2 Most of Modern Physics today is concerned with the extremes of matter: Very low temperatures, very large numbers of particles, complex systems Æ Condensed Matter Physics Very high temperatures, very large distances Æ Astrophysics, Cosmology Very small distances, very high energies Æ Elementary Particle Physics (High Energy Physics)
3 The fundamental particles (so far) Electron: charge -1, doesn t feel strong force Proton: charge +1, feels strong force Neutron: charge 0, feels strong force Positron: (the anti-electron) Same mass and opposite charge as the electron. Predicted in 1928 by Dirac based on relativistic generalization of the Schrodinger equation. Discovered in Cosmic Rays in (All particles have antiparticles. The anti-proton was discovered in 1956)
4 Cosmic Rays Cosmic rays are very energetic particles, mostly protons, that come from interstellar space. They collide with particles in the earth s atmosphere, producing showers of very high energy particles. Their energies can be as high as ev, about a billion times the highest energy human-built accelerator.
5 The fundamental particles (so far) (continued) Neutrino: charge 0, doesn t feel strong force. Predicted by Pauli in 1930, in order to conserve momentum in nuclear b decay. Discovered in Photon: charge 0, associated with the electromagnetic force The photon carries or mediates the EM force by being exchanged virtually between charged particles. This is represented in Feynman diagrams: t e - g e - e - e -
6 The Prediction of the Pion In 1935, based on an analogy with the photon as the mediator of the EM force, Yukawa argued that there also should be a particle that mediates the strong force. The mass of Yukawa s particle (the π-meson or pion) can be estimated by the uncertainty principle: Range of nuclear force is Δx ~ 1 fm A pion travels this distance in Δt ~ Δx /c ==> 3.3E-24 sec Uncertainty in energy necessary for pion to exist for this time is: ΔE ~ ħ/2xδt = 6.58E-16/2x3.3E-24 = ~100 MeV ==> Mp = ~100 MeV/c 2 Hideki Yukawa
7 (note: m p > m p > m e ) t p p n p n Only 2 years after Yukawa s prediction, a new particle was discovered in cosmic rays with just the right mass. But it was not Yukawa s particle!!! (more on this later.)
8 Yukawa s pion finally discovered in in cosmic rays. It comes in three varieties: Charged pions p ±, with charge ±1 and mass 140 MeV/c 2. They are antiparticles of each other. They live with a mean lifetime of 2.6x10-8 seconds before decaying to lighter particles. The neutral pion p 0, with charge 0 and mass 135 MeV/c 2. It is its own antiparticle. It lives about 8.4x10-17 seconds before decaying into two photons. p p 0 n n p ± p p n p n
9 More Particles Muon discovered. Its mass was 106 MeV/c 2. (just right for Yukawa s particle ) But subsequent experiments showed that it did not interact strongly, passing easily through dense matter. (not right for Yukawa s particle) In many ways the muon (charge ±1) behaves like a heavy electron. Who ordered that? - I.I. Rabi
10 Many other new particles found in cosmic rays: K-meson (Kaon) and the L-Baryon (heavier than the proton). These had some Strange properties, such as unexpectedly long life-times. In 1950 s more discoveries: S-Baryons and h-mesons, and many more! The particle zoo is getting crowded! Some organization is needed.
11 Forces Gravity: Important in everyday lives and in astronomical phenomena, but negligible for elementary particles. Electromagnetic: Electricity and Magnetism unified into a single fundamental interaction by Maxwell. The force carrier is the photon, which can extend over long range. Strong: Holds protons and neutrons inside nuclei. Very strong, but short range. Pion can be considered to carry the force, but a more fundamental description will come later. Weak: A very short range force, which is responsible for b-decay of nuclei, and the decay of many other elementary particles.
12 Classification of Particles There are three broad categores: Leptons: Particles such as electrons, muons, and neutrinos, which do not feel the strong force. Leptons always have spin 1/2 h. Hadrons: Particles which do participate in strong interactions. (any spin) Gauge particles (Gauge Bosons): The particles responsible for carrying the forces. The only one we have met so far is the photon.
13 Q uick uiz What type of particle is the neutron? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Lepton Hadron Gauge boson Heavy neutrino Anti-proton
14 Q uick uiz What type of particle is the neutron? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Lepton Hadron Gauge boson Heavy neutrino Anti-proton
15 Leptons There are believed to be six leptons (along with their associated anti-leptons). They come in three generations (pairings of a charged lepton and a neutrino). Generation Particle Charge Mass e MeV/c 2 n e 0 ~ 0 m MeV/c 2 n m 0 ~ 0 t MeV/c 2 n t 0 ~ 0
16 The t (Tau) lepton was discovered by Martin Perl and collaborators at the Stanford Linear Accelerator (SLAC) in Heavier charged leptons decay to the lighter ones. For example: m - Æ e - + n m + n e (The t can also have hadrons in its decay.) In the last couple years it has been verified that neutrinos do have a mass (although very small). This was seen indirectly through oscillations from one type of neutrino to another. These oscillations can only occur if the neutrinos have nonzero mass.
