CHAPTER 20: Second Law of Thermodynamics

Save this PDF as:
Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "CHAPTER 20: Second Law of Thermodynamics"

Transcription

1 CHAER 0: Second Lw of hermodynmics Responses to Questions 3. kg of liquid iron will hve greter entropy, since it is less ordered thn solid iron nd its molecules hve more therml motion. In ddition, het must e dded to solid iron to melt it; the ddition of het will increse the entropy of the iron. 5. he mchine is clerly doing work to remove het from some of the ir in the room. he wste het is dumped ck into the room, nd the het generted in the process of doing work is lso dumped into the room. he net result is the ddition of het into the room y the mchine. 6. Some processes tht would oey the first lw of thermodynmics ut not the second, if they ctully occurred, include: cup of te wrming itself y gining therml energy from the cooler ir molecules round it, ll sitting on soccer field gthering energy from the grss nd eginning to roll, nd owl of popcorn plced in the refrigertor nd unpopping s it cools. 7. No. While you hve reduced the entropy of the ppers, you hve incresed your own entropy y doing work, for which your muscles hve consumed energy. he entropy of the universe hs incresed s result of your ctions. 9. No. Even if the powdered milk is dded very slowly, it cnnot e re-extrcted from the wter without very lrge investments of energy. his is not reversile process. 0. Entropy is stte vrile, so the chnge in entropy for the system will e the sme for the two different irreversile processes tht tke the system from stte to stte. However, the chnge in entropy for the environment will not necessrily e the sme. he totl chnge in entropy (system plus environment) will e positive for irreversile processes, ut the mount my e different for different irreversile processes.

2 Solutions to rolems In solving these prolems, the uthors did not lwys follow the rules of significnt figures rigidly. We tended to tke quoted tempertures s correct to the numer of digits shown, especilly where other vlues might indicte tht. 3. Het energy is tken wy from the wter, so the chnge in entropy will e negtive. he het trnsfer is the mss of the stem times the ltent het of vporiztion. 5 Q ml 0.5 kg.6 0 J kg vp S 500J K K 33. Energy hs een mde unville in the frictionl stopping of the sliding ox. We tke tht lost kinetic energy s the het term of the entropy clcultion. i S Q mv 7.5 kg 4.0m s 93 K 0.0J K Since this is decrese in vilility, the entropy of the universe hs incresed. 35. Becuse the temperture chnge is smll, we cn pproximte ny entropy integrls y S Q. here re three terms of entropy to consider. First, there is loss of entropy from vg the wter for the freezing process, S. Second, there is loss of entropy from tht newly-formed ice s it cools to 0 o C, S. ht process hs n verge temperture of 5 o C. Finlly, there is gin of entropy y the gret del of ice, S, s the het lost from the originl mss of wter in steps nd 3 goes into tht gret del of ice. Since it is lrge quntity of ice, we ssume tht its temperture does not chnge during the processes.

3 Q ml kg3.330 J kg fusion 6 S.98 0 J K Q mc 3 o o.00 0 kg00j kggc 0C ice 4 S J K 3 fusion ice K Q Q Q ml mc S K o o 0C.00 0 kg J kg 00J kggc 0 73 K J K S S S S J K 5 0 J K J K J K J K 37. he sme mount of het tht leves the high temperture het source enters the low temperture ody of wter. he tempertures of the het source nd ody of wter re constnt, so the entropy is clculted without integrtion. Q Q S S S Q high low low high S Q 4.86 J 9.50cl s t t cl low high 73 K 5 73 K JK s 39. Becuse the process hppens t constnt temperture, we hve S Q. he het flow cn e found from the first lw of thermodynmics, the work for expnsion t constnt temperture, nd the idel gs eqution E Q W 0 Q W nr ln ln int Q m 7.5tm S 40 K.0tm ln ln 9.3J K

4 4. Since the process is t constnt volume, dq ncd. For ditomic gs in the temperture 5 rnge of this prolem, C R. dq nc d 5 5 nr g K S ln.0mol8.34j mol Kln 4.0J K 73 5 K 44. Entropy is stte vrile, nd so the entropy difference etween two sttes is the sme for ny pth. Since we re told tht sttes nd hve the sme temperture, we my find the entropy chnge y clculting the chnge in entropy for n isotherml process connecting the sme two sttes. We lso use the first lw of thermodynmics. E nc 0 Q W Q W nr ln int dq Q nr ln S nr ln 45. () he figure shows two processes tht strt t the sme stte. he top process is ditic, nd the ottom process is isothermic. We see from the figure tht t volume of /, the pressure is greter for the ditic process. We lso prove it nlyticlly. Isotherml: / Aditic: we see tht. he rtio is ditic isothermic Since, ditic isothermic () For the ditic process: No het is trnsferred to or from the gs, so S dq 0. ditic. For the isotherml process: 0 ln E Q W nr int isotherml isotherml isotherml

5 dq isotherml isotherml S dq = isotherml isotherml nr ln nr ln nr ln Q nr ln (c) Since ech process is reversile, the energy chnge of the universe is 0, nd so S For the ditic process, S 0. For the isotherml process, surroundings S. surroundings system S nr ln. surroundings 46. ()he equilirium temperture is found using clorimetry, from Chpter 9. he het lost y the wter is equl to the het gined y the luminum. f f m c m c HO HO HO Al Al Al f m c m c m c m c Al Al Al HO HO HO Al Al HO HO 0.50 kg900j kggc 5C 0.5kg486J kggc 00C 0.50 kg900j kggc 0.5kg486J kggc 88.9C 89C finl finl finl finl dq dq Al HO d d () S S S Al HO m c m c Al Al HO HO finl m c ln m c Al Al HO HO Al Al H O Al HO ln finl HO 0.50 kg900j kggk ln g K K K 0.5kg 486J kg K ln 3.7 J K K 48. ()he gses do not interct since they re idel, nd so ech gs expnds to twice its volume with no chnge in temperture. Even though the ctul process is not reversile, the entropy chnge cn e clculted for reversile process tht hs the sme initil nd finl sttes. his is discussed in Exmple 0-7.

