You know the drill: Turn in hw Pick up graded hw Name tags up Grab white boards and markers for your group


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1 You know the drill: Turn in hw Pick up graded hw Name tags up Grab white boards and markers for your group Missing hw from: Hamilton, Herbig, I. Singh,
2 Midterm #1 on Tuesday, September 24th Covers: Chapter 14 There will be a few short answer conceptual questions where you will need to explain your understanding. There will be ~3 or 4 longer problems similar to hw problems Longer problems with have explain portions as well I will post an equation sheet on Thursday so that you can see what I will be making available to you.
3 How should I study? Spend some time studying with other students Attempt more problems from your book Read the chapters and make sure the concepts make sense to you Make sure you understand units and vectors!!! You ll need to use the kinematic equations, Newton s laws, and reasoning abilities to succeed.
4 This week at a glance Today Newton s three Laws Force Diagrams Example Problems Thursday: Law of Gravitation Friction and Tension Example problems
5 Mass vs. Weight Mass: A measure of the resistance of an object to changes in its motion due to a force The larger the mass, the less it accelerates under the action of a given force Weight: mass multiplied by the acceleration due to gravity (mg) Weight changes in different gravitational fields (space, planets), mass does not! Scale does not always read weight Section 4.2
6 Inertia (concept: objects wants to continue in its current state) Is the tendency of an object to continue in its original motion In the absence of a force Thought experiment Hit a golf ball Hit a bowling ball with the same force The golf ball will travel farther Both resist changes in their motion Section 4.2
7 Newton s First Law An object moves with a velocity that is constant in magnitude and direction, unless acted on by a nonzero net force The net force is defined as the vector sum of all the external forces exerted on the object Section 4.2
8 Demo Flowers have inertia and they are at rest and so they want to stay at rest. Friction between scarf and vase is small, so vase remains at rest. If table cloth were textured, friction would be higher, and I would not be a very good magician.
9 Giant Hockey Rink
10 When puck is in motion, only friction (a force!) slows it down. Puck has inertia, and so it wants to remain in motion.
11 Newton s Second Law The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on it and inversely proportional to its mass. ΣF x = ma x ΣF y =ma y Section 4.3
12 Units of Force SI unit of force is a Newton (N) US Customary unit of force is a pound (lb) 1 N = lb See table 4.1 for a summary of units Section 4.3
13 Some Notes About Forces Forces cause changes in motion Motion can occur in the absence of forces All the forces acting on an object are added as vectors to find the net force acting on the object m is not a force itself Newton s Second Law is a vector equation Section 4.3
14 Newton s Third Law If object 1 and object 2 interact, the force exerted by object 1 on object 2 is equal in magnitude but opposite in direction to the force exerted by object 2 on object 1. Equivalent to saying a single isolated force cannot exist Section 4.4
15 Eg. You pull on a cart. It accelerates. The cart pulls back on you (you feel the rope get tighter). Can call your pull the action and cart s pull the reaction. Or, the other way around. Newton s 3 rd law means that forces always come in actionreaction pairs. It doesn t matter which is called the action and which is called the reaction. Note: Actionreaction pairs never act on the same object
16 Examples of actionreaction force pairs In fact it is the road s push that makes the car go forward. Same when we walk push back on floor, floor pushes us forward. (These forces are frictional). blow up a balloon and release it. Same principle as rocket
17 Clicker Question What is the reaction force to a bat striking a ball? A) the ball s hit on the bat B) the muscular effort in the player s arm C) the friction force between the ground and the player s feet D) gravity E) None of these Answer: A Note that we could call either the action and the other the reaction it doesn t matter which one is which.
18 Another Question What are the actionreaction pairs once the ball is in the air? First note there are two interactions: (i) one with the earth s gravity and (ii) the other with the air. (i) Action (or reaction): Earth pulls down on ball (weight) Reaction (or action): Ball pulls up on Earth. (ii) Action: Air pushes ball backwards (air resistance) Reaction: Ball pushes air forwards
19 Clicker Question We just said that for a ball in the air, an actionreaction pair is Earth s gravity acting on the ball, and the ball pulling the Earth up. Which force is bigger? A) The Earth s gravity acting on the ball B) The Ball pulling the Earth up C) They have the same strength
20 Clicker Question We just said that for a ball in the air, an actionreaction pair is Earth s gravity acting on the ball, and the ball pulling the Earth up. Which force is bigger? A) The Earth s gravity acting on the ball B) The Ball pulling the Earth up C) They have the same strength Action and reaction pairs are always equal and opposite in direction. Remember to distinguish the force from the effect of the force the Earth s acceleration under the interaction with the ball is much smaller than that of the ball, because Earth s mass is much larger and a = F/m. (More shortly )
21 Newton s 3 laws Object in motions stays in motion/object at rest stays at rest unless acted on by a force Sum of the forces is equal to the mass multiplied by acceleration of the object Every action has an equal and opposite reaction Read more about these laws in Chapter 4. (I haven t stated them as eloquently here.)
22 Free Body Diagram A diagram of the forces acting on an object (ONE OBJECT!) Must identify all the forces acting on the object of interest Section 4.5
23 Manifestations of Forces (names your book gives to common forces) Force due to Gravity Normal Force Tension Force of Friction Net Force
24 Manifestations of Forces (names your book gives to common forces) Force due to Gravity Normal Force Tension Force of Friction Net Force
25 Elevator Question From Homework A 75kg man standing on a scale in an elevator notes that as the elevator rises, the scale reads 825N. What is the acceleration of the elevator?
26 Draw Free body diagram for: 1kg block sliding down incline
27 Homework Chapter 4: problems: 32, 38, 47 Responsible for but don t need to turn in: 35, 67
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