17 Hadrons Hadrons feel the strong force. They can be further subdivided into Baryons and Mesons. Mesons are hadrons with integral spin (mostly 0 or 1, but sometimes 2 or higher). Most have masses between that of the electron and proton. The pion (p), Kaon (K), and eta meson (h) are examples. Baryons are hadrons with 1/2 integral spin (mostly 1/2, but sometimes 3/2 or higher). The lightest baryons are the nucleons (proton and neutron).
18 Force Particles Each of the four basic forces is mediated by the exchange of a force particle. Force Electromagnetic Particle photon (g) Strong nuclear pion (p) * Weak nuclear Gravity Intermediate Boson (W ±, Z) Graviton * The modern, more fundamental formulation of the strong force has the gluon (g) as the carrier, as we shall see.
19 W particles were first proposed by Fermi. e - n e p t W - n W ± and Z particles discovered at CERN. Gravitons not yet observed directly.
20 Q uick uiz What type of particle is the electron? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Lepton Meson Baryon Gauge boson Anti-proton
21 Q uick uiz What type of particle is the electron? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Lepton Meson Baryon Gauge boson Anti-proton
22 Q uick uiz What type of particle is the neutron? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Lepton Meson Baryon Gauge boson Anti-proton
23 Q uick uiz What type of particle is the neutron? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Lepton Meson Baryon Gauge boson Anti-proton
24 Conservation Laws Certain quantities are always conserved. In addition to energy, momentum, and electric charge, they are: Baryon number: The generalization of conservation of nucleons (each with baryon number 1). Anti-Baryons have baryon number -1. Mesons, leptons and gauge particles have baryon number 0. e - + p Æ e - + p + n + n Baryon # = (-1) Lepton number: The number of leptons of each generation is conserved. For example, e - (electron) and n e have electron number 1, e + (positron) and n e have electron number -1.
25 Example, Muon Decay m - Æ e - + n m + n e muon # 1 = electron # 0 = (-1)
26 Strangeness: The K-mesons and L- baryons had strange properties. They were almost always produced in pairs, and their lifetimes were exceptionally long. These properties could be explained by a new quantum number, Strangeness. Strangeness is conserved by the EM and strong force, but not by the weak force. These particles are produced strongly, in strange - antistrange pairs. But they decay weakly with long lifetimes. By plotting the strangeness vs. EM charge, many regularities were observed.
27 Mesons Strangeness K 0 p - p 0 h p + K - K 0 K EM Charge Strangeness n p S - S 0 L 0 S Baryons EM Charge
28 Quarks Early 1960 s - Murray Gell-Mann (and others) introduced the idea that the hadrons were built out of more fundamental objects, which he called quarks. Quarks have - spin 1/2 and - charges +2/3 and -1/3. The protons and neutrons are made from up (+2/3) and down (-1/3) quarks. A third strange quark (-1/3) accounts for strangeness. (Of course, there are also antiquarks, with opposite charges.)
29 Much later, three new (and heavier) quarks were discovered: Charm (+2/3) was discovered in 1974 (by Ting and Richter). Bottom (-1/3) was discovered in 1977 (by Lederman). Top (+2/3) was discovered in 1995 (by D0 and CDF collaborations at Fermilab). Just like the leptons, the quarks pair up into 3 generations.
30 Quarks Generation Particle Charge Mass up (u) +2/3 ~3 MeV/c 2 down (d) -1/3 ~7 MeV/c 2 charm (c) +2/3 ~1.3 GeV/c 2 strange (s) -1/3 ~100 MeV/c 2 top (t) +2/3 ~174 GeV/c 2 bottom (b) -1/3 ~4.3 GeV/c 2 The EM and strong forces cannot change the flavor of the quark, The weak force can change the sign of the quark, and can even change the generation (but with a suppression factor).
32 Mesons Strangeness K 0 p - p 0 h p + K - K 0 K EM Charge Strangeness n p S - S 0 L 0 S Baryons EM Charge
33 Evidence for Quarks Quarks were originally suggested as a mathematical invention to describe the properties of the hadrons. But later, evidence from scattering experiments showed that the quarks have a physical meaning as constituents of the hadrons.