6 S S nr nr N Ar totl N Ar ln ln g S S S nr ln.00 mol 8.34 J mol K ln.5j K () Becuse the continers re insulted, no het is trnsferred to or from the environment. hus dq S surroundings 0. (c) Let us ssume tht the rgon continer is twice the size of the nitrogen continer. hen the finl nitrogen volume is 3 times the originl volume, nd the finl rgon volume is.5 times the originl volume. S nr ln nr ln 3 ; S nr ln nr ln.5 N Ar totl N Ar N Ar g S S S nr ln 3 nr ln.5 nr ln mol 8.34 J mol K ln 4.5.5J K 50. We ssume tht the process is reversile, so tht the entropy chnge is given y Eq he het trnsfer is given y dq nc d. 3 dq nc d n d 3 3 S n d n 4 0.5mol.08 mj molgk.0 K 3.0 K.57 mj molgk.0 K 3.0 K 3 4.0mJ K All of the processes re either constnt pressure or constnt volume, nd so the het input nd output cn e clculted with specific hets t constnt pressure or constnt volume. his tells us tht het is input when the temperture increses, nd het is exhusted when the temperture decreses. he lowest temperture will e the temperture t point. We use the idel gs lw to find the tempertures.

7 nr nr 3 3,, 3, 6 nr nr nr nr c d W ; Q 0 () process : process c: W 0 ; Q nc nr nr nr 3 nr c c c 0 0 process cd: W 3 ; c Q nc nr nr 3 nr 3 nr cd d c 0 0 process d: W 0 ; Q 0 d d e W rectngle 5 Q 3 H () e 6 e H L rectngle ; 0.3 Crnot 6 e H Crnot 5 7. We hve montomic gs, so Also the pressure, volume, nd temperture for stte re 3. known. We use the idel gs lw, the ditic reltionship, nd the first lw of thermodynmics. () Use the idel gs eqution to relte sttes nd. Use the ditic reltionship to relte sttes nd c..4 L 73K.00 tm tm 56.0 L 73K c c c.4 L.00tm 0.7 tm 0.7 tm 56.0 L c () Use the idel gs eqution to clculte the temperture t c. 5/ 3

8 c c c c 0.7 tm c 73K 48 K 0.400tm c (c) rocess : E nc int 0 ; Q W nr S J 080 J Q g ln.00 mol 8.34 J mol K 73K ln J 73K 7.6 J K rocess c: W 0 ; c int c c 559 J 560J 3.00 mol 8.34 J molgk 48 K 73K E Q nc c c dq nc d c 3 nc c 48 K S ln.00 mol 8.34 J mol Kln g 73K 7.64 J K rocess c: Q S c 0 ; 0 ditic ; c int int int c c int c E W E E 0 560J E 560 J ; W 560 J c (d) W 080J 560J e Q 080J input ke the energy trnsfer to use s the initil kinetic energy of the crs, ecuse this energy ecomes unusle fter the collision it is trnsferred to the environment. m s 00 kg 75km h mv Q i 3.6 km h S 5 73 K 700J K

9 78. Since two of the processes re ditic, no het trnsfer occurs in those processes. hus the het trnsfer must occur long the isoric processes. c Aditic exp nsion Aditic compression d ; nc d d Q Q nc Q Q nc e H c c L d d Q L Q nc H c c Use the idel gs reltionship, which sys tht nr. d d nr nr e nr nr d d d c c c c c d c Becuse process is ditic, we hve ditic, we hve expression. / c d d c /.. Becuse process cd is Sustitute these into the efficiency

10 / / / c d c e c c c

First Law of Thermodynamics. Control Mass (Closed System) Conservation of Mass. Conservation of Energy

First Law of Thermodynamics. Control Mass (Closed System) Conservation of Mass. Conservation of Energy First w of hermodynmics Reding Problems 3-3-7 3-0, 3-5, 3-05 5-5- 5-8, 5-5, 5-9, 5-37, 5-0, 5-, 5-63, 5-7, 5-8, 5-09 6-6-5 6-, 6-5, 6-60, 6-80, 6-9, 6-, 6-68, 6-73 Control Mss (Closed System) In this section

More information

CHM Physical Chemistry I Chapter 1 - Supplementary Material

CHM Physical Chemistry I Chapter 1 - Supplementary Material CHM 3410 - Physicl Chemistry I Chpter 1 - Supplementry Mteril For review of some bsic concepts in mth, see Atkins "Mthemticl Bckground 1 (pp 59-6), nd "Mthemticl Bckground " (pp 109-111). 1. Derivtion

More information

a) Read over steps (1)- (4) below and sketch the path of the cycle on a P V plot on the graph below. Label all appropriate points.

a) Read over steps (1)- (4) below and sketch the path of the cycle on a P V plot on the graph below. Label all appropriate points. Prole 3: Crnot Cyle of n Idel Gs In this prole, the strting pressure P nd volue of n idel gs in stte, re given he rtio R = / > of the volues of the sttes nd is given Finlly onstnt γ = 5/3 is given You

More information

Rel Gses 1. Gses (N, CO ) which don t obey gs lws or gs eqution P=RT t ll pressure nd tempertures re clled rel gses.. Rel gses obey gs lws t extremely low pressure nd high temperture. Rel gses devited

More information

Chapter 9 Definite Integrals

Chapter 9 Definite Integrals Chpter 9 Definite Integrls In the previous chpter we found how to tke n ntiderivtive nd investigted the indefinite integrl. In this chpter the connection etween ntiderivtives nd definite integrls is estlished

More information

Section 6.1 Definite Integral

Section 6.1 Definite Integral Section 6.1 Definite Integrl Suppose we wnt to find the re of region tht is not so nicely shped. For exmple, consider the function shown elow. The re elow the curve nd ove the x xis cnnot e determined

More information

Suppose we want to find the area under the parabola and above the x axis, between the lines x = 2 and x = -2.

