Math Class: Algebra I. Summer Review Packet DUE DATE:


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1 Name: Math Class: Algebra I Summer Review Packet DUE DATE: About Algebra I Algebra I teaches students to think, reason, and communicate mathematically. Students use variables to determine solutions to problems that arise form real life situations. Skills gained in Algebra I provide students with a foundation for subsequent math courses. In May, all Algebra I students will be required to take and pass the Virginia Algebra I End of Course test. Expectations for the Summer Packet The problems in this packet are designed to help you review topics that are important to your success in Algebra I. All work must be shown for each problem. The problems should be done correctly, not just attempted. The packet is due at the end of the second week of school. Throughout the first month of school, concepts in the packet will be reviewed in class. Do not wait until the last week of summer to complete the packet. Complete some questions each week. All work should be completed and ready to turn in on the Friday of the second week of school. Online Resources Below is a list of suggested websites where additional examples and practice problems can be found An electronic version of this packet can be found online at 1
2 Dear Rising Algebra I Students and Parents: Although the summer is upon us, we all know how important it is that the skills you have learned throughout middle school are maintained. For this reason, the attached math packet has been developed. The skills covered in these pages represent what we see as the most important concepts that need to be mastered before entering Algebra I. The hope is that you will spread these exercises out over the summer. This completed packet will be turned in to your math teacher no later than September 12th, the second Friday of the school year. We appreciate your support in helping to maintain skills and to bridge the gap between middle school math and Algebra I. We are confident that proper preparation will start you off on a successful school year. Sincerely, WalkerGrant Math Teachers 2
3 Operations with Integers Adding and Subtracting Integers Adding Integers Like Signs Different Signs Add the numbers & carry the sign Subtract the numbers & carry the sign of the larger number (+) + (+) = = (2) = 1 (3 > 2 so positive answer) () + () = (3) = (5) = 2 (5 > 3 so negative answer) Subtracting Integers Don t subtract! Change the problem to addition and change the sign of the second number. Then use addition rules. (Subtracting = Adding the opposite) 9 12 = ( 3) = 4 + (+3) 5 3 = ( 5) = 1 + (+5) Simplify. Do not use a calculator for this section ( 4) (6) (7) (9) (12) 3
4 Multiplying and Dividing Integers If the signs are the same, the product/quotient is positive. If the signs are different, the product/quotient is negative. LIKE SIGNS DIFFERENT SIGNS (+) (+) = (+) (3)(4) = 12 (+) ( ) = ( ) (3)(4) = 12 ( ) ( ) = (+) (3)(4) = 12 ( ) (+) = ( ) (3)(4) = 12 (+) (+) = (+) 15 3 = 5 (+) ( ) = ( ) 15 (3) = 5 ( ) ( ) = (+) (15) (3) = 5 ( ) (+) = ( ) = 5 Simplify. Do not use a calculator for this section. 1. ( 5)( 3) (3)( 8) 3. (12)(4) ( 4) 10. ( 2)(7) 5. ( 1)(5) (12)( 5) 4
5 Order of Operations To avoid having different results for the same problem when simplifying expressions that contain multiple operations, mathematicians have agreed on an order of operations. 1. Perform any operation(s) inside grouping symbols (parentheses, brackets, numerator and denominator of a fraction). 2. Simplify any exponents. 3. Multiply and divide in order from left to right. 4. Add and subtract in order form left to right. One easy way to remember the order of operations process is to remember the acronymn GEMDAS (or PEMDAS and the saying Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally. ) G perform operations in grouping symbols E simplify exponents M multiply and divide from left to right D A add and subtract from left to right S Example ( ) = (6 + 6) = (12) = = = 5 Example ( ) = (8 8 4) = (8 2) = = = 7 Simplify each expression. Remember your order of operations process (17 + 8) ( ) 5
6 [3(8)] + 2( 12) (2 + 7) [30 (8 1)2 ] (3 6 2 ) ( ) [2 + (12 3)] [6(7 4) 2 ] (2 2 ) [8(2) (3 + 9)] + [8 2(3)] 10. [10 + (2 8)] (4 5) 2 6
