CALIFORNIA POLYTECHNIC STATE UNIVERSITY Mechanical Engineering Department ME 347, Fluid Mechanics II, Winter 2018

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1 CALIFORNIA POLYTECHNIC STATE UNIVERSITY Mechanical Engineering Department ME 347, Fluid Mechanics II, Winter 2018 Date Day Subject Read HW Sept. 21 F Introduction 1, 2 24 M Finite control volume analysis W Finite control volume analysis, continued 28 F Energy and Bernoulli equations 4.8, 6, 8 RT Oct. 1 M Differential control volume analysis HW #1 3 W Differential control volume analysis, continued F Fluid kinematics M Introduction to external flow 9.1 HW #2 10 W Boundary-layers, friction drag F Laminar flat-plate boundary layer M MIE and turbulent flat-plate boundary layer HW #3 17 W Pressure drag and separation F Total drag and lift M Review HW #4 24 W Midterm Exam 26 F Thermodynamics review and Mach number M Sound waves and compressible flow categories W Basic equations for one-dimensional flow Nov. 2 F Isentropic flow in nozzles and diffusers M Isentropic flow in converging-diverging duct HW #5 7 W Normal shocks F Supersonic channel flow with shocks M Veteran s Day 14 W Flow with friction (Fanno flow) F Flow with heat transfer (Rayleigh flow) M-F Thanksgiving Break 26 M Fluid machinery introduction 10.1 HW #6 28 W Turbomachinery analysis F Performance and system curves 10.3 Dec. 3 M Cavitation and net positive suction head 5 W Scaling laws and specific speed 7 F Review HW #7 Instructor: Kim Shollenberger Office: , Website: Office hours: MWF 2:10-3 pm Tue. 1:10-3 pm Text: Fox and McDonald s Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, Phillip J. Pritchard and John W. Mitchell, 9 th ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Pre-reqs: ME 236 (Thermal Measurements), ME 302 (Thermodynamics), and ME 341 (Fluid Mechanics I) Grading: Homework - 15%, Midterm Exam - 20%, Final Exam - 30%, Laboratory - 35%

2 General Notes: 1. The above schedule is tentative. Changes will be announced during class and/or by your Cal Poly account. 2. Homework assignments, handouts, example problems, and any other course information will be posted on my website at through the ME 347 link. 3. Grades will be posted on PolyLearn under Course Administration and Grades as they become available. Please check to make sure that the grades recorded match the grades you actually received on materials handed back. 4. A review test (RT) and homework (HW) assignments are to be completed and/or submitted as a single pdf file on PolyLearn before your scheduled class time on the day indicated on the syllabus. Formats other than a pdf file, multiple files, or unreadable documents will not be graded. Scanners are available in the ME computer lab in Bldg. 192, Room 131 and on the 2 nd floor of the Kennedy library. Only one late homework assignment will be accepted from each student and it can be submitted on PolyLearn any time before the final exam. All homework must be neat and solutions must include units with all quantities (where applicable). Follow the format in homework handout. 5. Homework solutions will be available through PolyLearn. You should attempt all problems on your own before looking at any homework solutions and ONLY use them after a significant effort to solve each problem on your own. Direct copying of all or any part of a homework problem from the textbook solution manual is cheating and you will receive no credit for that problem on your assignment. 6. Please honor my office hours when possible. If you cannot attend my office hours, please contact me to arrange an alternate time to meet. 7. There will be one midterm exam and one final exam. Both exams are open book and open notes, however you are encouraged to summarize the course on a formula sheet. 8. The final exam schedule for my three sections of ME 347 are as follows: Section Date Time ME Wednesday, December 12, :10 am - 10:00 am ME Friday, December 14, :10 am - 1:00 pm You can change sections for the final exam if there are seats available. Please send me an if you want to switch and I will notify you by if space is available.

3 Course Learning Outcomes: Be able to formulate and solve fluid system models based on application of basic conservation laws of physics. Be able to use experimentation to validate the range of application for a fluid system model. By sub-discipline the outcomes are as follows: 1. Differential analysis of fluid motion: a. Apply basic laws of physics to a differential control to obtain conservation of mass and momentum equations. b. Understand physical significance of each term and how to reduce the momentum equation to the Navier-Stokes equations. c. Derive and apply the following special cases: one and two-dimensional, incompressible, and steady flow. d. Calculate the motion of a fluid particle (kinematics). 2. External incompressible viscous flow: a. Understand the derivation of Blasius exact solution and momentum integral equation and use to calculate boundary layer thicknesses and shear stresses. b. Explain the difference between friction drag and pressure drag and know how to reduce them. c. Explain the nature of the flow over a sphere and cylinder as a function of flowrate. d. Calculate lift for asymmetric flows and spinning bodies. e. Calculate drag and lift coefficients. 3. Compressible flow: a. Calculate the speed of sound, Mach angle, local isentropic stagnation and critical properties of an ideal gas. b. Reduce the basic compressible flow equations for 1-D, internal, steady state flow of an ideal gas and use to solve problems with variable area, normal shocks, friction, and heat transfer. 4. Turbomachinery: a. Determine velocity triangles, torque, power output, and head of an ideal turbomachine. b. Use data to predict actual performance and scaling laws to predict performance at different operating conditions. c. Determine if a pump will cavitate. d. Know who to use a pump curve and system curve to calculate the operating point and select a pump.

