Additive resonances of a controlled van der PolDuffing oscillator


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1 Additive resonances of a controlled van der PolDuffing oscillator This paper has been published in Journal of Sound and Vibration vol. 5 issue  8 pp.. J.C. Ji N. Zhang Faculty of Engineering University of Technology Sydney PO Box Broadway NSW 7 Australia Total number of pages: 9 Total number of figures:
2 Additive resonances of a controlled van der PolDuffing oscillator Abstract The trivial equilibrium of a controlled van der PolDuffing oscillator with nonlinear feedback control may lose its stability via a nonresonant interaction of two Hopf bifurcations when two critical time delays corresponding to two Hopf bifurcations have the same value. Such an interaction results in a nonresonant bifurcation of codimension two. In the vicinity of the nonresonant Hopf bifurcations the presence of a periodic excitation in the controlled oscillator can induce three types of additive resonances in the forced response when the frequency of the external excitation and the frequencies of the two Hopf bifurcations satisfy a certain relationship. With the aid of centre manifold theorem and the method of multiple scales three types of additive resonance responses of the controlled system are investigated by studying the possible solutions and their stability of the fourdimensional ordinary differential equations on the centre manifold. The amplitudes of the freeoscillation terms are found to admit three solutions; two nontrivial solutions and the trivial solution. Of two nontrivial solutions one is stable and the trivial solution is unstable. A stable nontrivial solution corresponds to a quasiperiodic motion of the original system. It is also found that the frequency response curves for three cases of additive resonances are an isolated closed curve. It is shown that the forced response of the oscillator may exhibit quasiperiodic motions on a threedimensional torus consisting of three frequencies; the frequencies of two bifurcating solutions and the frequency of the excitation. Illustrative examples are given to show the quasiperiodic motions.
3 . Introduction In the absence of external excitation the equilibrium of a controlled nonlinear system involving time delay may lose its stability and give rise to periodic solutions via Hopf bifurcations when the time delay reaches certain values. In the neighbourhood of the critical point of Hopf bifurcations an interaction of bifurcating periodic solutions and an external excitation may induce rich dynamic behaviour. The forced behaviour of the nonautonomous system may exhibit nonresonant response primary resonances subharmonic and superharmonic resonances depending on the relationship of the frequency of Hopf bifurcation and the forcing frequency. The effect of time delays on the stability and dynamics of time delayed systems have received considerable interest in the literature [8]. However there has been less effort made in studying an interaction of the external excitation and two bifurcating solutions which result from nonresonant Hopf bifurcations of the corresponding autonomous systems. The main purpose of the present paper is to study an interaction of the forcing and bifurcating periodic solutions in the vicinity of nonresonant bifurcation of codimension two which appears after the trivial solution of the van der PolDuffing oscillator loses its stability via nonresonant Hopf bifurcations. An externally forced van der PolDuffing oscillator under a linearplusnonlinear feedback control considered in the present paper is of the form x x ) x x x e cos( t) px( t ) qx ( t ) k x ( t ) ( k x ( t ) k x ( t ) x ( t ) k x ( t ) x( t ) () 4 where x is the displacement an overdot indicates the differentiation with respect to time t is the natural frequency is the coefficient of the nonlinear term and are the linear and nonlinear damping coefficients with e and represent