Suppose we want to find the area under the parabola and above the x axis, between the lines x = 2 and x = -2. Mth 43 Section 6. Section 6.: Definite Integrl Suppose we wnt to find the re of region tht is not so nicely shped. For exmple, consider the function shown elow. The re elow the curve nd ove the x xis cnnot

More information

Section 4: Integration ECO4112F 2011

Section 4: Integration ECO4112F 2011 Reding: Ching Chpter Section : Integrtion ECOF Note: These notes do not fully cover the mteril in Ching, ut re ment to supplement your reding in Ching. Thus fr the optimistion you hve covered hs een sttic

More information

658 Chpter 22 Het Engines, Entropy, nd the econd Lw of Thermodynmics from the cold reservoir in exchnge for the lest mount of work. Therefore, for these devices operting in the cooling mode, we define

More information

Name Solutions to Test 3 November 8, 2017

Name Solutions to Test 3 November 8, 2017 Nme Solutions to Test 3 November 8, 07 This test consists of three prts. Plese note tht in prts II nd III, you cn skip one question of those offered. Some possibly useful formuls cn be found below. Brrier

More information

I1 = I2 I1 = I2 + I3 I1 + I2 = I3 + I4 I 3

I1 = I2 I1 = I2 + I3 I1 + I2 = I3 + I4 I 3 2 The Prllel Circuit Electric Circuits: Figure 2- elow show ttery nd multiple resistors rrnged in prllel. Ech resistor receives portion of the current from the ttery sed on its resistnce. The split is

More information

Section 6: Area, Volume, and Average Value

Section 6: Area, Volume, and Average Value Chpter The Integrl Applied Clculus Section 6: Are, Volume, nd Averge Vlue Are We hve lredy used integrls to find the re etween the grph of function nd the horizontl xis. Integrls cn lso e used to find

More information

SUMMER KNOWHOW STUDY AND LEARNING CENTRE

SUMMER KNOWHOW STUDY AND LEARNING CENTRE SUMMER KNOWHOW STUDY AND LEARNING CENTRE Indices & Logrithms 2 Contents Indices.2 Frctionl Indices.4 Logrithms 6 Exponentil equtions. Simplifying Surds 13 Opertions on Surds..16 Scientific Nottion..18

More information

Properties of Integrals, Indefinite Integrals. Goals: Definition of the Definite Integral Integral Calculations using Antiderivatives

Properties of Integrals, Indefinite Integrals. Goals: Definition of the Definite Integral Integral Calculations using Antiderivatives Block #6: Properties of Integrls, Indefinite Integrls Gols: Definition of the Definite Integrl Integrl Clcultions using Antiderivtives Properties of Integrls The Indefinite Integrl 1 Riemnn Sums - 1 Riemnn

More information

Designing Information Devices and Systems I Discussion 8B

Designing Information Devices and Systems I Discussion 8B Lst Updted: 2018-10-17 19:40 1 EECS 16A Fll 2018 Designing Informtion Devices nd Systems I Discussion 8B 1. Why Bother With Thévenin Anywy? () Find Thévenin eqiuvlent for the circuit shown elow. 2kΩ 5V

More information

13.4 Work done by Constant Forces

13.4 Work done by Constant Forces 13.4 Work done by Constnt Forces We will begin our discussion of the concept of work by nlyzing the motion of n object in one dimension cted on by constnt forces. Let s consider the following exmple: push

More information

Physics 1402: Lecture 7 Today s Agenda

Physics 1402: Lecture 7 Today s Agenda 1 Physics 1402: Lecture 7 Tody s gend nnouncements: Lectures posted on: www.phys.uconn.edu/~rcote/ HW ssignments, solutions etc. Homework #2: On Msterphysics tody: due Fridy Go to msteringphysics.com Ls:

More information

2. My instructor s name is T. Snee (1 pt)

2. My instructor s name is T. Snee (1 pt) Chemistry 342 Exm #1, Feb. 15, 2019 Version 1 MY NAME IS: Extr Credit#1 1. At prissy Hrvrd, E. J. Corey is Nobel Prize (1990 winning chemist whom ll students cll (two letters 2. My instructor s nme is

More information

Scientific notation is a way of expressing really big numbers or really small numbers.

Scientific notation is a way of expressing really big numbers or really small numbers. Scientific Nottion (Stndrd form) Scientific nottion is wy of expressing relly big numbers or relly smll numbers. It is most often used in scientific clcultions where the nlysis must be very precise. Scientific

More information

Operations with Polynomials

Operations with Polynomials 38 Chpter P Prerequisites P.4 Opertions with Polynomils Wht you should lern: How to identify the leding coefficients nd degrees of polynomils How to dd nd subtrct polynomils How to multiply polynomils

More information

Review of Gaussian Quadrature method

Review of Gaussian Quadrature method Review of Gussin Qudrture method Nsser M. Asi Spring 006 compiled on Sundy Decemer 1, 017 t 09:1 PM 1 The prolem To find numericl vlue for the integrl of rel vlued function of rel vrile over specific rnge

