Operational Amplifier (OpAmp) Operational Amplifiers. OPAmp: Components. Internal Design of LM741


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1 (OpAmp) s Prof. Dr. M. Zahurul Haq Department of Mechanical Engineering Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology ME 475: Mechatronics The OPAmp is a lowcost and versatile I (Integrated ircuit) consisting of many internal transistors, resistors, and capacitors. These are basic building blocks for: Amplifiers Integrators and Differentiators Summers omparators A/D and D/A converters Active filters Sample and Hold circuits...etc. Prof. Dr. M. Zahurul Haq (BUET) OPAmp ME 475 / 3 Prof. Dr. M. Zahurul Haq (BUET) OPAmp ME / 3 OPAmp: omponents Internal Design of LM74 The OPAmp has Single Output and Two Inputs: Noninverting input []: output is in phase with input. 2 Inverting input []: output is 80 o out of phase with input. e560.eps e039.eps Prof. Dr. M. Zahurul Haq (BUET) OPAmp ME / 3 Prof. Dr. M. Zahurul Haq (BUET) OPAmp ME / 3
2 OPAmp: Equivalent ircuit OPAmp: haracteristics ule. Infinite input impedance, Z in = ½ =µ I = I = 0; ule 2. Infinite gain, =µ E = E ; ule 3. Zero output impedance, Z out = 0 =µ = f (I o ). ½ ½ haracteristics Ideal Value Typical realworld value Openloop gain 0 5 V V Offset voltage 0 mv Bias currents A Input impedance Ω Output impedance 0 0Ω Ideal opamps rejects inputs common to both inputs (common mode rejection). Actual ommon Mode ejection atio, M = Eo E cm 0 6 the larger the M, the better the amplifier. e427.eps Prof. Dr. M. Zahurul Haq (BUET) OPAmp ME / 3 Prof. Dr. M. Zahurul Haq (BUET) OPAmp ME / 3 OPAmp: Examples OPAmp: Voltage omparator e76.eps E ref E o 5 V e77.eps V V V 2 5 V V out 2 V 2 V x007.eps In comparator circuit, there is no negative feedback, hence the circuit exhibits infinite gain and the opamps will saturate, i.e. the output remains at the most positive or most negative output value. Hence, Esat E = i E ref E sat E ref Prof. Dr. M. Zahurul Haq (BUET) OPAmp ME / 3 Prof. Dr. M. Zahurul Haq (BUET) OPAmp ME / 3
3 omparator ircuit: Application Window omparator ircuit e040.eps hatter is a practical problem, output voltage oscillates backandforth when input voltage is near to the threshold. Prof. Dr. M. Zahurul Haq (BUET) OPAmp ME / 3 e04.eps Window omparator is with inbuilt hysteresis; hysteresis means that switchon voltage is greater than switchoff voltage. Prof. Dr. M. Zahurul Haq (BUET) OPAmp ME / 3 OPAmp: Inverting Amplifier OPAmp: Noninverting Amplifier F F X I i I F I 00 i X I F x008.eps At X, I i I F = 0 (KL & ule ), & E X = 0 (ule 2); I E i E X i = I F Eo E X F =µ gain G = Eo = F x009.eps At X, I i I F = 0 (KL & ule ), & E X = (ule 2); I E X i = I F Eo E X F =µ G = F Prof. Dr. M. Zahurul Haq (BUET) OPAmp ME 475 / 3 Prof. Dr. M. Zahurul Haq (BUET) OPAmp ME / 3
