Lecture 16 Light transmission and optical detectors

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1 Lecture 6 Light transmission and optical detectors Charged particle traversing through a material can generate signal in form of light via electromagnetic interactions with orbital electrons of the atoms or molecules in the medium. To detect a signal we need to transfer the light signal through the medium to a detector that will transform light signal into an electrical pulse.

2 Table : The electromagnetic spectrum Radiation type Wave length Frequency Applications λ, (Ǻ) ν = c / λ, (Hz) radio x 0 4 Nuclear magnetic resonance 0 3 x 0 6 Television x 0 8 Spin orientation Radar x 0 0 Microwave x 0 Rotational Far infrared x 0 Vibrational Near infrared x 0 4 Visible 8 x x x x 0 4 Ultraviolet 3 x 0 3 x 0 5 Electronic X-rays 3 x 0 8 Gamma rays 0-3 x 0 0 Nuclear transitions Cosmic rays x 0

3 Radiation spectra UV

4 Light transmission through total internal reflection is known since ~840. Initially used mostly for illumination of fountains. First famous jet d eau in Geneva was designed in 886 with light sources. Optical quartz fibers were originally developed for signal transmission during nuclear tests. Electrical signals were unreadable due to e-m shock wave of the explosion. Such fibers were later used for the cameras in first Moon missions and spy planes. Commercial fibers made from pure silica or various plastics were developed in late 970ties for telecommunication. Plastic optical fibers can be doped with scintillating compounds. There are also capillary tubes filled with liquid scintillator. They can be used for construction of fiber tracking devices. Since there is no cross-talk effect optical fibers provide flexible solutions for difficult geometries of the detector.

5 Jet d eau, Geneve 300 ft

6 Optical fibers as light guides typ. 5 µm n θ core polystyrene n=.59 cladding (PMMA) n=.49 n typically < mm light transport by total internal reflection Idealized (wrong) estimate θ arcsin n /n ~ 69.6 o Light is generated mostly away from fiber axis. Light transport is mostly away from the cross-sectional plane

7 Wavelength shifters p-terphenyl C 6 H 5 C 6 H 4 C 6 H 5 absorption emission

8 Fibers doped with scintillators Total internal reflection in a fiber Condition for trapping sinθ ρ r sin(ϕ Φ) sinθ tr

9 Fiber tracking arrangements a) axial b) circumferential c) helical Advantages: low mass, fine granularity, fast readout

10 Charged particle passing through a stack of scintillating fibers with mm diameter

11 Time resolution improvement - Multichannel plate MCP

12 Photo detectors Use photoelectric effect to convert light into electrical signals Sensitivity usually expressed as quantum efficiency QE = N photoelectrons /N photons Photomultipliers 3-step process in the photocathodes photo ionization of molecule electron propagation through photocathode escape of the electron into vacuum Typical photocathodes are semiconductors Photon energy has to be sufficient to bridge the band gap E g, but also to overcome the electron affinity E A, so that the electron can be released into the vacuum. Dynode gain ~4, so a PMT with 0 dynodes has a gain 4 0 ~0 6

13 Quantum efficiency of typical photo cathodes Bialkali SbK Cs Multialkali SbNa KCs

14 Energy resolution of a PMT is determined by the fluctuations of the number of secondary electrons emitted from dynodes. Poisson fluctuations m m n e P( n, m) = m! σ Relative fluctuations n n = = n n n Dominated by the fluctuations when the numbers are small i.e., at the first dynode. PMT s are in general very sensitive to B-fields, even to earth field (30-60 mt) -> µ-metal shielding required.

15 Solid state photo detectors PiN diodes: thin p layer to avoid light absorption by silicon high quantum efficiency (~80% at 700 nm) no gain used for high light yield readouts APD avalanche photo diodes: high reverse bias voltage ~00-00 V high internal field -> avalanche multiplication gain ~00

16 start stop Time of Flight c L t β = ( 0βγ ) p = m = L t c p m + + = L dl t dt p dp m dm γ Mass resolution ( ) ( ) / / m m p Lc p c m p c m c L c L t + + = = Δ β β TOF difference of particles at a given momentum

17 For σ t = 300 ps π/k separation up to ~ GeV/c

18 NA49 experiment L = 5 m T rel. = T / T p

19 Cherenkov radiation Speed of light in vacuum - c Speed of light in a material - c/n(λ) n - index of refraction, λ - wavelength If the velocity of a particle is such that β = v p /c > c/n(λ), a pulse of light is emitted around the particle direction with an opening angle (θ c ) v p /c < c/n(λ) symmetric dipoles v p /c > c/n(λ) coherent wavefront dielectric, polarizable medium

20 The threshold velocity is β c = /n At velocity below β c no light is emitted If velocity exceed phase velocity of light (rather than group velocity) there is a Cherenkov light emission Cherenkov angle

21 Cherenkov photon emission cone around particle direction Typical intersection of cone with a photon detection plane ring RICH ring imaging detector counter Weak effect, causes no significant energy loss (<%) It takes place only if the track L of the particle in the radiating medium is longer than the wavelength λ of the radiated photons. Cherenkov radiation glowing in the core of a reactor Particle physics detector Momentum measurement + velocity threshold -> particle mass identification (at fixed momentum p=m v particle with larger mass will have lower velocity and may be below threshold for production of Cherenkov light) Angle + momentum measurement: cosθ c = /(nβ) -> mass

22 ring threshold radiator medium mirror particle PM

23 Number of emitted Cherenkov photons per unit path length and unit wavelength interval (emission spectrum). with sin const dxde N d E hc c dxd N d z n z dxd N d C = = = = = ν λ λ λ θ λ α π β λ α π λ dn/dλ λ Most at short wavelength deep UV Number of photons detected ( )de E E c L N i i E E Q e p = ε ε α θ ) ( sin..! Emission spectrum Photo detector sensitivity Use wavelength shifters!

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