More information

2.4 Linear Inequalities and Interval Notation

2.4 Linear Inequalities and Interval Notation .4 Liner Inequlities nd Intervl Nottion We wnt to solve equtions tht hve n inequlity symol insted of n equl sign. There re four inequlity symols tht we will look t: Less thn , Less thn or

More information

p-adic Egyptian Fractions

p-adic Egyptian Fractions p-adic Egyptin Frctions Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Trditionl Egyptin Frctions nd Greedy Algorithm 2 3 Set-up 3 4 p-greedy Algorithm 5 5 p-egyptin Trditionl 10 6 Conclusion 1 Introduction An Egyptin frction

More information

temperature is known as ionic product of water. It is designated as K w. Value of K w

temperature is known as ionic product of water. It is designated as K w. Value of K w Ionic product of ter The product of concentrtions of H nd OH ions in ter t prticulr temperture is knon s ionic product of ter. It is designted s K. H O H 1 OH ; H 57.3 kjm The vlue of [H ][OH ] K ; K[HO]

More information

Joule-Thomson effect TEP

Joule-Thomson effect TEP Joule-homson effect EP elted oics el gs; intrinsic energy; Gy-Lussc theory; throttling; n der Wls eqution; n der Wls force; inverse Joule- homson effect; inversion temerture. Princile A strem of gs is

More information

Chapter 4 The second law of thermodynamics

Chapter 4 The second law of thermodynamics hpter 4 he second lw of thermodynmics Directions of thermodynmic processes et engines Internl-combustion engines Refrigertors he second lw of thermodynmics he rnotcycle Entropy Directions of thermodynmic

More information

Fig. 1. Open-Loop and Closed-Loop Systems with Plant Variations

Fig. 1. Open-Loop and Closed-Loop Systems with Plant Variations ME 3600 Control ystems Chrcteristics of Open-Loop nd Closed-Loop ystems Importnt Control ystem Chrcteristics o ensitivity of system response to prmetric vritions cn be reduced o rnsient nd stedy-stte responses

More information

Psychrometric Applications

Psychrometric Applications Psychrometric Applictions The reminder of this presenttion centers on systems involving moist ir. A condensed wter phse my lso be present in such systems. The term moist irrefers to mixture of dry ir nd

More information

Study Guide Final Exam. Part A: Kinetic Theory, First Law of Thermodynamics, Heat Engines

Study Guide Final Exam. Part A: Kinetic Theory, First Law of Thermodynamics, Heat Engines Msschusetts Institute of Technology Deprtment of Physics 8.0T Fll 004 Study Guide Finl Exm The finl exm will consist of two sections. Section : multiple choice concept questions. There my be few concept

More information

DIRECT CURRENT CIRCUITS

DIRECT CURRENT CIRCUITS DRECT CURRENT CUTS ELECTRC POWER Consider the circuit shown in the Figure where bttery is connected to resistor R. A positive chrge dq will gin potentil energy s it moves from point to point b through

More information

PHYS Summer Professor Caillault Homework Solutions. Chapter 2

PHYS Summer Professor Caillault Homework Solutions. Chapter 2 PHYS 1111 - Summer 2007 - Professor Cillult Homework Solutions Chpter 2 5. Picture the Problem: The runner moves long the ovl trck. Strtegy: The distnce is the totl length of trvel, nd the displcement

More information

MA123, Chapter 10: Formulas for integrals: integrals, antiderivatives, and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (pp.

MA123, Chapter 10: Formulas for integrals: integrals, antiderivatives, and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (pp. MA123, Chpter 1: Formuls for integrls: integrls, ntiderivtives, nd the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus (pp. 27-233, Gootmn) Chpter Gols: Assignments: Understnd the sttement of the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus.

More information

n f(x i ) x. i=1 In section 4.2, we defined the definite integral of f from x = a to x = b as n f(x i ) x; f(x) dx = lim i=1

n f(x i ) x. i=1 In section 4.2, we defined the definite integral of f from x = a to x = b as n f(x i ) x; f(x) dx = lim i=1 The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus As we continue to study the re problem, let s think bck to wht we know bout computing res of regions enclosed by curves. If we wnt to find the re of the region below the

More information

This chapter will show you. What you should already know. 1 Write down the value of each of the following. a 5 2

This chapter will show you. What you should already know. 1 Write down the value of each of the following. a 5 2 1 Direct vrition 2 Inverse vrition This chpter will show you how to solve prolems where two vriles re connected y reltionship tht vries in direct or inverse proportion Direct proportion Inverse proportion

More information

Terminal Velocity and Raindrop Growth

Terminal Velocity and Raindrop Growth Terminl Velocity nd Rindrop Growth Terminl velocity for rindrop represents blnce in which weight mss times grvity is equl to drg force. F 3 π3 ρ L g in which is drop rdius, g is grvittionl ccelertion,

More information

Chapter E - Problems

Chapter E - Problems Chpter E - Prolems Blinn College - Physics 2426 - Terry Honn Prolem E.1 A wire with dimeter d feeds current to cpcitor. The chrge on the cpcitor vries with time s QHtL = Q 0 sin w t. Wht re the current

More information

The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. The Total Change Theorem and the Area Under a Curve.

