# Heat Transfer Modeling using ANSYS FLUENT

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1 Lecture 1 - Introduction 14.5 Release Heat Transfer Modeling using ANSYS FLUENT 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

2 Outline Modes of Heat Transfer Basic Heat Transfer Phenomena Conduction Convection Radiation Phase Change The Energy Equation Boundary Conditions 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

3 Modes of Heat Transfer Conduction Occurs in a medium (fluid or solid) Linked to atomic and molecular vibration or electronic motion. Diffusion of heat due to temperature gradient within the medium. Convection Heat is transported by moving fluid. Radiation Emission of energy by electromagnetic waves Phase Change State of matter changes which either absorbs or emits heat Q convection Q radiation Q phase change Q conduction 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

4 Outline Modes of Heat Transfer Basic Heat Transfer Phenomena Conduction Convection Radiation Phase Change The Energy Equation Boundary Conditions 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

5 Conduction Heat Transfer Conduction is the transfer of heat by molecular interaction. Gases Molecular velocity depends on temperature. Hot, energetic molecules collide with neighbors which increases their speed. Solids Molecules and the lattice structure vibrate. Fourier s Law states that heat flux is proportional to temperature gradient. Mathematically, Q A q k T T k x T y T z Thermal conductivity (not necessarily constant) 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

6 Integration of Fourier s Law in 1D For a simple 1D steady state conduction, the temperature profile through a slab is linear. T T hot Hot Wall dt dx t 1 x Temperature Profile Cold Wall T T cold This leads to the concept of thermal resistance: T hot T cold RQ R 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5 t k A

7 Convection Convection heat transfer results from fluid motion. Heat transfer rate can be closely coupled to the fluid flow solution. The rate of heat transfer is strongly dependent on fluid velocity and fluid properties. Fluid properties may vary significantly with temperature. Example When cold air flows past a warm body, it draws away warm air near the body and replaces it with cold air Flow and heat transfer past a heated block 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

8 Newton s Law of Cooling Newton s law of cooling states that q h T T) ( body h T Average heat transfer coefficient Q T T body 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

9 Heat Transfer Coefficient In general, h is not constant but is usually a function of temperature gradient. Typical values of h (W/m 2 K) There are three types of convection: Thot Tcold 4 4,000 Natural Convection Fluid moves due to buoyancy effects Forced Convection Flow is induced by some external means. Boiling Convection Body is hot enough to cause fluid phase change T hot T cold 80 75,000 h T 2 T cold , ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5 T hot

10 Natural Convection In natural convection, fluid motion occurs due to buoyancy effects. (T) As the fluid is heated, its density decreases This density gradient causes a buoyant force to be generated which induces flow opposite to gravity The buoyancy force (per unit volume) can be computed by: f B ) g ( g T w T (y) u(y) T Natural convection problems are characterized using the Rayleigh number. Ra L g L 3 T Ra x < 10 8 laminar flow Ra x 10 9 transition Ra x > turbulent flow T, 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

11 Boundary Layer Flow Analogous to the viscous boundary layer that develops, there is also a thermal boundary layer. T, U Viscous Boundary Layer y Thermal Boundary Layer T (y) T U( y) In most industrial applications, free and forced convection occur simultaneously. The relative magnitude of these effects can be determined by using a modified Froude number, Fr. T w Fr Gr 2 Re g L T 2 U Fr << 1 Fr 1 Fr >> 1 Forced convection dominates Natural and Forced convection are important Natural convection dominates 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

12 Nusselt Number The Nusselt number (Nu) represents the relative magnitude of real heat flux to conduction heat flux. Nusselt number derivation Equate the heat conducted from the wall to the same heat transfer in convective terms: T k y Define dimensionless quantities: h T w T ~ T T T w w T T ~ y y L Rearrange: ~ T ~ y h L k Nu L Nusselt number (dimensionless heat transfer coefficient) 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

13 Heat Transfer Coefficient Correlations Correlations can be used in FLUENT to set appropriate boundary conditions. Examples: Heat transfer resulting from flow around a sphere Nu D Re 1/ 2 D Pr Heat transfer from a flat plate in laminar flow (thermal boundary layer) 1/3 Typical Prandtl Numbers Liquid metals 0.01 Most gases 0.7 Water at ambient conditions 6 1/ 2 1/3 Nu D ReD Pr The above correlations depend on the Prandtl number: Pr MomentumDiffusivity Thermal Diffusivity C p k 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

14 Radiation Heat Transfer Thermal radiation is an emission of energy via electromagnetic waves Intensity depends on body temperature and surface characteristics Important mode of heat transfer at high temperatures Real-world examples Toaster, grill, broiler Fireplace Sunshine 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

