# Dynamics and Bifurcations in Predator-Prey Models with Refuge, Dispersal and Threshold Harvesting

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1 Dynamics and Bifurcations in Predator-Prey Models with Refuge, Dispersal and Threshold Harvesting August 2012

2 Overview Last Model ẋ = αx(1 x) a(1 m)xy 1+c(1 m)x H(x) ẏ = dy + b(1 m)xy 1+c(1 m)x (1) where H(x) = h each of α, a, b, c, d, h, m and b are positive real parameters

3 Overview Continuation New H(x) 3-D Model: 0 x < T 1 h(x T H(x) = 1 ) T 2 T 1 T 1 x T 2 (2) h x > T 2 ẋ = αx(1 x) a(1 m)xy 1+c(1 m)x + D 1(v x) v = d v v + D 2 (x v) ẏ = dy + b(1 m)x 1y 1+c(1 m)x 1 y (3)

4 Overview Saddle Point Given a dynamical system ẋ = Bx, specifically at the solution x(t) = e Bt x 0 if the eigenvalues of B are real with opposite sign, the point x 0 is a saddle point. 0.8 (a) 1.5 (b) Figure: Example of Saddle Point

5 Overview Node If the eigenvalues are reals that have the same sign, the point is a node. If both are positive, then the point is unstable. If negative, (asymptotically) stable. 1.5 (a) 2 (b) Figure: Example of Node

6 Overview Focus If the eigenvalues are complex conjugates, the point is a focus. If the real parts are positive, the point is unstable. If the real parts are negative, the point is (asymptotically) stable. 6 5 (a) 8 (b) Figure: Example of Focus

7 Overview Center If the eigenvalues are purely imaginary, then the equilibrium point is of center type. This also indicates that the equilibrium is non-hyperbolic. (a) (b) Figure: Example of Center

8 Overview Non-Hyperbolic Points This method only works for hyperbolic equilbrium points (from Hartman-Grobman Theorem) For non-hyperbolic equilibrium points and some global analysis we need to perform bifurcation analysis. Hartman-Grobman: Indicates that near a hyperbolic equilibrium point x 0, the nonlinear system ẋ = f (x) has the same qualitative structure as the linear system ẋ = Ax with A = Df (x 0 )

9 Overview Model 1: H(x) = h Analyze the model by finding equilibrium points and their stability. 3 equilibrium points: ( α ) ( 4αh + α P 0 = 2 α + ) 4αh + α, 0, P 1 = 2, 0, 2α 2α P 2 = d (b cd)(1 m), b h d ( b(m 1)+d(1+c cm)α a (b cd) 2 (m 1) 2 ) 2 boundary points on the x-axis (predator extinction) 1 interior boundary point (coexistence of the species)

10 Overview Trace-Determinant Analysis The Jacobian J(x, y) is acxy(m 1) 2 z 2 by(m 1) z 2 where z = cx(m 1) 1. α(x 1) ay(m 1) z αx ax(m 1) z bx(m 1) z d

11 Overview Conditions if D < 0, point is a saddle if D > 0 T 2 4D 0, point is a node T > 0, unstable T < 0, stable T 2 4D < 0, point is a focus T > 0, unstable T < 0, stable T = 0, point is of center-type (non-hyperbolic) We want to look for conditions on our parameters that determine which type of equilibrium point is present.

12 Boundary Points Boundary Points The Jacobians evaluated at P 0 and P 1 are (respectively) α α 3 + α 2 ( α 2 4αh) a c a c (αc( α2 [ ] α αb α 2 4αh 2 (m 1) d α 2 4αh 2 (m 1)) αc[ α 2 + α 2 4αh 2 ](m 1) 1 (α α 3 α 2 ( α 2 4αh) a c a c(αc( α 2 α 2 4αh 0 α 4h from the equilibrium points that we found. αb[ α 2 ( α 2 4αh) 2 ](m 1) ) 2 (m 1))) αc[ α 2 α 2 4αh 2 ](m 1) 1 d