The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. The Total Change Theorem and the Area Under a Curve. Clculus Li Vs The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus. The Totl Chnge Theorem nd the Are Under Curve. Recll the following fct from Clculus course. If continuous function f(x) represents the rte of chnge of F

More information

Interpreting Integrals and the Fundamental Theorem

Interpreting Integrals and the Fundamental Theorem Interpreting Integrls nd the Fundmentl Theorem Tody, we go further in interpreting the mening of the definite integrl. Using Units to Aid Interprettion We lredy know tht if f(t) is the rte of chnge of

More information

Discrete Mathematics and Probability Theory Spring 2013 Anant Sahai Lecture 17

Discrete Mathematics and Probability Theory Spring 2013 Anant Sahai Lecture 17 EECS 70 Discrete Mthemtics nd Proility Theory Spring 2013 Annt Shi Lecture 17 I.I.D. Rndom Vriles Estimting the is of coin Question: We wnt to estimte the proportion p of Democrts in the US popultion,

More information

Consequently, the temperature must be the same at each point in the cross section at x. Let:

Consequently, the temperature must be the same at each point in the cross section at x. Let: HW 2 Comments: L1-3. Derive the het eqution for n inhomogeneous rod where the therml coefficients used in the derivtion of the het eqution for homogeneous rod now become functions of position x in the

More information

Math 8 Winter 2015 Applications of Integration

Math 8 Winter 2015 Applications of Integration Mth 8 Winter 205 Applictions of Integrtion Here re few importnt pplictions of integrtion. The pplictions you my see on n exm in this course include only the Net Chnge Theorem (which is relly just the Fundmentl

More information

Department of Mechanical Engineering ME 322 Mechanical Engineering Thermodynamics. Lecture 33. Psychrometric Properties of Moist Air

Department of Mechanical Engineering ME 322 Mechanical Engineering Thermodynamics. Lecture 33. Psychrometric Properties of Moist Air Deprtment of Mechnicl Engineering ME 3 Mechnicl Engineering hermodynmics Lecture 33 sychrometric roperties of Moist Air Air-Wter Vpor Mixtures Atmospheric ir A binry mixture of dry ir () + ter vpor ()

More information

Designing Information Devices and Systems I Spring 2018 Homework 7

Designing Information Devices and Systems I Spring 2018 Homework 7 EECS 16A Designing Informtion Devices nd Systems I Spring 2018 omework 7 This homework is due Mrch 12, 2018, t 23:59. Self-grdes re due Mrch 15, 2018, t 23:59. Sumission Formt Your homework sumission should

More information

dy ky, dt where proportionality constant k may be positive or negative

dy ky, dt where proportionality constant k may be positive or negative Section 1.2 Autonomous DEs of the form 0 The DE y is mthemticl model for wide vriety of pplictions. Some of the pplictions re descried y sying the rte of chnge of y(t) is proportionl to the mount present.

More information

Topics Covered AP Calculus AB

Topics Covered AP Calculus AB Topics Covered AP Clculus AB ) Elementry Functions ) Properties of Functions i) A function f is defined s set of ll ordered pirs (, y), such tht for ech element, there corresponds ectly one element y.

More information

Improper Integrals, and Differential Equations

Improper Integrals, and Differential Equations Improper Integrls, nd Differentil Equtions October 22, 204 5.3 Improper Integrls Previously, we discussed how integrls correspond to res. More specificlly, we sid tht for function f(x), the region creted

More information

10. AREAS BETWEEN CURVES

10. AREAS BETWEEN CURVES . AREAS BETWEEN CURVES.. Ares etween curves So res ove the x-xis re positive nd res elow re negtive, right? Wrong! We lied! Well, when you first lern out integrtion it s convenient fiction tht s true in

More information

CHAPTER 08: MONOPROTIC ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIA

CHAPTER 08: MONOPROTIC ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIA Hrris: Quntittive Chemicl Anlysis, Eight Edition CHAPTER 08: MONOPROTIC ACIDBASE EQUILIBRIA CHAPTER 08: Opener A CHAPTER 08: Opener B CHAPTER 08: Opener C CHAPTER 08: Opener D CHAPTER 08: Opener E Chpter

More information

STRAND J: TRANSFORMATIONS, VECTORS and MATRICES

STRAND J: TRANSFORMATIONS, VECTORS and MATRICES Mthemtics SKE: STRN J STRN J: TRNSFORMTIONS, VETORS nd MTRIES J3 Vectors Text ontents Section J3.1 Vectors nd Sclrs * J3. Vectors nd Geometry Mthemtics SKE: STRN J J3 Vectors J3.1 Vectors nd Sclrs Vectors

More information

Chapter 4: Techniques of Circuit Analysis. Chapter 4: Techniques of Circuit Analysis

Chapter 4: Techniques of Circuit Analysis. Chapter 4: Techniques of Circuit Analysis Chpter 4: Techniques of Circuit Anlysis Terminology Node-Voltge Method Introduction Dependent Sources Specil Cses Mesh-Current Method Introduction Dependent Sources Specil Cses Comprison of Methods Source

More information

Math 116 Calculus II

Math 116 Calculus II Mth 6 Clculus II Contents 5 Exponentil nd Logrithmic functions 5. Review........................................... 5.. Exponentil functions............................... 5.. Logrithmic functions...............................

More information

M344 - ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS

M344 - ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS M3 - ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS Lecture 18: Lplce s Eqution, Anltic nd Numericl Solution Our emple of n elliptic prtil differentil eqution is Lplce s eqution, lso clled the Diffusion Eqution. If

More information

How do we solve these things, especially when they get complicated? How do we know when a system has a solution, and when is it unique?

How do we solve these things, especially when they get complicated? How do we know when a system has a solution, and when is it unique? XII. LINEAR ALGEBRA: SOLVING SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS Tody we re going to tlk out solving systems of liner equtions. These re prolems tht give couple of equtions with couple of unknowns, like: 6= x + x 7=

More information

Linear Inequalities. Work Sheet 1

Linear Inequalities. Work Sheet 1 Work Sheet 1 Liner Inequlities Rent--Hep, cr rentl compny,chrges $ 15 per week plus $ 0.0 per mile to rent one of their crs. Suppose you re limited y how much money you cn spend for the week : You cn spend

More information

Hints for Exercise 1 on: Current and Resistance

Hints for Exercise 1 on: Current and Resistance Hints for Exercise 1 on: Current nd Resistnce Review the concepts of: electric current, conventionl current flow direction, current density, crrier drift velocity, crrier numer density, Ohm s lw, electric

More information

2 b. , a. area is S= 2π xds. Again, understand where these formulas came from (pages ).