4 the amplitude and frequency of the external excitation p and q are the proportional and derivative linear feedback gains of a linearplusnonlinear feedback control scheme k i ( i 4) are the weakly nonlinear feedback gains and denotes the time delay occurring in the feedback path. Only one time delay is considered here for simplicity. The corresponding autonomous system for which the external excitation is neglected in equation () which can be obtained by letting e in equation () is given by x x x px( t ) qx ( t ) x k x x k x ( t ) k x ( t ) x ( t ) x ( t ) k x ( t ) x( t ). () 4 It was shown that the trivial equilibrium of the autonomous system () may lose its stability via a subcritical or a supercritical Hopf bifurcation and regain its stability via a reverse subcritical or a supercritical Hopf bifurcation as the time delay increases [9]. It was found that an interaction of two Hopf bifurcations may occur when the two critical time delays corresponding to two Hopf bifurcations have the same value. In the vicinity of nonresonant Hopf bifurcations the controlled oscillator modelled by equation () was found to have the initial equilibrium solution two periodic solutions and a quasiperiodic solution on a twodimensional (D) torus []. The presence of an external periodic excitation can induce complicated dynamic behaviour of the controlled oscillator given by equation () which includes two types of primary resonances two types of subharmonic resonances two types of superharmonic resonances three types of additive resonances and four types of difference resonances []. These resonances result from an interaction of the external excitation and the bifurcating periodic solutions that immediately follow the nonresonant Hopf bifurcations of codimension two occurring in the corresponding autonomous system given by equation (). 4
5 By following the normal procedure for the reduction of delay differential equations to ordinary differential equations based on semigroups of transformations and the decomposition theory [4] the dynamic behaviour of the solutions of equation () in the neighbourhood of nonresonant HopfHopf interactions can be interpreted by the solutions and their stability of a set of four ordinary differential equations on the centre manifolds. For simplicity it is assumed that an intersection of nonresonant Hopf bifurcations occurs at the point p q ) where the corresponding characteristic equation of the ( autonomous system () has two pairs of purely imaginary roots i i and all other roots have negative real parts. In order to study the dynamics of the controlled oscillator in the neighbourhood of the bifurcation point p q ) three small ( perturbation parameters namely and are introduced in equation () in terms of p p q q. These perturbation parameters can conveniently account for the small variations of the critical linear feedback gains and the critical time delay. By treating the external excitation in equation () as an additional perturbation term and performing similar algebraic manipulations to those done in reference [] the fourdimensional ordinary differential equations governing the local flow on the centre manifold can be expressed in the component form as z lz ( l ) z lz l4 z4 f ( z z z z4 ) e cos( t) z ( l) z l z lz l4 z4 f ( z z z z4 ) e cos( t) z lz l z lz ( l4 ) z4 f ( z z z z4 ) e cos( t) z 4 l4z l4 z ( l4 ) z l44 z4 f 4 ( z z z z4 ) e4 cos( t) () 5
6 where and are the normalized frequencies of Hopf bifurcations which have been rescaled in the units of the critical time delay e be e be e be e the other coefficients and polynomial functions of order three 4 b4e f i z z z ) (where i 4 ) involved in equation () are explicitly given in ( z4 Section of reference []. Depending on the relationship of the two natural frequencies and with the forcing frequency the nonlinear system given by equation () may exhibit either nonresonant or resonant response. Primary subharmonic and superharmonic resonances additive and difference resonances may occur in the forced response. The nonresonant response and primary resonance response of the system have been studied in reference [] using the method of multiple scales [5]. It was shown that the nonresonant response of the forced oscillator may exhibit quasiperiodic motions on a D or D torus. The resonant response may exhibit either periodic motion or quasiperiodic motions on a D torus. The present paper focuses on studying three types of additive resonances when the forcing frequency is nearly equal to half the sum of the first and second natural frequencies (i.e. ( ) / ); or the sum of the first frequency and twice the second frequency (i.e. ); or the sum of the second frequency and twice the first frequency (i.e. ). A closed form of solutions to equation () cannot be found analytically. The approximate solutions to additive resonance response of equation () will be obtained using the method of multiple scales. The dynamic behaviour of the controlled system in the neighbourhood of the point of nonresonant bifurcations of codimension two will be explored by studying the solutions of a set of four averaged equations that determine the amplitudes and phases of the free oscillation terms in additive resonance response. 6