7 Rounding Numbers Step 1: Underline the place value to which you want to round. Step 2: Look at the digit to the right of that place value. If the number to the right is less than 5, keep the number the same and drop all other numbers. If the number to the right is 5 or more, round up and drop the rest of the numbers. Examples 1. Round to the tenths place. a Round to the hundredths place. a b b Round the following numbers to the tenths place. a Round the following numbers to the hundreths place. a b b c c d d e e f f
8 Simplifying Fractions Simplify each fraction. Leave it as an improper fraction. The first one is done for you
9 Evaluating Expressions Evaluate means find the value of. To evaluate an expression first replace any variables with given equivalents then follow order of operations to arrive at a numerical answer. Examples A) Evaluate the following expressions when x = 5. 5x 15 (x 8) 2 + 2x 5(5) 15 (5 8) 2 + 2(5) = = ( 3) 2 + 2(5) = 10 = = 19 B) Evaluate the following expression when a = 2, b = 4, and c = 1. a+2(a b) c 3 2+2( 2 4) = 2+2( 6) ( 1) 3 1 = 2+( 12) 1 = 14 1 = 14 Evaluate each expression given that x = 5, y = 4, z = x 4. 2(x + z) y 2. 2x 2 5. xy + z 3. 3x 2 + y 6. 2x + 3y z 9
10 Evaluate each expression given that a = 2, b = 12, c = b a 11. 2a 2 + b 2 + c 8. 5a + (b c) 12. ac b 9. (c a) ( b 4 )2 2a 10. b 3a 2c 14. a 3 2c 10
11 Graphing Points in a coordinate plane are named using two numbers (x, y), called an ordered pair. The first number is called the xcoordinate. The x coordinate is positive if the point is to the right of the origin and negative if the point is to the left of the origin. The second number is called the y coordinate. The ycoordinate is poistive if the point is above the origin and negative if the point is below the origin. The coordinate plane is divided into four quadrants (regions) by the xaxis (horizontal axis) and yaxis (vertical axis). The origin is the point where the axes intersect. Plot each point on the coordinate plane. Label each point with the given letter. Then identify which Quadrant the point belongs to or on which axis it lies. Examples: N (4, 7) Quadrant II P (2, 0) xaxis A (8, 4) B (2, 8) C (0, 5) D (7, 1) E (2, 3) N F (6, 3) G (0, 10) H (5, 0) J (3, 7) K (7, 7) P 11
12 Write an ordered pair for each point graphed below. Example: (2, 3) 1. (, ) 2. (, ) 3. (, ) 4. (, ) 5. (, ) 6. (, ) 7. (, ) 8. (, ) 12
13 Graphing Functions Complete the table. Then graph the data on the coordinate plane
14 3. 4. y = 1 2 x X Y 5. y = 2x 1 X Y 14
15 Solving Equations To solve an equation means to find the value of the variable that makes the equation true. We solve equations by isolating the variable using inverse operations. Example Solve. 3x 2 = Isolate 3x by adding 2 to each side. Inverse Operations Addition (+) & Subtraction ( ) Multiplication ( ) & Division ( ) 3x = 12 Simplify 3 3 Isolate x by dividing each side by 3. x = 4 Simplify Remember the Golden Rule of Algebra Whatever you do to one side of an equation you must do to the other. Check your answer: Always check your 3(4) 2 = 10 Substitute the value in for the variable work by substitution! 12 2 = 10 Simplify 10 = 10 Is the equation true? If yes, you solved it correctly! Use substitution to determine if the solution is correct. 1. 2x + 5 = 13 x = = 6 x x = x = 9 x = 8 Solve each equation. Circle your solution 4. 5 = x x = w 4 = h 3 = k = d =
16 Solve each equation. Show your work in the left column and circle your answer. Check your answer in the right column. Check 10. 2x 5 = x + 11 = n + 4 = = 6x f = = a
17 Inequalities An inequality is a statement containing one of the following symbols: < is less than > is greater than is less than or equal to is greater than or equal to An inequality has many solutions (often called a solution set) and we can represent the solutions by graphing on a number line. When graphing an inequality, < and > use an open circle and use a closed circle Write an inequality to represent the solution set that is shown in the graph. 17
18 Graph each inequality on a number line. (If needed flip the inequality so the variable is on the left.) 1. 4 < x (flip) x > 4 2. k > y 4. j < t w 18