15 Radiation Black Bodies A black body is a model of a perfect radiator and has specific characteristics. Absorbs 100% of incident radiation (α = 1). Reflects and transmits no incident radiation (ρ = τ = 0) The energy emitted by a black body obeys the Stefan-Boltzmann Law. q Q A T 4 Stefan-Boltzmann constant W/m 2 K 4 This energy emission (q) represents the theoretical maximum at the temperature of interest (T) ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

16 Radiation Heat Transfer Real (Gray) Bodies In general, real bodies emit less radiation than a black body Q rad A s T 4 Surface area Surface emissivity (0 < ε < 1) Consider radiation emitted by a small body which has temperature T w and surface area A s to its surroundings which are at temperature T. Q w Both the body and its container emit thermal radiation. Q net A s T w Q The net heat transfer is from the hotter body to the colder body. T Q net A s ( T 4 w T 4 ) 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

17 When Is Radiation Important? Radiation heat transfer is significant in high temperature applications such as combustion. Radiation properties can be strongly dependent on chemical composition, especially CO 2, H 2 O. Radiation heat transfer equations are difficult to solve explicitly (except for simple configurations) we must rely on computational methods. Radiation should always be considered when radiation heat transfer is large to compared to the heat transfer due to conduction or convection q rad T ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

18 Phase Change Heat Transfer Heat transfer due phase change can be present in many forms. Condensation Evaporation Boiling Solidification / Melting In order to adequately model these phenomena, we often must rely on multiphase models and user-defined functions (UDFs) ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

19 Phase Change Heat Transfer Condensation Condensation is the transformation of a substance from vapor to liquid resulting from energy removal from the vapor phase. In condensation processes, the vapor temperature is at or below the saturation temperature. Condensation occurs in various modes. Droplet formation in vapor Droplets may form on particulate matter either in vapor or homogeneously Liquid droplet formation on a cooled surface Droplets appear on the surface. Droplets grow until they either run off of the surface under gravity OR the liquid temperature reaches the saturation temperature Liquid film condensation on a cooled surface Latent heat of condensation transferred from liquid-vapor interface to the wall by convection and conduction Vapor phase can consist of one or more chemical species ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

20 Condensation Example CFD simulation of humid air condensation on a cooled surface Multiple species Turbulence UDF to compute saturation pressure and mass flux Computational domain Inlet T = K, V = 1 m/s w H2O = Flow Mass transfer rate at cooled surface controlled by diffusion D H 2O m H 2O H O 1 n 2 This mass flux applied as a source term in cell adjacent to the wall No film motion calculated Insulated Wall, No Shear Cooled Surface, T = 330 K 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

21 Condensation Example CFD simulation of humid air condensation on a cooled surface Multiple species Turbulence UDF to compute saturation pressure and mass flux Computational domain Inlet T = K, V = 1 m/s w H2O = Flow Mass transfer rate at cooled surface controlled by diffusion D H 2O m H 2O H O 1 n 2 This mass flux applied as a source term in cell adjacent to the wall No film motion calculated Insulated Wall, No Shear Cooled Surface, T = 330 K 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

22 Phase Change Heat Transfer Evaporation Evaporation is the transformation of a substance from liquid to vapor resulting from energy addition. FLUENT contains a model to account for mass transfer due to evaporation. Liquid interfacial temperature must be equal to or greater than the vapor saturation temperature at the interface. Mass transfer rate is proportional to the difference in partial pressure between the interface and the bulk vapor (depends on the pressure gradient) The FLUENT evaporation model is based on the standard discrete phase model (DPM) ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

23 Evaporation Example The evaporation of water droplets injected into hot air stream is modeled using the DPM vaporization law Inlet: T = 650 K, V = 1 m/s Water Droplets: T = 300 K, d = 250 μm. Total mass flow 0.04 kg/s Wall, T = 1200K Wall, T = 1200K m p c p dt dt p h A p dm p T Tp hfg dt C p Droplet heat capacity Tp Droplet temperature h Convection heat transfer coefficient T Continuous phase temperature h fg Latent heat dmp Evaporation rate dt 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

24 Evaporation Example Air Temperature Without Droplets Particles Not Completely Evaporated Droplet Evaporation Causes Significant Temperature Reduction in Air Water Vapor Evaporated from Droplets Mixes with Air in Vapor Phase 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

25 Phase Change Heat Transfer Boiling Boiling is a fluid phase change that is classified as a convection mode of heat transfer (involves fluid motion). This process occurs at solid-liquid interfaces. Characterized by the formation of vapor bubbles at the solid surface Bubbles grow and detach from the surface. Because of the phase change, large heat flux can be achieved with relatively small temperature differential. Heat transfer is given by q h s T e T e T surf T sat h h T, g( ), h, C, k,, L, l v fg p 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