7 It is assumed that the approximate solutions to equation () in the neighbourhood of the trivial equilibrium are represented by an expansion of the form z t; ) z ( T T ) z ( T T ) ( i 4 ). (4) i ( i i where is a nondimensional small parameter and the new multiple independent variables of time are introduced according to T k k t k. Substituting the approximate solutions (4) into equation () and then balancing the like powers of results in the following ordered perturbation equations : Dz z e cos( T ) D D D z e cos( ) z T z4 e cos( ) z T z e4 cos( ). (5) z4 T : D z g z ) z D z f ( z ) ( j j D D D z ( j j z g z ) z D z f ( z ) g z ) z D z f ( z ) ( j 4 j z4 4( j 4 4 j g z ) z D z f ( z ) (6) where D / T D / T the coefficients of the perturbation linear terms l ij in equation () have been rescaled in terms of l ij lij and the overbars in ij l have been removed for brevity. The g i( z j) ( i 4 ) are linear functions of z j ( j 4 ) which are given by g j ( z ) lz l z lz l4 z4 g ( z j) lz l z lz l4 z4 g j ( z ) lz l z lz l4 z4 g 4 ( z j) l4z l4 z l4z l44 z4. 7
8 The f i( z j) denotes nonlinear functions of z j ( j 4 ) which have been solved from equations (5) and the amplitudes of the excitations in equation () have been rescaled in terms of e e e e e e e4 e4. The solutions to equation (5) can be written in a general form as z z z z r T cos( T ) A cos( T ) A sin( ) r sin( T ) B cos( T ) B sin( ) T cos( T ) A cos( T ) A4 sin( ) r T sin( T ) B cos( T ) B4 sin( ) (7) 4 r T where r r represent respectively the amplitudes and phases of the freeoscillation terms and the coefficients of the particular solutions are given by A e /( ) A e /( ) B ( A e) / B A / A e /( ) A e /( ) B ( A4 e) / B4 A /. 4 4 Differentiating the first and third equation of equation (6) and then substituting the second and fourth equation into the resultant equations results in D z D g z ) D D z D f ( z ) + g z ) D z f ( z ) z ( j j ( j j D z z D g ( z ) DD z D f ( z ) + g 4( z j) D z4+ f 4( z ). j j j (8) Substituting solutions given by equation (7) into the right hand sides of equation (8) yields 44 terms involving trigonometric functions some of which may produce secular or nearly secular terms in seeking the secondorder solutions; z and z. In addition to four secular terms that are proportional to sin( t ) cos( t ) sin( t ) and cos( t ) nearly secular terms for additive resonances may appear when 8
9 ( ) / or or. These three cases of additive resonances will be referred to here as Cases I II and III respectively. The remainder of the present paper proceeds as follows. In the next section three types of additive resonance responses of the controlled system are analytically studied using the method of multiple scales. In Section illustrative examples are given to show the frequencyresponse curves and time histories of additive resonance response of the controlled system. Conclusion is given in Section 4.. Additive Resonances To account for the nearness of the forcing frequency to the combination of two natural frequencies for three types of additive resonances three detuning parameters namely and are introduced as follows: (9) (). () The averaged equations of the amplitudes and phases for three types of additive resonances will be subsequently obtained using the method of multiple scales. Case I: In seeking the secondorder solutions for additive resonance Case I from equation (8) the secular terms are the terms of trigonometric functions having the arguments ( t ) and ( t ) and the nearly secular terms are the trigonometric terms with the arguments ( t t ) and ( tt ). 9