34 Q uick uiz What is the charge of a Λ c (a particle consisting of an up, a strange and a charm quark (u, s, c)? (A) +2 (B) +4/3 (C) +1 (D) 0 (E) -1
35 Q uick uiz What is the charge of a Λ c (a particle consisting of an up, a strange and a charm quark (u, s, c)? (A) +2 (B) +4/3 (C) +1 (D) 0 (E) /3-1/3 + 2/3 = +1
36 1950 s - Hofstadter at SLAC scattered electrons off protons, and found the proton to be a smooth, featureless sphere of about meters m a group (led by Friedman, Kendall, and Taylor) at SLAC did the same, but now with much higher energies of 20 GeV. They found that at these high energies the electron appeared to scatter off point-like objects within the proton ===> The quarks! m m
37 Problems with the Quark Model 1. Quarks have not been directly observed. 2. The quark hypothesis seems to conflict with the Pauli exclusion principle. Let s look at problem 2 first.
38 COLOR There exists a baryon, W -, whose spin is 3/2, whose charge is -1, and whose strangeness is -3. The quark model then says that the state is W - s s s This is forbidden by the Pauli exclusion principle! The resolution is a new quantum number called color (having nothing to do with the colors that we see). Each quark must be red, green, or blue and each anti-quark must be anti-red, anti-green, or anti-blue.
39 Furthermore, all hadrons must be formed out of color-less combinations of quark and/or anti-quarks. Thus, baryons are made out of 1 red quark, 1 green quark, and 1 blue quark: p u u d n u d d Mesons are made out of colored quark - anticolored antiquark combination: p - d u or d u but not d u Problem 2 solved.
40 Quantum Chromodynamics The addition of the color quantum number suggested to theorists a new explanation of the strong force! Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is a generalization of Quantum Electrodynamics (QED). The colors play the role of the charge. The force carriers (analogous to the photon) are called gluons, and they carry coloranticolor charges. There are 8 gluons: (RG, GB, BR, GR, RB, BG, RR, BB, GG) Only 2 combinations are gluons
41 Force between quarks and also between gluons: u g(gb) d u d Due to the gluon self-coupling, the force of attraction between quarks increases as the separation between the quarks increases. It would take an infinite amount of energy to separate two quarks. This concept is called confinement. Quarks and gluons must combine into colorless objects. It is impossible to see a free colored quark.
42 Energetically favorable to create quark antiquark pair on which gluon flux can terminate Energy is lowered by shortening the flux tube lengths
43 The Weak Force Responsible for b-decay. n Æ p + e - + n e p e - n e In 1934, Fermi suggested that this occured through the exchange of a charged gauge particle (W): n p e - n e or in terms of quarks: n W - p u d u e - n e W - n u d d The weakness of the force is due to the fact that the W is very heavy (80 GeV).
44 Electroweak Unification Early 1960 s Sheldon Glashow showed that the EM force could be unified with the weak force. n e e - W + W - e - n e e - W - e - Æ n e W + n e
45 g, Z 0 g, Z 0 The W ± and Z 0 were predicted to be very heavy (M W± = 80 GeV, M Z = 91 GeV) and were discovered at CERN in 1982.
46 A problem: The photon (γ) is massless The W and Z are massive The symmetry between them must be broken. A mechanism for this was proposed by Steven Weinberg and Abdus Salam. Glashow, Weinberg and Salam won the Nobel Prize in The simplest model for symmetry breaking predicts a single neutral particle, called the Higgs Boson. A particle which appears to be the Higgs boson was discovered at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Its mass is 126 GeV.
49 Grand Unified Theories Grand Unified Theories (GUTS) are an attempt to extend ElectroWeak unification to include QCD (strong force), and eventually gravity. GUTS usually predict new very massive particles, which can lead to Baryonnumber-violating processes, such as Proton decay. This decay should be very rare and, as yet, has not been observed.
50 SU(5) Unification RR GR BR RG GG BG RB GB BB g, Z 0 W - W + g, Z 0 New ultra-heavy Gauge particles, which can lead to proton decay.
51 The unification of the other forces with gravity is very difficult. (Gravity and quantum mechanics are difficult to reconcile. Einstein spent the last 35 years of his life devoted to this goal, without success). Current ideas include: String Theory: All types of particles are just different excitations of one type of (very tiny) string. Supersymmetry: All particles come in (integer spin)-(1/2 integer) spin partners. electron Extra-dimensions: More than 4 space-time dimensions. e - selectron
52 Unanswered Questions 1. Why 3 generations? 2. Why the masses of the particles? 3. How is electroweak symmetry broken? Is there a single Higgs particle or something else? 4. Do the forces unify and how? 5. Are Strings, Supersymmetry, extradimensions real? 6. Why is the universe essentially all matter, but no anti-matter? 7. Are there other connections to the early universe, shortly after the big bang?
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