Lecture Outline. ESE 570: Digital Integrated Circuits and VLSI Fundamentals. Total Power. Energy and Power Optimization. Worksheet Problem 1

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1 ESE 570: Digital Integrated Circuits and VLSI Fundamentals Lec 16: March 20, 2018 Energy and Power Optimization, Design Space Exploration Lecture Outline! Energy and Power Optimization " Tradeoffs! Design Space Exploration " Design Problem Example: Match Circuit 3 Total Power! P tot = P static + P sc + P dyn! P sw = P dyn + P sc = a(c load V 2 f) + C sc V 2 f Energy and Power Optimization! P tot a(c load V 2 f) + C sc V 2 f + VI s (W/L)e-Vt/(nkT/q)! Let a = activity factor a = average #tran 0#1 /clock 4 Worksheet Problem 1 Power Sources Review: P tot = P static + P dyn + P sc V in I static I dynamic I sc 0V 140mV 400mV 500mV 600mV 860mV 1V 7 1

2 Worksheet Problem 1 Energy and Power Optimization V in I static I dynamic I sc 0V 180pA 126uA 140mV 6nA 100uA 400mV 36uA 18uA 500mV 36uA 600mV 36uA 18uA 860mV 6nA 100uA 1V 180pA 126uA 8 Reminder: Worksheet Problem 1 Reduce V dd (Worksheet #2)! V dd =520mV, V thn = V thp =300mV V in I static I dynamic I sc 0V 180pA 126uA 140mV 6nA 100uA 400mV 36uA 18uA 500mV 36uA 600mV 36uA 18uA 860mV 6nA 100uA V in I static I dynamic I sc 0V 140mV 260mV 360mV 500mV 1V 180pA 126uA Reduce V dd (Worksheet #2)! V dd =520mV, V thn = V thp =300mV Design Tradeoffs V in I static I dynamic I sc 0V 180pA 396uA 140mV 6nA 144uA 260mV 111nA 360mV 6nA 108uA 500mV 180pA 36uA 12 2

3 Reduce V dd! What happens as reduce V dd? " Energy? " Static " Switching " Delay? Reduce V dd :! τ gd =/I=(CV)/I! I d =(µc OX /2)(W/L)(V gs -V TH ) 2! τ gd impact?! τ gd 1 V Reduce V dd : Reduce V dd (Worksheet #3)! τ gd =/I=(CV)/I! I d =(µc OX /2)(W/L)(V gs -V TH ) 2! τ gd impact?! V thn = V thp =300mV, V in =V dd, estimate Eτ V dd I ds dd =1) E switch / (E dd =1) Eτ 1V! τ gd 1 V! Ignoring leakage: E V 2 Eτ 2 Const 700mV 500mV 350mV 260mV Reduce V dd (Worksheet #3) Reduce Short-Circuit Power?! V thn = V thp =300mV, V in =V dd, estimate Eτ! P sc = ac sc V 2 f V dd I ds dd =1) E switch / (E dd =1) Eτ 1V 126uA mV 72uA mV 36uA mV 9uA mV 111nA # # E = V dd I peak t sc % 1& & % (( $ $ 2' ' Vin Vdd Vdd-Vthp Vthn time Vdd Isc Vout tsc tsc time

4 Increase V th (Worksheet #4) Increase V th (Worksheet #4)! What is impact of increasing threshold on! What is impact of increasing threshold on " Delay? " Delay? " Leakage? " Leakage?! V dd =1V, V in =V dd! V dd =1V, V in =V dd V thn = -V thp I ds th =300mV) I static (I th =300mV) I stat / V thn = -V thp I ds th =300mV) I static (I th =300mV) I stat / 300mV 300mV 126uA 1 180pA 1 460mV 460mV 97uA 13 36pA mV 600mV 72uA fA Idea! Tradeoff " Speed Design Space Exploration " Switching energy " Leakage energy! Energy-Delay tradeoff: Eτ Design Problem Idea: Design Space Explore! Function: Identify equivalence of two 32bit inputs! Optimize: Minimize total energy! Assumptions: Match case uncommon! Identify options " All the knobs you can turn! Explore space systematically " Ie Most of the time, the inputs won t be matched! Formulate continuum where possible " ie formulate trends! Deliberately focus on Energy to complement project " but will still talk about delay