10 Elimination of these secular or nearly secular terms gives rise to the following averaged equations that determine the amplitudes and phases of the freeoscillation terms in equation (7): r r s r s rr s r cos( ) s r sin( ) r ( ) r sr sr r sr sin( ) sr cos( ) r r s r r s r s r cos( ) s r sin( ) 4 r ( ) r s4r r s4r sr sin( ) s4r cos( ) () where T T s (4aA Ab a4 A Ab 6aA b ) 8 s (4aA Ab aa Ab aa b ) 8 s (a4 A Ab 4aA Ab a4 A b ) 8 s4 ( aa Ab 4aA Ab aa b ) 8 and the other coefficients namely s s s s s s s 4 s 4 have the same expressions as those obtained for nonresonant response in Section 4 of reference []. For the sake of brevity they are not reproduced in the present paper. Elimination of the trigonometric terms in equation () gives rise to the socalled frequencyresponse equations: r ( sr sr ) r ( sr sr ) ( s s ) r r ( sr sr ) r ( s4r s4r ) ( s s4 ) r. () The coefficients in equation () can be numerically obtained for a specific system with a given set of system parameters. Then equation () can be numerically solved using
11 the NewtonRaphson procedure. The stability of the steady state solutions to equation () can be examined by computing the eigenvalues of the coefficient matrix of characteristic equations which are derived from equation () in terms of small disturbances to the steady state solutions. As the averaged equation () involves the coupled terms r and r the perturbation equations will not contain the perturbations and for the trivial solution and hence the stability of the trivial solution cannot be studied by directly perturbing equation (). To overcome this difficulty normalization method is used by introducing the transformation p r cos q r sin p r cos q into equation (). Performing trigonometric manipulations leads to the r sin following modulation equations in the Cartesian form: p p( ) qsp sq sp( pq) s p p q ( ) s q ( p q ) s q ( p q ) q q( ) psp sq sq( pq) sq p q ( ) s p ( p q ) s p ( p q ) p p ( ) q s p s4q s p( p q) s p p q ( ) s q ( p q ) s q ( p q ) 4 4 q q ( ) p s4 p sq sq( p q) sq p q ( ) s p ( p q ) 4 s p ( p q ). (4) 4 The stability of the steady state solutions is determined by the eigenvalues of the corresponding Jacobian matrix of equation (4). The resultant characteristic equations for both trivial and nontrivial solutions depend in a complicated manner on the system and forcing parameters. Specific results are therefore at best obtained numerically.
12 Case II: Secular and nearly secular terms for additive resonance Case II are terms that are proportional to the trigonometric terms with the arguments of ( t ) ( t ) ( ) t t and t t t ( ). Eliminating these secular and nearly secular terms in seeking the secondorder solutions yields the averaged equations for additive resonance Case II: r r s r s rr s r cos( ) s r sin( ) 4 4 r ( ) r sr sr r s4r sin( ) s4r cos( ) r r s r r s r s rr cos( ) s rr sin( ) (5) 4 44 r ( ) r s4r r s4r s4r r sin( ) s44r r cos( ) where T T s4 ( a4 Ab a Ab a44 Ab ) 8 s4 (aab a4 Ab aab ) 8 s4 ( a44 Ab a4 Ab a A4b ) 8 s44 ( a4 Ab aab a4 Ab ) and the other coefficients 8 have the same expressions as those given in equation (). The socalled frequency response equations are given by r ( sr sr ) r ( sr sr ) ( s4 s4 ) r r r ( sr sr ) r ( s4r s4r ) ( s4 s44 ) r r. (6)
13 Introducing the transformation p r cos q r sin p r cos q into equation (5) and performing trigonometric manipulations leads to r sin the following modulation equations in the Cartesian form: p p( ) qsp( pq) s p p q ( ) s q ( p q ) s q ( p q ) s4( p q) s4 pq q q( ) psq( pq) sq p q ( ) s p ( p q ) s p( p q ) s4( p q) s4 pq p p ( ) q s p( p q) s p p q ( ) s q ( p q ) 4 s4q( p q ) s4 pq qq ( ) s44( pq pq) q q ( ) p sq( pq) sq p q ( ) s p ( p q ) 4 s4 p( p q) s4 pq pq ( ) s44( pp qq ). (7) The eigenvalues of the corresponding Jacobian matrix of equation (7) determine the stability of the steady state solutions. The stability of the trivial solution is determined by the eigenvalues of the corresponding Jacobian matrix which is obtained by letting p q p q. The four eigenvalues for the trivial solutions are given by ib and ib where i is the imaginary unit b. It is easy to note that the trivial solution is asymptotically stable if both and. Case III: In this case the terms that produce secular or nearly secular terms are the trigonometric functions with the arguments of ( t ) ( t ) ( ttt ) and ( t t ) in the right hand sides of the equation which is obtained by substituting solution (7) in equation (8). Eliminating these terms gives rise to the