26 Phase Change Heat Transfer Boiling Heat exchange is through direct transfer from the surface to liquid motion (not through the rising vapor bubbles) Densely populated bubbles induces liquid motion near the surface Free Convection Nucleate Transition Film 10 7 Isolated Bubbles Jets and Columns q s (W/m 2 ) 10 4 q max q min Surface completely covered by vapor film. Heat transfer from surface to liquid and conduction through vapor phase. T e, A T, e B T e, C T, e D T e T s T sat ( o C) 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

27 Nucleate Boiling Modeling Strategy Euler-Euler or mixture model q w q E h h T T sp sp Evaporation Convection Quenching Q Q w Evaporation Heat Flux q E 6 d bw f n v h lv d bw Quenching Heat Flux (Boiling wall fraction) d bw n Q 2 Single-Phase Heat Flux (convection) T sat T bulk 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

28 Boiling Example Nuclear Reactor Flow in nuclear fuel assembly Pressure = 50 atm Re liq = 300,000 Liquid/Vapor Mixture Exits Heat flux = MW/m 2 Inlet sub cooling = 4.5 K Mesh adapted to y + = 100 Liquid enters 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

29 Film Boiling Interfacial heat and mass transfer taking into account via a UDF Application: Film boiling modeling with VOF UDF and tutorial available on ANSYS Customer Portal Contours of Mass Transfer Rate (kg/m 3 /s) Contours of Vapor Volume Fraction 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

30 Solidification and Melting Solidification is the transformation of a substance from liquid to solid Temperature decrease (more frequently encountered) and change of state occurs at the freezing point Pressure increase (in this case temperature remains constant) The solidification process starts with small solid nucleation in the liquid that increases in number with time (until liquid is completely solidified) Application Casting Process Melting is the transformation of a substance from solid to liquid Temperature increases, the change of state occurs at the melting point In general, the melting point is relatively insensitive to pressure Application Deicing Freezing & melting point are often equal (certain materials can have different values) 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

31 Solidification and Melting Define Models Solidification and Melting Define Materials 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

32 Solidification and Melting Examples Solidification Example Continuous Casting Process Melting Example Deicing on an Automobile Windshield Mold Defrost pattern after 5 minutes (from experiment) Solidified shell in blue Defrost pattern after 10 minutes (from experiment) 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

33 Outline Modes of Heat Transfer Basic Heat Transfer Phenomena Conduction Convection Radiation Phase Change The Energy Equation Boundary Conditions 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

34 The General Energy Transport Equation General energy transport equation: E t V E P k eff T hj J j ( τ eff V Sh Unsteady Convection Conduction Species diffusion Energy sources resulting from endothermic/exothermic chemical reactions is included for reacting flows Energy source due to species diffusion included for multiple species flows Energy source due to viscous heating: Describes thermal energy created by viscous shear in the flow ) Important when the shear stress in fluid is large (e.g., lubrication) and/or in high-velocity compressible flows 2 Criterion is based on the Brinkman number: U Br 1 Viscous heating is often negligible k T Not included by default for the pressure-based solver; always enabled in the densitybased solver j Viscous heating Enthalpy source 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

35 Outline Modes of Heat Transfer Basic Heat Transfer Phenomena Conduction Convection Radiation Phase Change The Energy Equation Boundary Conditions 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

36 Thermal Boundary Conditions Inlets and outlets Temperature is specified when fluid enters the computational domain. Heat flux includes both convective and diffusive components. Diffusive component can be turned off using the TUI: define/models/energy/include diffusion at inlets? No Walls Heat Flux Temperature Convection (prescribed heat transfer coefficient) Radiation Mixed (combination of Convection and Radiation) Coupled (only available for zero-thickness internal walls). via System Coupling Thermal resistance Solid at the boundaries Electrical resistance Tips and Tricks Periodic conditions 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

37 Boundary Conditions Thermal boundary conditions generally come in three types Neumann Robin/Fourier Dirichlet Boundary conditions generally represent heat transfer phenomena for the region outside the computational domain Neumann Condition (Specified Flux) 2 q 20 W/m T 300 K Dirichlet Condition (Specified Temperature) Robin / Fourier Condition (Specified HTC) q f T, T ) ( w 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

38 Wall Boundary Conditions Heat Flux (Neumann) boundary condition is specified when heat flux profile or value is known q Temperature profile or value can be specified (Dirichlet BC) q conv rad h ( T free ( T 4 T T 4 w Convection, Radiation and Mixed boundary conditions are used to represent convection or radiation exchange with the exterior of the domain q mixed q conv q w rad ) ) 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

