Figure 1: MOSFET symbols.


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1 c Copyright W. Marshall Leach, Jr., Professor, Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering. The MOSFET Device Symbols Whereas the JFET has a diode junction between the gate and the channel, the metaloxide semiconductor FET or MOSFET differs primarily in that it has an oxide insulating layer separating the gate and the channel. The circuit symbols are shown in Fig. 1. Each device has gate (G), drain (D), and source (S) terminals. Four of the symbols show an additional terminal called the body (B) which is not normally used as an input or an output. It connec to the drainsource channel through a diode junction. In discrete MOSFETs, the body lead is connected internally to the source. When this is the case, it is omitted on the symbol as shown in four of the MOSFET symbols. In integratedcircuit MOSFETs, the body usually connec to a dc power supply rail which reverse biases the bodychannel junction. In the latter case, the socalled body effect must be accounted for when analyzing the circuit. Figure 1: MOSFET symbols. Device Equations The discussion here applies to the nchannel MOSFET. The equations apply to the pchannel device if the subscrip for the voltage between any two of the device terminals are reversed, e.g. v GS becomes v SG. The nchannel MOSFET is biased in the active mode or saturation region for v DS v GS v TH,where v TH is the threshold voltage. This voltage is negative for the depletionmode device and positive for the enhancementmode device. It is a function of the bodysource voltage and is given by hp v TH V TO + γ φ vbs p i φ (1) where V TO is the value of v TH with v BS 0, γ is the body threshold parameter, φ is the surface potential, and v BS is the bodysource voltage. The drain current is given by i D k0 2 W L (1 + λv DS)(v GS v TH ) 2 (2) where W is the channel width, L is the channel length, λ is the channellength modulation parameter, and k 0 is given by k 0 µ 0 C ox µ ox t ox 1
2 In this equation, µ 0 is the average carrier mobility, C ox is the gate oxide capacitance per unity area, ox is the permittivity of the oxide layer, and t ox is i thickness. It is convenient to define a transconductance coefficient K given by K k 0 W 2 L (1 + λv DS) K 0 (1 + λv DS ) (3) where K 0 is given by K 0 k 0 W (4) 2 L With these definitions, the drain current can be written i D K (v GS v TH ) 2 (5) Note that K plays the same role in the MOSFET drain current equation as β plays in the JFET drain current equation. Some tex define K k 0 (W/L)(1+λv DS ) so that i D is written i D (K/2) (v GS v TH ) 2.Inthiscase, the numerical value of K is twice the value used here. To modify the equations given here to conform to this usage, replace K in any equation given here with K/2. Transfer and Output Characteristics The transfer characteristics are a plot of the drain current i D as a function of the gatetosource voltage v GS with the draintosource voltage v DS held constant. Fig. 2 shows the typical transfer characteristics for a zero bodytosource voltage. In this case, the threshold voltage is a constant, i.e. v TH V TO. For v GS V TO, the drain current is zero. For v GS >V TO, Eq. (5) shows that the drain current increases as the square of the gatetosource voltage. The slope of the curve represen the smallsignal transconductance g m, which is definedinthefollowing. Figure 2: Drain current i D versus gatetosource voltage v GS for constant draintosource voltage v DS. The output characteristics are a plot the drain current i D as a function of the draintosource voltage v DS with the gatetosource voltage v GS and the bodytosource voltage v BS held constant. Fig. 3 shows the typical output characteristics for several values of gatetosource voltage v GS. The dashed line divides the triode region from the saturation or active region. In the saturation region, the slope of the curves represen the reciprocal of the smallsignal drainsource resistance r 0, which is definedinthenexection. SmallSignal Models There are two smallsignal circuit models which are commonly used to analyze MOSFET circui. These are the hybridπ model and the T model. The two models are equivalent and give identical resul. They are described below. In addition, a simplified smallmodel is derived which is called the source equivalent circuit. The models are first developed for the case of no body effectandthenwiththebodyeffect. The former 2
3 Figure 3: Drain current i D versus draintosource voltage v DS for constant gatetosource voltage v GS. case assumes that the bodysource voltage is zero, i.e. v BS 0. This is the case with discrete MOSFETs in which the source is connected physically to the body. It also applies to smallsignal ac analyses for which the body and source leads are connected to the same or different dc voltages. In this case, the smallsignal bodysource voltage is zero, i.e. v bs 0,andthereisnobodyeffect. No Body Effect The smallsignal models in this section assume that the body lead is connected to the source lead. The models also apply when the body and source leads are connected to different dc voltages so that the ac or signal voltage from body to source is zero. Hybridπ Model Consider the case where the bodysource voltage is zero, i.e. v BS 0. In this case, the threshold voltage in Eq. 1 is a constant and given by v TH V TO. Let the drain current and each voltage be written as the sum of a dc component and a smallsignal ac component as follows: i D I D + i d (6) v GS V GS + v gs (7) v DS V DS + v ds (8) Iftheaccomponenaresufficiently small, we can write i d I D v gs + I D v ds (9) V GS V DS where the derivatives are evaluated at the dc bias values. Let us define ID r 0 g m I D V GS K (V GS V TH )2 p KI D (10) V DS 1 k0 2 It follows that the smallsignal drain current can be written 1 W L λ (V GS V TH ) 2 1/λ + V DS (11) I D i d i 0 d + v ds (12) r 0 where i 0 d g m v gs (13) The smallsignal circuit which models these equations is given in Fig. 4. This is called the hybridπ model. 3