14 averaged equations that determine the amplitudes and phases of the freeoscillation terms for additive resonance Case III: r r s r s rr s rr cos( ) s rr sin( ) 5 5 r ( ) r sr sr r s5r r sin( ) s5r r cos( ) r r s r r s r s r cos( ) s r sin( ) (8) 5 45 r ( ) r s4r r s4r s5r sin( ) s45r cos( ) where T T s5 (aab a4 Ab aab ) 8 s5 ( aab a Ab aab ) 8 s5 ( a4 Ab aab a4 Ab ) 8 s45 ( a Ab aab aa4b ) and the other coefficients have 8 the same expressions as those given in equation (). The socalled frequencyresponse equations are then given by r ( sr sr ) r ( sr sr ) ( s5 s5 ) r r r ( sr sr ) r ( s4r s4r ) ( s5 s45 ) r r. (9) Introducing the transformation p r cos q r sin p r cos q r into equation (8) and performing algebraic manipulations leads to the sin following modulation equations in the Cartesian form: p p( ) qsp( pq) s p p q ( ) s q ( p q ) s q p q s ( p p q q ) s5( pq pq) ( ) 5 4
15 q q( ) psq( pq) sq p q ( ) s p ( p q ) s p p q s ( p q p q ) s5( p p qq ) ( ) 5 p p ( ) q s p( p q) s p p q ( ) s q ( p q ) 4 s q ( p q ) s ( p q ) s45 pq 4 5 q q ( ) p sq ( p q) sq p q ( ) s p ( p q ) 4 s p ( p q ) 4 s p q 45( ) 5 s p q. () It is easy to notice that the stability of the trivial solution is determined by the following eigenvalues: ib and ib where i is the imaginary unit b. Therefore the trivial solution is asymptotically stable if both and. The averaged equations for three cases of additive resonances have been obtained analytically. In next section the steady state solutions and their stability of the averaged equations will be studied by illustrative examples for a given set of the system parameters.. Numerical Examples This section gives numerical results of the dynamic behaviour of additive resonance response of the system. As an illustrative example consider a specific system with the system parameters in equation () given by.. p. 4 q k. k k k. It was found that an interaction of nonresonant Hopf bifurcations occurs when where the frequencies of the two bifurcations are. 88 and It is easy to find from equations (9)() that for this specific system the combinational resonances of the additive type 5
16 may appear in a certain interval of a small neighbourhood of the forcing frequencies at for Case I;. 7 for Case II; and for Case III. When.. 5 e the averaged equations for additive resonance Case I which are obtained by substituting the numerical values of the corresponding coefficients in equation () are found to be r r r r r r.5r sin( ).689r cos( ) (.9965) r.5545r.9r r.689r sin( ).5r cos( ) r r r r r r.477r sin( ) ( r r r r.5965) r cos( ).968r sin( ).477r cos( ). () The steady state solutions can be obtained by setting r r r and r in equation () equal to zero and numerically solving the resulting algebraic equations. The stability of the solutions can be examined by finding the corresponding eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix. Because two frequencies and are incommensurable the steady state solutions of equation () correspond to quasiperiodic motions of the nonlinear system () under additive resonance Case I. Figures (a) and (b) shows typical frequencyresponse curves for additive resonance Case I in the interval [.48.6]. Stable solutions are represented by solid lines and unstable solutions by dashed lines. Solid and dashed lines will also be used to denote stable solutions and unstable solutions shown in frequency response curves for Cases II and III. The frequency response curve is an isolated closed curve in Figures
17 (a) and (b). The nontrivial solutions do not exist outside this closed curve. The closed curve consists of two branches. The upper branch of r is stable with the four eigenvalues having negative real part. The lower branch of r is unstable with the eigenvalues having positive real part. On the contrary the upper branch of r is unstable and the lower branch of r is stable. The isolated two nontrivial solutions coexist with the trivial solution that is unstable in the interval. As increases from a small value the amplitude r of the freeoscillation term with natural frequency grows whereas the amplitude r of the freeoscillation term having natural frequency decreases. The amplitude r is much higher than amplitude r which means the motion corresponding to dominates while the motion relating to is smaller in amplitude but not negligible. Stable