Filtered TwoFluid Model for GasParticle Suspensions. S. Sundaresan and Yesim Igci Princeton University


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1 Filtered TwoFluid Model for GasParticle Suspensions S. Sundaresan and Yesim Igci Princeton University Festschrift for Professor Dimitri Gidaspow's 75th Birthday II Wednesday, November 11, 2009: 3:15 PM Bayou E (Gaylord Opryland Hotel) (3:574:18 PM) Supported by US DOE, ExxonMobil 1
2 Characteristics of flows in turbulent fluidized beds & fast fluidized beds Persistent density and velocity fluctuations Wide range of length and time scales Identifiable macroscopic inhomogeneous structures Radial variation of particle volume fraction and fluxes 2
3 Twofluid model equations Solids Fluid ( ρφ ) s t s ( ρφ f f ) t ( ρφu ) 0 + = s s s ( ρφ f fu f ) 0 + = Gidaspow's 1994 book + many papers! φ + φ = 1 s f Solids t ( ) ( ) ρ φ u + ρ φ u u = σ φ σ + f + ρ φ g s s s s s s s s s f s s inertia solid phase stress effective buoyancy interphase interaction gravity Fluid t ( ) ( ) ρ φ u + ρ φ u u = φ σ f + ρ φ g f f f f f f f f f f f Typical closures used widely: Newtonian fluid model for gasphase stress Kinetic theory of granular materials for solid phase stress Interphase force due to gasparticle drag 3
4 Average particle volume fraction: μm particles in air 2D Domain size : 64 cm x 64 cm with MFIX (Multiphase Flow with Interphase exchanges) 64 x x x x16x16 32x32x32 64x64x64 4
5 Modeling challenge for gasparticle flows Develop models that allow us to focus on largescale flow structures, without ignoring the possible consequence of the smaller scale structures. Original twofluid model and constitutive relations Significant advances in the past three decades Filtered twofluid model Modified constitutive relations for hydrodynamic terms species and energy dispersion interphase heat and mass transfer rates even modified reaction rate expressions! Jinghai Li: EMMS approach 5
6 Filter data generated through highly resolved simulations of twofluid models Snapshot of particle volume fraction fields obtained in highly resolved simulations of gasparticle flows. Squares illustrate regions (i.e. filters) of over which averaging over the cells is performed. Igci, et al., AIChE J., 54, 1431 (2008) 6
7 Filtered variables φ = φ + φ φ = φ + φ φ = s s s f f f s us = us + u s φsus = φsus φ sus = 0 u = u + u φ u = φ u φ u = 0 f f f f f f f f f 0 All filtered quantities are functions of space and time 7
8 Filtered particle phase momentum balance t ( ) ( ) ρ φ u + ρ φ u u = σ φ p + f + ρ φ g s s s s s s s s s f drag s s Upon filtering, ( ρφu ) + ( ρφu u ) = σ + ρφu u φ p t stress due to subfilter scale fluctuations s s s s s s s s s s s s s f φ p + f s f drag effective subfilter scale fluidparticle interaction force + ρφg s s 8
9 Subfilter scale correlations ρφ s suu s s + σ 2 s = pseffi+ μ from kinetic theory, seff, ( ) φ p + f = β u u s f drag eff f s S Scaled filter size gδ = V 2 t 1 Fr Δ All the effective quantities will depend on the choice of filter size, φ s and so on; such filter size dependence is present in LES of turbulent flows as well. 9
10 Filtered drag coefficient decreases as filter size increases for both 2D and 3D Domain size = 16 x x 64 grids β eff s V ρ g t 16 x 16 x x 64 x 64 2D 3D Example: 75 μm; 1500 kg/m 3 ; domain size = 8 cm g Δ = V 2 t 1 Fr Δ 1 = 2 Δ= 1cm Fr Δ 10
11 Wall correction to the filtered closures 75 μm particles in air 2D Kinetic theory based simulations Height: 500 cm Width: 20 cm, 30 cm, 50 cm The inlet gas superficial velocity: 93 cm/s. The inlet particle phase superficial velocity is 2.38 cm/s. The inlet particle phase volume fraction is Partialslip BC for particle phase and freeslip BC for gas phase Grid size: 0.25 cm (0.514 dimensionless units) 11
12 The filtered drag coefficient is noticeably different in the core and the wall regions Wall Filter size: Grid size: Dimensionless distance Core filtered, with wall correction filtered, scaled * filtered The wall correction for the filtered drag coefficient is independent of channel width and filter size (not shown). β = β β ( φ ) * filtered s = filtered, periodic s Fr s ( φ, r) β ( φ ) β ( φ, Δ ) Dimensionless filter size: gδ V filter size 2 t = Fr Δ 1 filter size Dimensionless distance: gδ V distance 2 t = Fr Δ 1 distance filter size s The same conclusion applies for filtered particle phase pressure and viscosity. 12
13 Verification of the filtered model Original twofluid model Filtered twofluid model Solve a test problem using the original twofluid model equations Solve the same test problem using the filtered twofluid model equations Compare 13
14 14 Verification of the filtered model 75 μm particles in air Compare predictions of kinetic theory and filtered models Height: 500 cm Width: 30 cm The inlet gas superficial velocity: 93 cm/s. The inlet particle phase superficial velocity is 2.38 cm/s. The inlet particle phase volume fraction is Freeslip boundary conditions
15 Mass inventory of particles in the riser The minimum grid size required for : Kinetic theory model: Grid size: cm 2cm filtered model: Grid size: 1.00 cm Grid size = 2 Filter size or smaller 1 Increasing resolution 15
16 Solution of discretized form of the filtered twofluid model Elevation = 3m Filtered model with closures corresponding to a filter size of 2 cm Nearly grid size independent time averaged profiles when grid size is less than or equal to one half of the filter size. 16
17 Solution of discretized form of the filtered twofluid models Compare predictions of filtered models with different filter sizes Elevation = 3m Filtered model with closures corresponding to filter sizes of 2 and 4 cm yield nearly the same time averaged results as long as grid size is less than equal to 0.5 (filter size) 17
18 Summary Performed highly resolved simulations of a kinetic theory based twofluid model for gasparticle flow in various test domains Filtered the results to learn about constitutive relations for the filtered twofluid model Verified the fidelity of the filtered model Validation remains to be completed in progress. Filtered species and energy balance equations (and rate of chemical reactions) remain to be developed: future research project. Dear Dimitri, Happy 75 th! 18
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