19 Algebraic Translations Translating from English to Mathematics Key Words for Translations Add Subtract Multiply Divide Variable Inequalities = difference product quotient a number less than multiplied by divided by some number minus times split equally quantity decreased by of minus per less for each twice sum more than plus increased by greater than Examples A. Translate into a mathematical expression: 3 less than 5 times a number 3 less than 5 times a number to subtract from multiply use a variable < is less than > is greater than is less than or equal to (at most) is greater than or equal to (at least) same as equals is result total Translation: 5n 3 Careful! Pay attention to subtraction. The order makes a difference B. Translate into a mathematical statement: 4 plus 3 times a number is less than or equal to 18 4 plus 3 times a number is less than or equal to 18 add multiply use a variable Translation: 4 + 3x 18 C. Translate into a mathematical statement: the difference of 8 and the quotient of a number and 4 is 1 the difference of 8 and the quotient of a number and 4 is 1 subtraction division use a variable = Translation: 8 a 4 = 1 19
20 Practice: Translate each phrase into a mathematical statement. 1. seven plus five times a number is greater than or equal to eight times a number increased by 6 is one half of a number is equal to less than 8 times some number 5. a number divided by 9 6. p decreased by 5 7. twice a number decreased by 15 is equal to less than 7 times some number is the sume of a number and eight is less than eleven increased by a number is 12 Matching: On the line put the letter of the algebraic expression that best matches the phrase two more than a number two less than a number half of a number twice a number two decreased by a number a. 2x b. x + 2 c. 2 x d. x 2 e. x 2 6. the quotient of 2 and a number f. 2 x 20
21 Word Problems Translate each word problem into an algebraic equation, using x for the unknown, and solve. Identify the question and write a let x = statement for each unknown; write an equation; solve the equation; write a sentence to answer the question. Example Kara is going to Maui on vacation. She paid $325 for her plane ticket and is spending $125 each night for the hotel. How many nights can she stay in Maui if she has $1200? Step 1: What are you asked to find? Let variables represent what you are asked to find. Question: How many night can Kara stay in Maui? Let x = the number of nights Kara can stay in Maui Step 2: Write an equation to represent the relationship in the problem $325 for the plane ticket and $125 per night for hotel is $ x = 1200 Step 3: Solve the equation for the unknown x = x = 875 x = 7 Step 4: State the answer to the problem. Kara can spend 7 nights in Maui. Practice Remember to show your work and state your answer using a complete sentence. 1. A video store charges a onetime membership fee of $12.00 plus $1.50 per video rental. How many videos can Stewart rent if he spends $21.00? 2. Bicycle City makes custom bicycles. They charge $160 plus $80 for each day that it takes to build the bicycle. If you have $480 to spend on your new bicycle, how many days can it take Bicycle City to build the bike? 21
22 3. Darryl went to the amll and spent $41. He bought several tshirts that each cost $12.00 and he bought 1 pair of socks for $5.00. How many tshirts did Darryl buy? 4. Janet weights 20 pounds more than Anna. If the sum of their weights is 250 pounds, how much does each girl weigh? 5. Threefourths of the student body attended the pep rally. If there were 1230 students at the pep rally, how many students are there in all? 6. Twothirds of the Algebra students took the EOC test the first time. If 60 students took the Algebra EOC test, how many Algebra students are there in all? 7. The current price of a school tshirt is $ Next year the cost of a tshirt will be $ How much will the cost of a tshirt increase next year? 8. The school lunch prices are changing next year. The cost of a hot lunch will increase $0.45 from the current price. If the next year s price is $2.60, what did a hot lunch cost this year? 22
23 Reflection 1. Which topics were easiest for you to complete? (List 13 topics.) 2. Which topics did you find most difficult? (List 13 topics.) 3. Were there any topics that were new to you? (This means that you have never before seen a problem like it.) List the topics here. 4. Look at the list of resources. Check all the ones that you used to complete this packet other websites textbook notes from previous math class parent or other adult sibling other resource (please list) 23
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