nontrivial solutions indicate that nonlinear response of the system under additive resonances comprises both the freeoscillation terms and forced terms as given in equation (7). Because the natural frequencies and are incommensurable the system response under additive resonance Case I will exhibit quasiperiodic motion. Figures (c) and (d) shows the time history and phase portrait of quasiperiodic motion of the system for. 5. A frequency spectral analysis has confirmed that the motion consists of three harmonic components which are the natural frequencies and and the frequency of the excitation satisfying the relationship (9). The numerical result on the existence of quasiperiodic motion is in good agreement with the analytical prediction. Numerical simulations have also been performed for additive resonance Cases II and III. The values of system parameters and dummy parameters remained unchanged as those for Case I except the frequency of the excitation. Topologically equivalent response curves have been obtained for Case II. Figures (a) and (b) show frequency 7
18 response curves for Case II in the interval [ ]. Figure (c) and (d) show a quasiperiodic motion at. 7. Figures (a) and (b) indicate that the motion relating to dominates while the motion corresponding to is smaller in amplitude. The quasiperiodic motion shown in Figure (c) is a quasiperiodic motion on a threedimensional (D) torus and contains three individual harmonic components: and. These three frequencies satisfy the additive resonance condition that is given by equation (). For additive resonance Case III numerical simulation results are shown in Figure where Figures (a) and (b) show frequencyresponse curves in the interval [ ]. Figure (c) and (d) show a quasiperiodic motion at.78. It is noted in Figures (a) and (b) that the amplitudes of two motions relating to and are comparable. The meeting points of stable and unstable branches were found to have saddlenode bifurcations. As the detuning increases the amplitude r increases until it reaches the maximum and then decreases whereas the amplitude r increases until it meets the saddlenode point. This indicates that vibrational energy is transferred between these two motions via additive resonances. The quasiperiodic motion shown in Figure (c) involves three harmonic components: and which satisfy the resonance condition given by equation (). When the combinational resonances of the additive types are not excited the nonlinear response of the system was numerically found to exhibit periodic motion which consists of the forced terms only and has the forcing frequency. 8
19 4. Conclusion In a controlled van der PolDuffing oscillator without external excitation periodic or quasiperiodic solutions may appear after the trivial equilibrium loses its stability via a nonresonant interaction of HopfHopf bifurcations. Presence of a periodic external excitation in the controlled van der PolDuffing oscillator at nonresonant bifurcations of codimension two can induce three types of additive resonances as a result of interactions of the bifurcating solutions and the periodic excitation. Such interactions between the bifurcating solutions and the excitation could lead to very interesting phenomena. Particularly when their natural frequencies are incommensurable interactions may produce quasiperiodic motions. The method of multiple scales has been used to study the steady state solutions of a system of coupled weakly fourdimensional nonlinear differential equations which represents the local flow on the centre manifold in the neighbourhood of nonresonant bifurcations of codimension two occurring in the controlled oscillator Three cases are considered for additive resonances: ; ;. If the additive resonances are excited the amplitudes of the freeoscillation terms admit three solutions; two nontrivial solutions and the trivial solution. Of two nontrivial solutions one is stable. The trivial solution is unstable. A stable nontrivial solution corresponds to a quasiperiodic motion of the original system. The quasiperiodic motion consists of three components having the frequency of the first Hopf bifurcation the frequency of the second Hopf bifurcation and the frequency of the excitation respectively. The quasiperiodic motion is on a Dtorus which can be viewed as a motion by adding a third periodic motion resulting from the periodic 9