4 Course Learning Outcomes (Extended): Be able to formulate and solve fluid system models based on application of basic conservation laws of physics. Be able to use experimentation to validate the range of application for a fluid system model. By sub-discipline the lecture outcomes are as follows: 1. Differential Analysis of Fluid Motion a. Apply basic laws of physics to a differential control to obtain conservation of mass and momentum equations. Understand the physical significance of each term. b. Understand the assumptions necessary to reduce the momentum equation to the Navier- Stokes equations. c. Derive the following special cases of the basic laws for differential analysis: one ad twodimensional, incompressible, and steady flow. d. Apply the basic laws for a control volume in differential form to solve for the velocity profile for Couette and Poiseuille flow. e. Calculate the motion of a fluid particle (kinematics) including translation (particle acceleration), rotation (vorticity), angular deformation (proportional to shear stress), and linear deformation (volume dilation rate). 2. External Incompressible Viscous Flow a. Understand the derivation of Blasius exact solution for laminar flat-plate boundary layer. b. Derive and explain the physical interpretation of each term in the general momentum integral equation. c. Calculate boundary layer thickness, displacement thickness, and skin friction coefficient for laminar flow over a flat plate using Blasius exact solution. d. Calculate boundary layer thickness and skin friction coefficient for turbulent flow over a flat plate using correlations. e. Be able to explain the difference between friction drag and pressure drag. f. Be able to explain methods to reduce friction drag and pressure drag. g. Be able to calculate the total drag on an object using the appropriate drag coefficient. h. Explain the nature of the flow over a sphere and cylinder as a function of flowrate and be able to explain why the drag coefficient drops above a certain Reynolds number. i. Be able to explain why streamlining reduces pressure drag but increases friction drag. j. Be able to calculate the lift force given the lift coefficient. 3. Compressible Flow a. Be able to calculate the speed of sound for ideal gases. b. Be able to calculate the Mach angle. c. Calculate local isentropic stagnation properties of an ideal gas. d. Calculate isentropic properties at the critical speed. e. Know the set of four basic equations required to solve compressible flow problems and be able to reduce these equations for 1-D, internal, steady state flow of an ideal gas. f. Apply the Second Law of Thermodynamics to compressible flow problems to determine which solutions are possible. g. Explain the difference between a subsonic and a supersonic nozzle. h. Explain how supersonic duct flow is created. i. Use the isentropic relations and flow table to calculate properties for compressible flows. j. Explain the effect of backpressure in a converging-diverging nozzle. k. Use the normal shock relations and table to calculate properties for compressible flows.

5 l. Describe the four different flow regimes in a converging-diverging nozzle and be able to explain the effect of back-pressure on the supersonic and subsonic flow. m. Explain the effect of friction on flow properties in Fanno flow. n. Explain the effect of heat transfer on flow properties in Rayleigh flow. 4. Turbomachinery a. Explain the difference between positive displacement and dynamic pumps. For dynamic pumps, explain the difference between axial, radial and mixed flow. b. Explain the difference between fans, blowers, and compressors. c. Explain the difference between an impulse and reaction turbine. d. Draw a velocity triangle at the inlet and outlet of the rotor of a turbomachine. e. Apply the angular momentum equation to determine the torque, power output, and head of an ideal turbomachine. f. Calculate the hydraulic (fluid) power, mechanical power, and efficiency of a turbomachine. g. Use fan laws to predict pump or fan performance at different rotational speeds and for different size impellers. h. Define net positive suction head (NPSH), explain the difference between NPSH R and NPSH A, and use to determine if a pump will cavitate. i. Explain the difference between pump curve and system curve and use to calculate the operating point. j. Calculate the dimensionless specific speed and the dimensional U.S. Customary specific speed and use to select a pump or turbine for an application. By sub-discipline, the laboratory outcomes are: 1. Internal Incompressible Viscous Flow a. Measure the flow rate through a pipe for both laminar and turbulent flow. Evaluate experimentally the transition between laminar and turbulent flow. 2. Differential Analysis of Fluid Motion a. Measure air flow through a rectangular duct and explain the behavior with respect to the differential equations of motion. 3. External Incompressible Viscous Flow a. Measure boundary layer thickness of air over a flat plate using a pitot-static tube. b. Measure the drag on a cylinder in a uniform flow stream. 4. Compressible Flow a. Measure the pressure drop through a converging-diverging nozzle and compare these measurements to theory. 5. Turbomachinery a. Measure the performance parameters for an axial fan and (or water turbine). Compare and contrast this performance to typical fans (or turbines).

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