5 Problem Solvable! Is it feasible? " First, make sure we have a solution so we know our main goal is optimization! How do we decompose the problem? Problem Solvable! Is it feasible? " First, make sure we have a solution so we know our main goal is optimization! How do we decompose the problem?! What look like built out of nand2 gates and inverters? Total Power Knobs! Static CMOS: " P tot a(½c load +C sc )V 2 f+vi s(w/l)e -Vt/(nkT/q)! What are the options and knobs we can turn?! What can we do to reduce power? Design Space Dimensions How Reduce Short-Circuit Power?! Vdd! Topology " Gate choice, logical optimization " Fanin, fanout, Serial vs parallel! Gate style / logic family " CMOS, Ratioed (N load, P load)! Transistor Sizing! Vth! P sc = ac sc V 2 f # # E = V dd I peak t sc % 1& & % (( $ $ 2' '! The choices you make impact area, speed (delay), power

6 Gate Logic Family! What gates might we build?! Considerations for each logic family? " CMOS! High fanin?! Serial-Parallel? " Ratioed with PMOS load " Ratioed with NMOS load Sizing Reduce Vdd! How do we want to size gates?! What happens as reduce V? " Energy? " Dynamic " Static " Switching Delay?! How low can we push Vdd? Reduce V dd Increase V th? $ τ gd =/I=(CV)/I! What is impact of increasing threshold on $ I d =(µc OX /2)(W/L)(V gs -V TH ) 2 $ τ gd impact? $ τ gd α 1/V " Dynamic Energy? " Leakage Energy? " Delay?

7 Design Problem Design Space Dimensions! Function: Identify equivalence of two 32bit inputs! Optimize: Minimize total energy! Assumptions: Match case uncommon " Ie Most of the time, the inputs won t be matched! Deliberately focus on Energy to complement project " but will still talk about delay! Vdd! Topology " Gate choice, logical optimization " Fanin, fanout, Serial vs parallel! Gate style / logic family " CMOS, Ratioed (N load, P load)! Transistor Sizing! Vth! The choices you make impact area, speed (delay), power Ideas! Three components of power " P tot = P static + P dyn + P sc Sequential MOS Logic! We know many things we can do to our circuits! Design space is large! Systematically identify dimensions! Identify continuum (trends) tuning when possible! Watch tradeoffs " don t over-tune 40 Classes of Logic Circuits Functions Using Sequential Operations two stable op pts Latch level triggered Flip-Flop edge triggered one stable op pt One-shot single pulse output no stable op pt Ring Oscillator Combinational Circuits: a Current Output(s) depend ONLY on Current Inputs b Suited to problems that can be solved using truth tables Sequential Circuits or State Machines: a Current Output(s) depend on Current Inputs and Past Inputs via State(s) b Suited to problems that are solved by completing several steps using current inputs and past outputs in a specific order or a sequential manner

8 Sequential Circuit (or State Machine) Construct Static Bistable Sequential Circuits Present State Inputs REGISTER V o1 Vo2 -> Register is used to Store Past Values of State(s) and Output(s) -> Synchronous Sequential Circuit clock, outputs change with clock event -> Asynchronous Sequential Circuit no clock, outputs change after inputs change 44 Outputs Next State Clock V o3 Basic Crosscoupled Inverter pair 45 Static Bistable Sequential Circuits Static Bistable Sequential Circuits Basic Crosscoupled Inverter pair Basic Crosscoupled Inverter pair Static Bistable Sequential Circuits Basic Crosscoupled Inverter pair V OH = V DD Basic Sequential Circuits (Cells)! Latches! Registers V OL = 0 maintain stable state STATIC: V DD and GND are required to maintain a stable state Basic Bistable Cross-coupled Inverter Pair has no means to apply input(s) to change the circuit's State

9 Latch! Level-sensitive device! Positive Latch " Output follows input if CLK high! Negative Latch " Output follows input if CLK low = CLK + CLK In Register! Edge-triggered storage element! Positive edge-triggered " Input sampled on rising CLK edge! Negative edgetriggered " Input sampled on falling CLK edge Shift Register Two Phase Non-Overlapping Clocks! How do you make a shift register out of latches?! Build master-slave register from pair of latches! Control with non-overlapping clocks Two Phase Non-Overlapping Clocks Two Phase Non-Overlapping Clocks! Build master-slave register from pair of latches! Control with non-overlapping clocks! Build master-slave register from pair of latches! Control with non-overlapping clocks

10 Two Phase Non-Overlapping Clocks Clocking Discipline! What could go wrong if the overlap?! Follow discipline of combinational logic broken by registers! Compute " From state elements " Through combinational logic " To new values for state elements! As long as clock cycle long enough, " Will get correct behavior Ideas Admin! Synchronize circuits " to external events (eg Clk) " disciplined reuse of circuitry! Leads to clocked circuit discipline " Uses state holding element (eg Latches and registers) " Prevents " Timing assumptions " (More) complex reasoning about all possible timings! HW 6 due 3/

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