4 OPAmp: Follower/Buffer OpAmp: Voltage Follower Application In a noninverting amplifier with = ½ & F = 0, gain, G is unity and there is no voltage amplification. This circuit is known as a buffer or follower. It has a high input impedance and low output impedance. The high input impedance effectively isolates the source from the rest of the circuit. 5 Sensor V in = 0.45 V ontroller 5 V V in = 0.45 V (a) Signal experiences voltage drop (b) Equivalent circuit 5 5 V V in = 5 V Sensor ontroller x00.eps Prof. Dr. M. Zahurul Haq (BUET) OPAmp ME / 3 (c) No signal voltage drop Prof. e78.eps Dr. M. Zahurul Haq (BUET) OPAmp ME / 3 OpAmp: Summing Amplifier Summing Amplifier: Application e79.eps E V 2 V 4 V V 7 V 2 V? 4 V F 4 V Example: Interface circuit for an air conditioning system when the sum of the voltages of temperature and humidity sensors goes above.0 V, & a threshold circuit in air conditioner require 5.0 V. x0.eps E 2 E 3 00 E o = E F E2 2 E3 3 Temperature e042.eps Humidity V t V h 5 kω (V t V h ) 5 Inverter V out = (V t V h ) 5 If = 2 = 3 is a weighted sum of input voltages. Prof. Dr. M. Zahurul Haq (BUET) OPAmp ME / 3 Prof. Dr. M. Zahurul Haq (BUET) OPAmp ME / 3
5 OPAmp: Differential Amplifier Instrument Amplifier E E 2 I e E 00 e o 2 E 00 I A 2 c 2 a D 3 b I 2 4 E 2 B 2 c 2 x02.eps e = e =µ E = E = (E 2 E ) 2 E o 2 = E E 2 = c(e 2 E ) if 2 = 4 3 = c Prof. Dr. M. Zahurul Haq (BUET) OPAmp ME / 3 x03.eps I = Ec E D = E E2 = E A E B a b ; & = c(e A E B ) G = Eo E 2 E = c( a b) Prof. Dr. M. Zahurul Haq (BUET) OPAmp ME / 3 OPAmp: Integrator Output of an Integrator ircuit ( = ) 00 X I00 i I F x04.eps I i = I F = c deo dt & I i I F = 0(KL) Ê = Ei ()d Prof. Dr. M. Zahurul Haq (BUET) OPAmp ME / 3 e043.eps Prof. Dr. M. Zahurul Haq (BUET) OPAmp ME / 3
6 OPAmp: Differentiator Output of a Differentiator kt. ( = ) d 00 X 00 I i I F V in (Volts) c a b Time (sec) Time (sec) x05.eps V out * 2 I i = d dt I F = c Eo & I i I F = 0(KL) = d dt e044.eps 3 Prof. Dr. M. Zahurul Haq (BUET) OPAmp ME / 3 Prof. Dr. M. Zahurul Haq (BUET) OPAmp ME / 3 OPAmp: Differentiator & Integrator OPAmp: Proportional ontroller 5 V B Bias Sensor (05 V) Set point 5 V (3 V) U Error Differential amp 20 kω U 2 Proportional gain amp U 3 Inverter To valve (05 V) e80.eps e428.eps Prof. Dr. M. Zahurul Haq (BUET) OPAmp ME / 3 Prof. Dr. M. Zahurul Haq (BUET) OPAmp ME / 3
7 OPAmp: PID ontroller OPAmp: Sample and Hold ircuit Process variable (feedback) Set point U Error 2 U 2 Proportional U Output PID 5 Summer and Multiplier Analog Input ontrol Switch D e8.eps U 3 Integral 3 U 4 Derivative Prof. Dr. M. Zahurul Haq (BUET) OPAmp ME / 3 x06.eps S/H amplifier holds an analog value, until an A/D converter is ready to convert it to digital. The basis circuit consists of an electronic switch to the sample, with a capacitor for the hold and an opamp voltage follower. Prof. Dr. M. Zahurul Haq (BUET) OPAmp ME / 3 OPAmps: urrent Source LowPass Filter ircuit f 2 i 2 load 3 I I = E 2 i 3 if 2 > > load. V in f c = 2π V out x07.eps e0.eps Prof. Dr. M. Zahurul Haq (BUET) OPAmp ME / 3 Prof. Dr. M. Zahurul Haq (BUET) OPAmp ME / 3
8 HighPass Filter ircuit BandPass/Bandeject Filter ircuits i f BandPass Filter  A bandpass filter can be built by cascading a lowpass filter and a highpass filter together. The cutoff frequency of the lowpass filter must be higher than the cutoff frequency of the highpass filter. Bandeject Filter  V in f c = 2π V out V in 2 f n = 2π V out 2 e02.eps e03.eps Prof. Dr. M. Zahurul Haq (BUET) OPAmp ME / 3 Prof. Dr. M. Zahurul Haq (BUET) OPAmp ME / 3
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