39 Representing Wall Boundary Conditions Typically the computational domain of an industrial furnace ends at the boundary between gas and refractories. Example of glass furnace Option #1: Refractory layers are meshed. Option #2: Thermal resistance approach is used with a zero-thickness wall to represent refractory layers. Option #1 Fluid Zone Option #2 Fluid Zone Wall Zone Wall Zone Real thickness q cond Fourier s Law Solved in 3D Cells Meshed Virtual thickness 1-D Fourier s Law Introduced Through Thermal Resistance (Assumed Normal Flux Only) 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5 q cond Cells Not Meshed

40 Wall Boundary Conditions Option #2 Thermal resistance of the solid material can be applied in FLUENT T e T em Inner Domain Outer Domain T im T i R k t A Mesh 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

41 Example Electrical Resistance in a Furnace Example: How to represent electrical coils at the top and bottom of the furnace? Temperature contours of a continuous glass sheet in a furnace with two heating zones. (Courtesy PPG Industries Inc) 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

42 Periodic Heat Transfer Periodic boundary conditions are used when flow and heat transfer patterns are repeated Types of periodic conditions Streamwise Geometry and boundary conditions repeat in the streamwise direction Constant temperature Uniform heat flux Zero pressure drop No special requirements; thermal conditions at two periods are identical Periodic 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

43 Periodic Heat Transfer In streamwise periodic problems, temperature is not a periodic function If the temperature is scaled properly, then the scaled temperature does exhibit periodic behavior T Twall T T Streamwise periodic Specified heat flux condition Boundary matching : Scaled temperature 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5 bulk inlet T bulk inlet wall A T V da A V da T ( r L) T( r) T( r 2L) T( r L) L L Q mc p T L bulk exit L T bulk inlet

44 Periodic Heat Transfer Limitations Streamwise periodic heat transfer is subject to the following constraints: The pressure-based solver must be used. All fixed temperature walls must have the same value; however, varying heat flux on walls is permissible. When constant temperature wall boundaries are used, you cannot include viscous heating effects or any volumetric heat sources. In cases that involve solid regions, the regions cannot straddle the periodic plane (because this may violate of one of the above rules). Only constant thermal properties You cannot model species or reacting flows; however they can vary spatially in a periodic manner. Thermodynamic and transport properties cannot be functions of temperature. Periodic Periodic Solid 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

45 Appendix 14.5 Release 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

46 Tips & Tricks Thermal Resistance Thermal resistance formula in FLUENT is valid for very thin walls or planar surface. To model thick walls, typically the effective thickness is specified. For composite walls, typically the combined (total) thermal conductivity is specified R1 R R 2 3 e e R e k A R ln cylinder inner 1 sphere Series Thermal Circuit R R e k inner total total total R R e R 1 inner 1 e e1 k inner e R inner e R e e e k 2 R e e3 e k ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

47 Tips & Tricks Thermal Resistance Thermal resistance for convection can be defined as 1 Rconv h A Thermal resistance can be contained in the heat transfer coefficient 1 h eq 1 h t k R conv k wall R wall t Contact thermal resistance NOTE: For transient problems, thermal resistance treatment may not be appropriate. Shell conduction or meshed solid may be required. Order of magnitude for 2 pieces of aluminum (10 µm surface roughness, 10 5 N/m 2 ) in air R = m 2 K / W 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

48 Tips & Tricks Free Convection Heat Losses Modeling external heat loss for natural convection in ambient air McAdams proposes the following formula (valid for air with Pr = 0.7) Horizontal top wall: C = Horizontal bottom wall: C = Horizontal or vertical wall (> 30 cm): C = h C 1/ 4 T wall T free h ~ 5 10 W/m 2 K #include "udf.h" DEFINE_PROFILE(h_vertical,tf,nv) { face_t f; real Tfree, Twall; } begin_f_loop(f,tf) { Tfree = F_VAR(f,tf,THREAD_VAR(tf).wall.Tinf); Twall = fabs(wall_temp_inner(f,tf)); F_PROFILE(f,tf,nv) = 1.94*pow((Twall - Tfree),0.25); } end_f_loop(f,tf) 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

49 Tips & Tricks Radiation Heat Losses Basic relationship in FLUENT is valid for small convex gray wall in an infinite surrounding. q rad ( T 4 T 4 w ) Radiation heat losses between a black wall and a finite black surrounding surface q F ( T T 4 4 w, surr surr w ) External emissivity can be substituted by view factor Radiation heat losses between an infinite plane and an infinite planar surrounding Heat transfer coefficient for radiation exchange h rad 4 4 ( Tsurr Tw ) q ε w surr 2 2 T T T T w w 2013 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, Release 14.5

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