2 b. , a. area is S= 2π xds. Again, understand where these formulas came from (pages ). AP Clculus BC Review Chpter 8 Prt nd Chpter 9 Things to Know nd Be Ale to Do Know everything from the first prt of Chpter 8 Given n integrnd figure out how to ntidifferentite it using ny of the following

More information

Rates of chemical reactions

Rates of chemical reactions Rtes of chemicl rections Mesuring rtes of chemicl rections Experimentl mesuring progress of the rection Monitoring pressure in the rection involving gses 2 NO( g) 4 NO ( g) + O ( g) 2 5 2 2 n(1 α) 2αn

More information

5: The Definite Integral

5: The Definite Integral 5: The Definite Integrl 5.: Estimting with Finite Sums Consider moving oject its velocity (meters per second) t ny time (seconds) is given y v t = t+. Cn we use this informtion to determine the distnce

More information

The area under the graph of f and above the x-axis between a and b is denoted by. f(x) dx. π O

The area under the graph of f and above the x-axis between a and b is denoted by. f(x) dx. π O 1 Section 5. The Definite Integrl Suppose tht function f is continuous nd positive over n intervl [, ]. y = f(x) x The re under the grph of f nd ove the x-xis etween nd is denoted y f(x) dx nd clled the

More information

The Thermodynamics of Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions

The Thermodynamics of Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions 18 The Thermodynmics of Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions As discussed in Chpter 10, when slt is dissolved in wter or in other pproprite solvent, the molecules dissocite into ions. In queous solutions, strong

More information

ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS. The real numbers have the following properties: a b c ab ac

ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS. The real numbers have the following properties: a b c ab ac REVIEW OF ALGEBRA Here we review the bsic rules nd procedures of lgebr tht you need to know in order to be successful in clculus. ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS The rel numbers hve the following properties: b b

More information

Bridging the gap: GCSE AS Level

Bridging the gap: GCSE AS Level Bridging the gp: GCSE AS Level CONTENTS Chpter Removing rckets pge Chpter Liner equtions Chpter Simultneous equtions 8 Chpter Fctors 0 Chpter Chnge the suject of the formul Chpter 6 Solving qudrtic equtions

More information

Part I: Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics

Part I: Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics Prt I: Bsic Concepts o Thermodynmics Lecture 4: Kinetic Theory o Gses Kinetic Theory or rel gses 4-1 Kinetic Theory or rel gses Recll tht or rel gses: (i The volume occupied by the molecules under ordinry

More information

CHEMICAL KINETICS

CHEMICAL KINETICS CHEMICAL KINETICS Long Answer Questions: 1. Explin the following terms with suitble exmples ) Averge rte of Rection b) Slow nd Fst Rections c) Order of Rection d) Moleculrity of Rection e) Activtion Energy

More information

Goals: Determine how to calculate the area described by a function. Define the definite integral. Explore the relationship between the definite

Goals: Determine how to calculate the area described by a function. Define the definite integral. Explore the relationship between the definite Unit #8 : The Integrl Gols: Determine how to clculte the re described by function. Define the definite integrl. Eplore the reltionship between the definite integrl nd re. Eplore wys to estimte the definite

More information

Discrete Mathematics and Probability Theory Summer 2014 James Cook Note 17

Discrete Mathematics and Probability Theory Summer 2014 James Cook Note 17 CS 70 Discrete Mthemtics nd Proility Theory Summer 2014 Jmes Cook Note 17 I.I.D. Rndom Vriles Estimting the is of coin Question: We wnt to estimte the proportion p of Democrts in the US popultion, y tking

More information

Duality # Second iteration for HW problem. Recall our LP example problem we have been working on, in equality form, is given below.

Duality # Second iteration for HW problem. Recall our LP example problem we have been working on, in equality form, is given below. Dulity #. Second itertion for HW problem Recll our LP emple problem we hve been working on, in equlity form, is given below.,,,, 8 m F which, when written in slightly different form, is 8 F Recll tht we

More information

10 Vector Integral Calculus

10 Vector Integral Calculus Vector Integrl lculus Vector integrl clculus extends integrls s known from clculus to integrls over curves ("line integrls"), surfces ("surfce integrls") nd solids ("volume integrls"). These integrls hve

More information

Module 2: Rate Law & Stoichiomtery (Chapter 3, Fogler)

Module 2: Rate Law & Stoichiomtery (Chapter 3, Fogler) CHE 309: Chemicl Rection Engineering Lecture-8 Module 2: Rte Lw & Stoichiomtery (Chpter 3, Fogler) Topics to be covered in tody s lecture Thermodynmics nd Kinetics Rection rtes for reversible rections

More information

Thermal Diffusivity. Paul Hughes. Department of Physics and Astronomy The University of Manchester Manchester M13 9PL. Second Year Laboratory Report

Thermal Diffusivity. Paul Hughes. Department of Physics and Astronomy The University of Manchester Manchester M13 9PL. Second Year Laboratory Report Therml iffusivity Pul Hughes eprtment of Physics nd Astronomy The University of nchester nchester 3 9PL Second Yer Lbortory Report Nov 4 Abstrct We investigted the therml diffusivity of cylindricl block

More information

JURONG JUNIOR COLLEGE

JURONG JUNIOR COLLEGE JURONG JUNIOR COLLEGE 2010 JC1 H1 8866 hysics utoril : Dynmics Lerning Outcomes Sub-topic utoril Questions Newton's lws of motion 1 1 st Lw, b, e f 2 nd Lw, including drwing FBDs nd solving problems by

More information

STEP FUNCTIONS, DELTA FUNCTIONS, AND THE VARIATION OF PARAMETERS FORMULA. 0 if t < 0, 1 if t > 0.