13 Boundary Points Boundary: P 1 Because the matrices for P 0 and P 1 are upper triangular, using the eigenvalues to determine behavior can be done easily. Given P 1 is (α α 3 α 2 ( α 2 4αh) a c a c(αc( α 2 α 2 4αh 2 (m 1))) The two eigenvalues are 0 λ 1 = α α 3 α 2 α 2 4αh) αb[ α 2 ( α 2 4αh) 2 ](m 1) αc[ α 2 α 2 4αh 2 ](m 1) 1 λ 2 = αb[ α 2 ( 2 ](m 1) αc[ α 2 α 2 4αh 2 ](m 1) 1 d d

14 Boundary Points Boundary P 1 cont can range from 0 to α, dependent on h. Thus, λ 1 is necessarily positive if α < 1/4, but may be positive even if α = 1 λ 2 is complicated by the term b cd if b < cd, λ 2 > 0 but if b > cd, then λ 2 > 0 if λ < d (b cd)θn where Θ = α/2 /2 and = α 2 4αh

15 Coexistence Point Coexistence Point At P 2, the determinant (D) and trace (T ) were evaluated to be: D = αd(2x 1) adyn αbx(2x 1)n z 2 z (4) T = α(2x 1) d + bxn z ayn z + acxyn2 z 2 (5) where z = cx(m 1) 1 and n = m 1 Note that z < n < 0. Complex series of conditions to determine the behavior of this point(explained in previous presentation).

16 Phase Portraits Stable Focus Since T < 0, D < 0 and T 2 4D < 0, P 2 is a stable focus Figure: Stable Focus Phase Portrait α =.6 a =.6 b =.5 c =.1 d =.2 m =.1 h =.1 T =.0575 D =.0204 T 2 4D =.0783 (0.4630, )

17 Phase Portraits Stable Node Since T < 0, D > 0 and T 2 4D > 0, P 2 is a stable node Figure: Stable Node Phase Portrait α =.6 a =.6 b =.5 c =.1 d =.3 m =.1 h =.1 T =.2825 D =.0094 T 2 4D =.0421 (0.7092, )

18 Sotomayor s Theorem Bifurcations Drastic change in qualitative behavior of solutions for a small change in one or more parameters Can be (usually) detected using XPPAUT Proven using Sotomayor s X Theorem h Figure: Saddle-Node Bifurcation Diagram

19 Sotomayor s Theorem Sotomayor s Theorem Theorem Suppose that f (x 0, µ 0 ) = 0 and that the n n matrix A Df (x 0, µ 0 ) has a simple eigenvalue λ = 0 with eigenvector v and that A T has an eigenvector w corresponding to the eigenvalue λ = 0. Furthermore, suppose that A has k eigenvalues with negative real part and (n k 1) eigenvalue with positive real part and that the following conditions are satisfied: w T f µ (x 0, µ 0 ) 0, w T D 2 f (x 0, µ 0 )(v, v) 0. (6) Then the system experiences a saddle-node bifurcation at the equilibrium point x 0 as the parameter µ passes through the bifurcation value µ = µ 0.

20 Sotomayor s Theorem Application of Sotomayor s Theorem Theorem If x = 1 2, b dz x(m 1) and α 4h, then systems Model 1 and Model 2 undergoes a saddle-node bifurcation at ( 1 2, 0). Proof. Thus [ w = 1 axn bxn dz ] f µ (x 0, µ 0 ) = [ 1 0 ] (7) w T f µ (x 0, µ 0 ) 0 (8)

21 Sotomayor s Theorem D 2 f (x 0 )(v, v) D 2 f (x 0 )(v, v) = 2 f 1 (x 0 ) v x 2 1 v 1 + f 1 2(x 0) x y v 1v 2 + f 1 2(x 0) x y v 2v f 1 (x 0 ) v y 2 2 v 2 2 f 2 (x 0 ) v x 2 1 v 1 + f 2 2(x 0) x y v 1v 2 + f 2 2(x 0) x y v 2v f 2 (x 0 ) v y 2 2 v 2 ( ) 2α an axn w T D 2 f (P 2 )(v, v) = w T z 2 bx(m 1) dz = 2α + an z 2 ( ) b(1 m) axn z 2 bxn dz ( ) axn bn ( ) 2 axn bxn dz z 2 0 bxn dz