20 excitation to a quasiperiod motion on a D torus having frequencies of two Hopf bifurcations. The three frequencies satisfy the additive resonance conditions. The nonlinear system given by equation () is an infinite dimensional system in a mathematical sense. Under additive resonances this system has been found to exhibit quasiperiodic motions involving three frequencies. Except the forcing frequency the other two frequencies are difficult to identify from the original system () as they do not relate to the natural frequency nor to its multiples. They came from two Hopf bifurcations occurring in the corresponding autonomous system. The observable behaviour of the nonautonomous system under additive resonances provides useful information for fault diagnosis. Presence of a complicated behaviour may indicate that the original system has undergone a certain bifurcation and induced certain types of additive resonances. References [] Campbell S.A. Belair J. 999 Resonant codimension two bifurcation in the harmonic oscillator with delayed forcing Canadian Applied Mathematics Quarterly vol.7 pp.88. [] Maccari A. The response of a parametrically excited van der Pol oscillator to a time delay state feedback Nonlinear Dynamics vol.6 pp59. [] Xu J. Chung K.W. Effects of time delayed position feedback on a van der PolDuffing oscillator Physica D vol.8 pp.79. [4] Xu J. Yu P. 4 Delayinduced bifurcation in an nonautonomous system with delayed velocity feedbacks International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos vol.4 pp
21 [5] Maccari A. 6 Vibration control for parametrically excited Lienard systems International Journal of NonLinear Mechanics vol.4 pp [6] ElBassiouny A.F. 6 Stability and oscillation of two coupled duffing equations with time delay state feedback Physica Scripta vol.74(6) pp [7] Das J. Mallik A.K. 6 Control of friction driven oscillation by timedelayed state feedback Journal of Sound and Vibration vol.97(5) pp [8] Lazarevic M.P. 6 Finite time stability analysis of PD alpha fractional control of robotic timedelay systems Mechanics Research Communications vol.() pp [9] Ji J.C. Hansen C.H. 6 Stability and dynamics of a controlled van der Pol Duffing oscillator Chaos Solitons and Fractals vol.8() pp [] Ji J.C. 6 Nonresonant Hopf bifurcations of a controlled van der PolDuffing oscillator Journal of Sound and Vibration vol.97() pp [] Ji J.C. Zhang N. 7 Nonlinear response of a forced van der PolDuffing oscillator at nonresonant bifurcations of codimension two Chaos Solitons & Fractals (under review). [] Hale J. Theory of Functional Differential Equations Springer New York 977. [] Hale J.K. Verduyn Lunel S.M. Introduction to Functional Differential Equations Springer New York 98. [4] Halanay A. Differential Equations Stability Oscillations Time Lags Academic Press New York 966. [5] Nayfeh A.H. Mook D.T. Nonlinear Oscillations Wiley New York 979.
22 . (a).8 r Figure (a).76 (b) r Figure (b) Figure Case I (continued)
23 .5.. x t Figure (c ).5. dx/dt x Figure (d) Figure. Case I: (a) Frequencyresponse curve of r for. 998 ; (b) Frequencyresponse curve of r for. 998 ; (c) Time history of the quasiperiodic motion at. 5 ; (d) Phase portrait of the quasiperiodic motion at. 5. Solid lines in Figures (a) and (b) denote stable steady state solutions and dotted lines denote unstable solutions.
24 . (a). r Figure (a).6 (b) r Figure (b) Figure Case II (continued) 4
25 . x t Figure (c ).5 dx/dt x Figure (d) Figure. Case II: (a) Frequencyresponse curve of r for. 7; (b) Frequencyresponse curve of r for. 7; (c) Time history of the quasiperiodic motion at. 7 ; (d) Phase portrait of the quasiperiodic motion at. 7. Solid lines in Figures (a) and (b) denote stable steady state solutions and dotted lines denote unstable solutions. 5
26 6
27 (a). r Figure (a). (b).7 r Figure (b) Figure Case III (continued) 7
28 . x t Figure (c ).5 dx/dt x Figure (d) Figure. Case III: (a) Frequencyresponse curve of r for. 7 ; (b) Frequencyresponse curve of r for. 7 ; (c) Time history of the quasiperiodic motion at. 78 ; (d) Phase portrait of the quasiperiodic motion at. 78. Solid lines in Figures (a) and (b) denote stable steady state solutions and dotted lines denote unstable solutions. 8
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