STEP FUNCTIONS, DELTA FUNCTIONS, AND THE VARIATION OF PARAMETERS FORMULA. 0 if t < 0, 1 if t > 0. STEP FUNCTIONS, DELTA FUNCTIONS, AND THE VARIATION OF PARAMETERS FORMULA STEPHEN SCHECTER. The unit step function nd piecewise continuous functions The Heviside unit step function u(t) is given by if t

More information

SOLUTIONS TO CONCEPTS CHAPTER

SOLUTIONS TO CONCEPTS CHAPTER 1. m = kg S = 10m Let, ccelertion =, Initil velocity u = 0. S= ut + 1/ t 10 = ½ ( ) 10 = = 5 m/s orce: = = 5 = 10N (ns) SOLUIONS O CONCEPS CHPE 5 40000. u = 40 km/hr = = 11.11 m/s. 3600 m = 000 kg ; v

More information

200 points 5 Problems on 4 Pages and 20 Multiple Choice/Short Answer Questions on 5 pages 1 hour, 48 minutes

200 points 5 Problems on 4 Pages and 20 Multiple Choice/Short Answer Questions on 5 pages 1 hour, 48 minutes PHYSICS 132 Smple Finl 200 points 5 Problems on 4 Pges nd 20 Multiple Choice/Short Answer Questions on 5 pges 1 hour, 48 minutes Student Nme: Recittion Instructor (circle one): nme1 nme2 nme3 nme4 Write

More information

( ) as a fraction. Determine location of the highest

( ) as a fraction. Determine location of the highest AB Clculus Exm Review Sheet - Solutions A. Preclculus Type prolems A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 This is wht you think of doing Find the zeros of f ( x). Set function equl to 0. Fctor or use qudrtic eqution if

More information

( ) Same as above but m = f x = f x - symmetric to y-axis. find where f ( x) Relative: Find where f ( x) x a + lim exists ( lim f exists.

( ) Same as above but m = f x = f x - symmetric to y-axis. find where f ( x) Relative: Find where f ( x) x a + lim exists ( lim f exists. AP Clculus Finl Review Sheet solutions When you see the words This is wht you think of doing Find the zeros Set function =, fctor or use qudrtic eqution if qudrtic, grph to find zeros on clcultor Find

More information

Review of Calculus, cont d

Review of Calculus, cont d Jim Lmbers MAT 460 Fll Semester 2009-10 Lecture 3 Notes These notes correspond to Section 1.1 in the text. Review of Clculus, cont d Riemnn Sums nd the Definite Integrl There re mny cses in which some

More information

Final Exam - Review MATH Spring 2017

Final Exam - Review MATH Spring 2017 Finl Exm - Review MATH 5 - Spring 7 Chpter, 3, nd Sections 5.-5.5, 5.7 Finl Exm: Tuesdy 5/9, :3-7:pm The following is list of importnt concepts from the sections which were not covered by Midterm Exm or.

More information

CBE 291b - Computation And Optimization For Engineers

CBE 291b - Computation And Optimization For Engineers The University of Western Ontrio Fculty of Engineering Science Deprtment of Chemicl nd Biochemicl Engineering CBE 9b - Computtion And Optimiztion For Engineers Mtlb Project Introduction Prof. A. Jutn Jn

More information

13: Diffusion in 2 Energy Groups

13: Diffusion in 2 Energy Groups 3: Diffusion in Energy Groups B. Rouben McMster University Course EP 4D3/6D3 Nucler Rector Anlysis (Rector Physics) 5 Sept.-Dec. 5 September Contents We study the diffusion eqution in two energy groups

More information

MATH 144: Business Calculus Final Review

MATH 144: Business Calculus Final Review MATH 144: Business Clculus Finl Review 1 Skills 1. Clculte severl limits. 2. Find verticl nd horizontl symptotes for given rtionl function. 3. Clculte derivtive by definition. 4. Clculte severl derivtives

More information

Polynomials and Division Theory

Polynomials and Division Theory Higher Checklist (Unit ) Higher Checklist (Unit ) Polynomils nd Division Theory Skill Achieved? Know tht polynomil (expression) is of the form: n x + n x n + n x n + + n x + x + 0 where the i R re the

More information

( ) where f ( x ) is a. AB Calculus Exam Review Sheet. A. Precalculus Type problems. Find the zeros of f ( x).

( ) where f ( x ) is a. AB Calculus Exam Review Sheet. A. Precalculus Type problems. Find the zeros of f ( x). AB Clculus Exm Review Sheet A. Preclculus Type prolems A1 Find the zeros of f ( x). This is wht you think of doing A2 A3 Find the intersection of f ( x) nd g( x). Show tht f ( x) is even. A4 Show tht f

More information

Physics 2135 Exam 1 February 14, 2017

Physics 2135 Exam 1 February 14, 2017 Exm Totl / 200 Physics 215 Exm 1 Ferury 14, 2017 Printed Nme: Rec. Sec. Letter: Five multiple choice questions, 8 points ech. Choose the est or most nerly correct nswer. 1. Two chrges 1 nd 2 re seprted

More information

Physics 9 Fall 2011 Homework 2 - Solutions Friday September 2, 2011

Physics 9 Fall 2011 Homework 2 - Solutions Friday September 2, 2011 Physics 9 Fll 0 Homework - s Fridy September, 0 Mke sure your nme is on your homework, nd plese box your finl nswer. Becuse we will be giving prtil credit, be sure to ttempt ll the problems, even if you

More information

Continuous Random Variables Class 5, Jeremy Orloff and Jonathan Bloom

Continuous Random Variables Class 5, Jeremy Orloff and Jonathan Bloom Lerning Gols Continuous Rndom Vriles Clss 5, 8.05 Jeremy Orloff nd Jonthn Bloom. Know the definition of continuous rndom vrile. 2. Know the definition of the proility density function (pdf) nd cumultive

More information

NUMERICAL INTEGRATION. The inverse process to differentiation in calculus is integration. Mathematically, integration is represented by.

