# FLUID MECHANICS. Atmosphere, Ocean. Aerodynamics. Energy conversion. Transport of heat/other. Numerous industrial processes

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1 SG2214 Anders Dahlkild Luca Brandt FLUID MECHANICS : SG2214 Course requirements (7.5 cr.) INL 1 (3 cr.) 3 sets of home work problems (for 10 p. on written exam) 1 laboration TEN1 (4.5 cr.) 1 written exam (50 p.) The lab is scheduled ONCE a year (week 41) Photo: Rochester Institute of Technology Book: Kundu & Cohen (3:rd ed.) E-book at KTHB Referex Engineering: Materials & Mech. Collection useful also in SG2218 Turbulence and SG2221 Wave motions and Hydrodynamic stability : SG2214 Why? An in-depth introduction to fluid mechanics, with an emphasis of understanding fluid phenomena using the Navier-Stokes equations, the single set of partial differential equations governing all fluid flow. 1. Introduction, tensors, kinematics 2. Conservation laws 3. Laminar viscous flow 4. Vorticity dynamics 5. 2D irrotational flow 6. Laminar boundary layers 7. Introduction to turbulent flow - Atmosphere, Ocean Aerodynamics Energy conversion Transport of heat/other Numerous industrial processes 1

2 Fluid Engineers basic tools Definition of fluid Experimental testing Computational Fluid Theoretical estimates Dynamics F F solid fluid An elastic solid deforms a finite amount under the action of a shear force, and returns to its original shape as F is withdrawn. A fluid deforms continuously under the action of a shear force, however small. Newton s law of motion for solid body ω Continuum hypothesis: Discrete molecular structure of matter is disregarded. Replaced by continuous distribution of matter. G r G 2

3 Newton s law of motion in fluid for: 1. Open fix control volume (integral form) => Momentum principle V v y v u 2. Infinitesimal fluid element (differential form) => Navier-Stokes equations dv w u x w u z Newtons law of friction Different regimes of flow: Reynolds number Δp L 2 m a L 2 y τ u(y) Δp L 2 x m a L 2 3

4 Viscous flow: circular cylinder Example: circular cylinder Stokes flow: Slow flow or large viscosity - Re Viscous flow: rotating tank Thermal convection Heated wall Cooled wall => Increasing viscosity => 4

5 Vorticies and vorticity: trailing-line vortices Vorticies: wing tip vortex Vorticies: hurricanes and tornados Irrotational flow: 2D flow around airfoil 5

6 Boundary layers Flow separation δ Attached flow L L >> δ - δ Separated flow Turbulent separation Surface waves: potential flow with free surface SG2221: Wave motions and hydrodynamic stability, 7.5 cr. Laminar flow Turbulent flow Laminar flow separates faster than turbulent flow From DNS from Mekanik, KTH 6

7 Flow instability: von Karman vortex street Flow instability: vortex breakdown Perry, Chang & Lim, JFM 116 Turbulence: jets and boundary layers SG2218 Turbulence, 7.5 cr. Mount St Helen eruption, from - 7

8 Compressible flow: shock-waves SG2215 Compressible Flow, 7.5 cr. Photo: NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center Turbulent flow over high-lift profiles using RANS SG2212 Computational Fluid dynamics, 7.5 cr. SG2224 Applied Computational Fluid Dynamics, 5 cr. Turbulent kinetic energy and streamlines Total pressure loss p-p0 8

9 Navier-Stokes equations Incompressible fluid element Vector form Cartesian tensor form i=1,2,3 Velocity Dynamic viscosity µ Gradient operator Laplace operator Density Pressure ρ p 9

### FLUID MECHANICS. ! Atmosphere, Ocean. ! Aerodynamics. ! Energy conversion. ! Transport of heat/other. ! Numerous industrial processes

SG2214 Anders Dahlkild Luca Brandt FLUID MECHANICS : SG2214 Course requirements (7.5 cr.)! INL 1 (3 cr.)! 3 sets of home work problems (for 10 p. on written exam)! 1 laboration! TEN1 (4.5 cr.)! 1 written

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