22 Hopf Bifurcation Other Bifurcations X h Figure: Saddle-Node, Transcritical and Hopf Bifurcations

23 Hopf Bifurcation Hopf Bifurcation Theorem Under the conditions for the coexistence equilibrium P 2 to be of center-type, there exists a Hopf bifurcation for the system. Proof. For a system of the form: ẋ = ax + by + p(x, y) and ẏ = cx + dy + q(x, y) where p(x, y) = a ij x i y j = (a 20 x 2 + a 11 xy + a 02 y 2 ) + (a 30 x 3 + a 21 x 2 y + a 12 xy 2 + a 03 y 3 ) and q(x, y) = b ij x i y j = (b 20 x 2 + b 11 xy + b 02 y 2 ) + (b 30 x 3 + b 21 x 2 y + b 12 xy 2 + b 03 y 3 ) with ad bc > 0 and a + d = 0.

24 Hopf Bifurcation First, we shift our equilibrium point of P 2 to the origin via the change in coordinates x = x x and ȳ = y y and then we expand our expressions for x and ȳ in a power series to get ẋ = α( x + x )(1 ( x + x )) a(1 m)( x+x )(ȳ+y ) 1+c(1 m)( x+x ) ẏ = d(ȳ + y ) + b(1 m)( x+x )(ȳ+y ) 1+c(1 m)( x+x ) h (9)

25 Hopf Bifurcation Hopf Bifurcation at P 2 a 10 = α(1 2x ) a(1 m)y, a w 3 01 = a(1 m)x α + ac(1 m)2 y w 3 ac2 (1 m) 3 y w 4, a 11 = a(1 m) w 2, b 10 = b(1 m)y w 2, b 01 = d + b(1 m)x w 0, b 03 = 0, b 12 = 0, b 21 = bc(1 m)2 where w = 1 + c(1 m)x. P 2 is also of center-type. w, a 20 =, a 02 = 0, a 21 = ac(1 m)2, a w 3 30 =, b 20 = bc(1 m)2 y, b w 3 11 = b(1 m) w 3 σ = , b 30 = bc2 (1 m) 3 y w 4 D = a 10 b 01 a 01 b 10 = > 0 T = a 10 + b 01 = w 2, b 02 =

26 Coexistence Influence of Refuge on Coexistence dy 3 dm = dx 3 dm = d(b + cd) [(b cd)(1 m)] 2 > 0 & bh ad(1 m) 3 [2αd (1 m)(b αcd] > 0 (b cd) 2 Conditions: If b > αcd, then dy 3 dm > 0 if 0 < m < m where m = b (c+2)αd b αcd dy 3 dm < 0 if m < m < 1. Else, if b < αcd, then m < m < 1 and dy 3 dm 0 < m < m then dy 3 dm > 0. < 0 and if or

27 Model 2: Threshold Harvesting 0 x < T 1 h(x T H 1 (x) = 1 ) T 2 T 1 T 1 x T 2 (10) h x > T 2

28 Case 1: H(x) = 0, x < T 1 Equilibrium Points ( Q 3 = Q 1 = (0, 0), Q 2 = (1, 0) d (b cd)(1 m), b a ( (b cd)(1 m) d (b cd) 2 (1 m) 2 )) General Jacobian 1 2x ay(m 1)2 z 2 α(x 1) ay(m 1) z αx ax(m 1) z by(m 1) z 2 bx(m 1) z d

29 1 0 The Jacobian of Q 1 is J(0, 0) = so Q 1 is a saddle. 0 d The Jacobian of Q 2 is J(1, 0) = 1 a(1 m) 1+c(1 m) 0 d + b(1 m) 1+c(1 m) Conditions: (a)q 2 is a saddle if (1 m)b > [1 + (1 m)c]d. (b)q 2 is a stable node if (1 m)b < [1 + (1 m)c]d. (c)q 2 is never a focus or center type.