NUMERICAL INTEGRATION. The inverse process to differentiation in calculus is integration. Mathematically, integration is represented by. NUMERICAL INTEGRATION 1 Introduction The inverse process to differentition in clculus is integrtion. Mthemticlly, integrtion is represented by f(x) dx which stnds for the integrl of the function f(x) with

More information

Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry

Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry Homework Fundmentls of nlyticl hemistry hpter 9 0, 1, 5, 7, 9 cids, Bses, nd hpter 9(b) Definitions cid Releses H ions in wter (rrhenius) Proton donor (Bronsted( Lowry) Electron-pir cceptor (Lewis) hrcteristic

More information

7.1 Integral as Net Change and 7.2 Areas in the Plane Calculus

7.1 Integral as Net Change and 7.2 Areas in the Plane Calculus 7.1 Integrl s Net Chnge nd 7. Ares in the Plne Clculus 7.1 INTEGRAL AS NET CHANGE Notecrds from 7.1: Displcement vs Totl Distnce, Integrl s Net Chnge We hve lredy seen how the position of n oject cn e

More information

Convert the NFA into DFA

Convert the NFA into DFA Convert the NF into F For ech NF we cn find F ccepting the sme lnguge. The numer of sttes of the F could e exponentil in the numer of sttes of the NF, ut in prctice this worst cse occurs rrely. lgorithm:

More information

The practical version

The practical version Roerto s Notes on Integrl Clculus Chpter 4: Definite integrls nd the FTC Section 7 The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus: The prcticl version Wht you need to know lredy: The theoreticl version of the FTC. Wht

More information

approaches as n becomes larger and larger. Since e > 1, the graph of the natural exponential function is as below

approaches as n becomes larger and larger. Since e > 1, the graph of the natural exponential function is as below . Eponentil nd rithmic functions.1 Eponentil Functions A function of the form f() =, > 0, 1 is clled n eponentil function. Its domin is the set of ll rel f ( 1) numbers. For n eponentil function f we hve.

More information

The Wave Equation I. MA 436 Kurt Bryan

The Wave Equation I. MA 436 Kurt Bryan 1 Introduction The Wve Eqution I MA 436 Kurt Bryn Consider string stretching long the x xis, of indeterminte (or even infinite!) length. We wnt to derive n eqution which models the motion of the string

More information

332:221 Principles of Electrical Engineering I Fall Hourly Exam 2 November 6, 2006

332:221 Principles of Electrical Engineering I Fall Hourly Exam 2 November 6, 2006 2:221 Principles of Electricl Engineering I Fll 2006 Nme of the student nd ID numer: Hourly Exm 2 Novemer 6, 2006 This is closed-ook closed-notes exm. Do ll your work on these sheets. If more spce is required,

More information

5.1 How do we Measure Distance Traveled given Velocity? Student Notes

5.1 How do we Measure Distance Traveled given Velocity? Student Notes . How do we Mesure Distnce Trveled given Velocity? Student Notes EX ) The tle contins velocities of moving cr in ft/sec for time t in seconds: time (sec) 3 velocity (ft/sec) 3 A) Lel the x-xis & y-xis

More information

Definite Integrals. The area under a curve can be approximated by adding up the areas of rectangles = 1 1 +

Definite Integrals. The area under a curve can be approximated by adding up the areas of rectangles = 1 1 + Definite Integrls --5 The re under curve cn e pproximted y dding up the res of rectngles. Exmple. Approximte the re under y = from x = to x = using equl suintervls nd + x evluting the function t the left-hnd

More information

The Regulated and Riemann Integrals

The Regulated and Riemann Integrals Chpter 1 The Regulted nd Riemnn Integrls 1.1 Introduction We will consider severl different pproches to defining the definite integrl f(x) dx of function f(x). These definitions will ll ssign the sme vlue

More information

Lecture 13 - Linking E, ϕ, and ρ

Lecture 13 - Linking E, ϕ, and ρ Lecture 13 - Linking E, ϕ, nd ρ A Puzzle... Inner-Surfce Chrge Density A positive point chrge q is locted off-center inside neutrl conducting sphericl shell. We know from Guss s lw tht the totl chrge on

More information

5.7 Improper Integrals

5.7 Improper Integrals 458 pplictions of definite integrls 5.7 Improper Integrls In Section 5.4, we computed the work required to lift pylod of mss m from the surfce of moon of mss nd rdius R to height H bove the surfce of the

More information

Which of the following describes the net ionic reaction for the hydrolysis. Which of the following salts will produce a solution with the highest ph?

Which of the following describes the net ionic reaction for the hydrolysis. Which of the following salts will produce a solution with the highest ph? 95. Which of the following descries the net ionic rection for the hydrolysis of NH4Cl( s)? A. NH4 ( q) Cl & ( q) NH4Cl( s) B. NH Cl & 4 ( s) NH4 ( q) Cl ( q) C. Cl ( q) H O & 2 ( l) HCl( q) OH ( q) D.

More information