: Bonds are formed at the moment of injection Recent improvements Bond strength distribution, visualization, and 7 Constant Rate Damage Model (new in v ) A 0 σ m σ l M A B 0 B O ε f Bond tensile strain k r ε f k r is the fracture softening modulus, model parameter 8

5 Example of Brazilian compression test Standard test to determine the strength of brittle material Solid material is modeled as particles bonded together 9 Sample preparation New Maximum Packing option in Random Injector Particles grow from seeds until whole region is fully packed Resulting configuration has no overlaps between particles 200 seeds seeds 10

6 Running compression test Geometry involves stationary bottom wall and moving down top platen Particles are injected using table injector with Allow overlap option Particle diameters are inflated by factor 1.01 to ensure small overlaps Bonds are set to form for first 0.1 s before starting compression 11 Animation of compression test 12

7 Crack formation Both Simple Failure and Constant Rate Damage models were tested: Only Constant Rate Damage model reproduced the vertical crack observed in experiment Bonds model parameters (Normal and Tangential strength of bonds, its distribution) were calibrated to reproduce the target material Soft sandstone in our tests 13 Example of rock drilling Rock is permeable with void fraction =0.4 Overset mesh is used to rotate and advance the drill-bit down Solution for drilling fluid flow was obtained using 2-way coupling model Jet flow form nozzles results in large drag forces on bonded grains (jetted erosion) 14

8 Erosion and Wear in Solids Processing Equipment Drilling rock Slurry flow in pipes erosion Sediment flow, Gravel Packing 15 Abrasive Wear Model in STAR-CCM+ New in version Relevant for flow regimes With high solids loading Prolonged sliding contact between particles and geometry 16

9 Abrasive Wear Formulation Archard Model: M e = C contacts F cn v ct dt is mass eroded from single surface cell C is abrasive wear coefficient in units of kg/j (model parameter) F cn is normal component of particle-cell contact force v ct is tangential component of particle-cell relative velocity at the point of contact dt is DEM timestep Field Function option: M e = C contacts F(c)dt F(c) is user field function dt Surface cell F cn motion Contact path At the end of each timestep, for each surface cell, Erosion rate calculated as E r = 1 1 M T A e cell T is the timestep A cell is the area of surface cell M e is reset to zero E r is available for postprocessing 17 Abrasive wear formulation summary Model properly accounts for All contacts during timestep Variation of contact force strength and relative velocity for single particle during prolonged sliding contact Abrasive wear coefficient is often related to hardness of boundary Best for flows when harder particles are sliding along softer boundary Abrasive wear model is compatible with coarse grain model 18

10 Elbow pipe example, top view 2 m 0.4 m Inlet 1 m Mean Parcel Diameter = 10 mm Mesh size 20 mm Outlet 19 Particle Injection gravity Injection Volume Random injector Uses Maximum Independent Set Algorithm to provide High Solid Loading flow Fast, mesh independent Initial particle velocity: Horizontal component = inlet fluid velocity Small down component 20

11 Initial Results for Elbow flow 21 DEM Postprocessing View from bottom 22

12 Erosion due to water jet example 0.4 m Segment of pipe (or solids buildup inside pipe) can be modeled using DEM particles bonded together D_inner = 0.3 m D_outer = 0.4 m Water flow is set with inlet at one end of DEM pipe and outlet at another end Inlet velocity is tilted 10 deg with respect to inlet normal One side of pipe should experience more erosion 23 Features used to create bonded assembly Maximum packing option in random injector Allows obtaining tight packing of particles without timestepping For size distribution, smaller particles are injected after larger one are in the system Particle depletion model New in version Allows removing subset of particles (clean central core area) Example on next slide Table injector with Allow overlap option Allows loading the saved particle assembly with inflated diameters 24

13 Particle Depletion Model to remove particles based on user-specified criteria New in version Initial Results with Constant Rate Damage Model Inlet velocity in aggressively ramped from 0 till 20 m/s over simulated time Fully 2-way coupling between DEM and CFD 26

14 DEM Post-processing 27 Summary Improved parallel bonds New injection and depletion options Improved accuracy in modeling brittle materials processing New abrasive wear model Accurate prediction of equipment damage 28

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