30 The Jacobian at Q 3 is J(x 3, y 3 ) = d[b cd)(c(1 m) 1) 2cd] b(b cd)(1 m) ad b (b cd)(1 m) d a(1 m) 0 Using Trace Determinant Analysis, D = d[(b cd)(1 m) d] b(1 m), T 2 4D = [ d d[ (b cd) c(b cd)(1 m) 2 ] b 2 (1 m) 2 (b cd) 2 4b(1 m)[(b cd)(1 m) d] D > 0 given the conditions that b cd and d < (b cd)(1 m) ]

31 T = Q 3 can never be a saddle. d[b cd)(c(1 m) 1) 2cd] b(b cd)(1 m) Q 3 is a node if d[ (b cd) c(b cd)(1 m)] 2 4b(b cd) 2 (1 m)[(b cd)(1 m) d]. -If (b cd)[c(1 m) 1] < 2cd, then the node is stable, and unstable if the inequality is reverse. Q 3 is a focus if d[ (b cd) c(b cd)(1 m)] 2 < 4b(b cd) 2 (1 m)[(b cd)(1 m) d]. - If (b cd)[c(1 m) 1] < 2cd, then the focus is stable, and unstable if the inequality is reverse. Q 3 is of center-type if (b cd)[c(1 m) 1] = 2cd.

32 Case 2:H(x) = h(x T 1) T 2 T 1, T 1 x T 2 Three Equilibrium Points ( ) ( ) h α(t1 T 2 ) σ h + α(t1 T 2 ) σ R 1 =, 0, R 2 =, 0 2α(T 2 T 1 ) 2α(T 2 T 1 ) where σ = 4αhT 1 (T 1 T 2 ) + (h + α( T 1 + T 2 )) 2 and h > α(t 1 T 2 ) + σ. R 3 = (x 3, y 3 ) d x 3 = (b cd)(1 m) y 3 = b α[b(m 1)+d(1+c(1 m))][ d(b cd)(t1 T2)]+h(m 1)( d (b cd)(m 1)T1)(b cd)2 [ d(b cd) 3 (T 1 T 2)]a(m 1) 2

33 The general Jacobian is h T 2 T 1 + α 2αx ay(1 m) z 2 by(1 m) z 2 ax(1 m) z d bx(1 m) z

34 The Jacobian at R 1 is and at R 2 σ T 2 T 1 0 d 2h 2α(T 1 T 2 )+σ T 1 T 2 0 d + 2αhT 1 (m 1) h+2cht 1 (1 m) α(t 1 T 2 )+σ 2bhT 1 (m 1) h+2cht 1 (1 m) α(t 1 T 2 )+σ 2ahT 1 (m 1) h+2cht 1 (1 m)+α(t 1 T 2 )+σ 2bhT 1 (m 1) h+2cht 1 (m 1) Φ+α(T 2 T 1 )

35 R 1 : λ 1 = σ T 2 T 1, λ 2 = d 2bhT 1 (m 1) h+2cht 1 (1 m) α(t 1 T 2 )+σ R 2 : λ 1 = 2h+2α(T 2 T 1 )+σ 2bhT T 1 T 2, λ 2 = d+ 1 (m 1) where Φ = h 2 + 2αh(2T 1 1)(T 1 T 2 ) + α 2 (T 1 T 2 ) 2 h+2cht 1 (m 1) Φ+α(T 2 T 1 ) R 1 : never be of center-type or focus. R 2 : if T 1 < 1 2 then R 2 will also be real (saddle or node). There was a saddle-node bifurcation at R 1, the proof is similar to the previous one with Sotomayor s Theorem.

36 The Jacobian at R 3 is α where ( ) 2αd (b cd)(m 1) + b ( Ω+(b cd)h(d+(b cd)(m 1) 2 T 1 )) (m 1)[d(T 1 T 2 )](b 2cd) 2 ( ) b 2 (Ω+d( b+cd)h((b cd) 2 )h(m 1) 2 T 1 ) (m 1)[d(T 1 T 2 )](b 2cd) 2 Ω = α[b(m 1) + d(1 + c(1 m))[d(t 1 T 2 )] ad b 2cd 2d(b cd) b 2cd

37 Case 3. H(x) = h, x > T 2 Since rate of harvesting is constant, the behavior of this case will be similar to case 1.

38 No Periodic Solution for Linear Harvesting Proof. First, we shift the equilibrium points to the origin by using a change in variables. v = a(1 m)y, dt = [1 + cx(1 m)]ds, v = a(1 m)ẏ, dx ds = dx dt dv dt ds and ds = dv dt dt ds dx ds = αx(1 x)[1 + cx(1 m)] xv h(x T 1) [1 + cx(1 m)] = F 1 T 2 T 1 & dv ds = xv[(b cd)(1 m)] dv = F 2 Replacing v with y and R = 1 xy, we have RF 1 = 1 y [α(1 + cx(1 m) x cx2 (1 m))] 1 & RF 2 = (b cd)(1 m) d x h (T 2 T 1 )y [ ] x T1 x

39 Then, (RF 1 ) x = 1 y [α[c(1 m) 1] 2αcx(1 m)] ht 1 (T 2 T 1 )x 2 y & (RF 2 ) = 0 y Hence if c(1 m) < 1, (RF 1) x + (RF 2) y < 0 x, y > 0 which indicates that there are no periodic solutions by Dulac s Criterion.

40 Base 3d Model 3 Dimensional Model ẋ = αx(1 x) a(1 m)xy 1+c(1 m)x + D 1(v x) v = d v v + D 2 (x v) ẏ = dy + b(1 m)x 1y 1+c(1 m)x 1 y (11) Dispersal equation - some of the prey (v) is inaccessible to predator

41 Base 3d Model Equilibria 3 Equilibria: M 0 = (0, 0, 0) where M 1 = ( D 2v + d v v, D 2( D 1 d v + D 2 α + d v α) D 2 (D 2 + d v ) 2, 0) α d M 2 = ( (b cd)(1 m), dd 2 (b cd)(d 2 + d v )(m 1), γ) γ = b(b cd)d 1d v (m 1) b(d 2 + d v )(b(m 1) + d(1 + c cm))α a(b cd) 2 (D 2 + d v )(m 1) 2

42 Base 3d Model M 0 Conditions on M 0 : if D 1 d v < α(d 1 + d v ) then M 0 is a saddle if α > D 1 + d v + D 2 then the point is stable Cannot be a focus or center, if not a saddle, it is a node: Biologically reasonable

43 Base 3d Model Boundary Equilibrium: M 1 It can be a saddle under some conditions, otherwise it is a node(stable or unstable). Not a focus or center

44 Base 3d Model Node Figure: Boundary Node: (.9159,.4585, 0.000) α =.6 a =.6 b =.5 c =.1 d =.5 m =.1 D 1 =.1 D 2 =.1 d v =.1 Unlike previous model, boundary points can attract from

45 Base 3d Model Orbits with y = Figure: Orbit in Red

46 Base 3d Model M 2 : Coexistence Incredibly complex system of conditions governing local behavior(conditions on the sign of the real part of eigenvalues, or Trace Determinant Expressions) Numerical simulations were obtained

47 Base 3d Model M 2 : Focus Figure: Coexistence Focus: (.2264,.1134,.7828) α =.6 a =.6 b =.5 c =.1 d =.1 m =.1 D 1 =.1 D 2 =.1 d v =.1

48 Base 3d Model Double Transcritical Bifurcation X e Figure: 2 Transcritical Bifurcations a =.1, α = 1, c =.2, d =.1, d v =.4, D 2 =.2, m =.1 Sotomayor s Theorem was used to prove the result of XPPAUT, but the system was too complicated to effectively set conditions for λ = 0

49 3-Dimensional System with Harvesting 3d System: Harvesting A new 3-Dimensional system includes the harvesting function H(x) = h in the prey equation. Thus: ẋ = αx(1 x) a(1 m)xy 1+c(1 m)x D 1(v x) h v = d v v + D 2 (x v) ẏ = dy + b(1 m)xy 1+c(1 m)x (12)

50 3-Dimensional System with Harvesting Orbit With this modification, periodic orbits and Hopf bifurcation appear Figure: 3 Orbits α = 1 a =.2 b = 1 c =.2 h =.11 m =.3 D 1 =.4 D 2 =.3 d v =.3

51 3-Dimensional System with Harvesting Hopf Bifurcation X d Figure: Hopf Bifurcation Diagram α = 1 a =.2 b = 1 c =.2 h =.11 m =.3 D 1 =.4 D 2 =.3 d v =.3

52 3-Dimensional System with Harvesting Conclusions Studied three models, with different harvesting functions and refuge 3-D model included dispersal of prey, in two different habitats Local stability was analyzed Existence of saddle-node and Hopf bifurcations was proved Other bifurcations were numerically detected Unstable periodic solutions were computed Non-existence of periodic solutions under certain conditions was proved Influence of refuge on prey density was analyzed

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