4 Figure 4: π model of the MOSFET. TModel The T model of the MOSFET is shown in Fig. 5. The resistor r 0 is given by Eq. (11). The resistor r s is given by r s 1 (14) g m where g m is the transconductance definedineq.(10).thecurrenaregivenby i d i 0 s + v ds r 0 (15) i 0 s v gs g m v gs (16) r s The curren in the T model are the same as for the hybridπ model. Therefore, the two models are equivalent. Note that the gate and body curren in Fig. 5 are zero because the controlled source supplies the current that flows through r s. Figure 5: A Source Equivalnet Circuit Figure 6 shows the MOSFET T model described above with a Thévenin source in series with the gate. We wish to solve for the equivalent circuit in which the source i 0 d is replaced by a single source which connec from the drain node to ground having the value i 0 d i0 s. We call this the source equivalent circuit. Looking up into the branch labeled i 0 s,wecanwritev s v tg i 0 sr s With v tg 0,theresistancer s seen looking up into the branch labeled i 0 s is given by r s 1 (17) g m The source equivalent circuit is shown in Fig.7. Note that there is no R tg in the circuit because there is no current through R tg in the original circuit. Compared to the corresponding circuit for the BJT, the MOSFET circuit replaces v tb with v tg and re 0 with r s. Because the gate current is zero, set α 1and β in converting any BJT formulas to corresponding MOSFET formulas. 4
5 Figure 6: Figure 7: With Body Effect The smallsignal models in this section assume that the body lead is connected to ac signal ground. In integrated circuit design, this ac signal ground is typically a dc power supply rail. In this case, any ac signal voltage on the source lead causes an ac signal voltage between the body and source. The effect of this voltage is called the body effect. Hybridπ Model Let the drain current and each voltage be written as the sum of a dc component and a smallsignal ac component as follows: i D I D + i d (18) v GS V GS + v gs (19) v BS V BS + v bs (20) v DS V DS + v ds (21) Iftheaccomponenaresufficiently small, we can write i d I D v gs + I D v bs + I D v ds (22) V GS V BS V DS where the derivatives are evaluated at the dc bias values. Let us define g m I D K (V GS V TH )2 p KI D V GS (23) g mb I D γ KID χg m V BS φ VBS (24) χ γ 2 φ V BS (25) 5
6 1 ID k0 r 0 V DS 2 The smallsignal drain current can thus be written 1 W L λ (V GS V TH ) 2 V DS +1/λ (26) I D i d i dg + i db + v ds r 0 (27) where i dg g m v gs (28) i db g mb v bs (29) The smallsignal circuit which models these equations is given in Fig. 8. This is called the hybridπ model. If the body (B) lead is connected to the source, then v bs 0and the circuit becomes that given in Fig. 4. Figure 8: Hybridπ model of the MOSFET. TModel The T model of the MOSFET is shown in Fig. 9. The resistor r 0 is given by Eq. (26). The resistors r s and r sb are given by r s 1 (30) g m r sb 1 1 r s (31) g mb χg m χ where g m and g mb are the transconductances defined in Eqs. (23) and (24). The curren are given by i d i sg + i sb + v ds r 0 (32) i sg v gs g m v gs (33) r s i sb v bs g mb v bs (34) r sb Thecurrenarethesameasforthehybridπ model. Therefore, the two models are equivalent. Note that the gate and body curren are zero because the two controlled sources supply the curren that flow through r s and r sb. Source Equivalent Circuit Figure 10 shows the MOSFET T model with a Thévenin source in series with the gate and the body connected to signal ground. We wish to solve for the equivalent circuit in which the sources i sg and i sb are replaced by a single source which connec from the drain node to ground having the value i 0 d i0 s. We call this 6
7 Figure 9: T model of the MOSFET. thesourceequivalentcircuit. Thefirstepistolookupintothebranchlabeledi 0 s and form a Thévenin equivalent circuit. With i 0 s 0, we can use voltage division to write r sb r s /χ v s(oc) v tg v tg r s + r sb r s + r s /χ v tg 1+χ (35) With v tg 0,theresistancer 0 s seen looking up into the branch labeled i 0 s is r 0 s r s kr sb r s 1+χ 1 (1 + χ) g m (36) Figure 10: T model with Thévenin source connected to the gate and the body connected to signal ground. The source equivalent circuit is shown in Fig.11. Compared to the corresponding circuit without the body effect, the circuit replaces v tg with v tg / (1 + χ) and r s with r 0 s r s / (1 + χ). To convert the source equivalent circuit with the body effect to one without the body effect, simply set χ 0. The r 0 Approximations No Body Effect The r 0 approximations approximate r 0 as an open circuit except when calculating the resistance seen looking into the drain. Fig. 7 shows the source equivalent circuit for calculating r id v t /i d.theresistorr s is given by r s 1/g m.wecanwrite µ i d i 0 + i s i 0 1 R r s + R v t r 0 + r s kr µ 1 R r e + R (37) 7
8 Figure 11: Source equivalent circuit. It follows that r id is given by r id v µ t r 0 + r s kr i d 1 R / (r s + R ) r 0 1+ R + R (38) r s Figure 12: Circuit for calculating the resistance r id seen looking into the drain. The r 0 approximations for the source equivalent circuit, the hybrid π model, and the T model, respectively, are given Figs. 13 through 15. Because r 0 no longer connec to the source, there is only one source current and i s i 0 s.ifr 0, thenr ic is an open circuit in each. Figure 13: Source equivalnet circuit with r 0 approximations. With Body Effect The r 0 approximations approximate r 0 as an open circuit except when calculating the resistance seen looking into the drain. Fig. 16 shows the source equivalent circuit for calculating r id v t /i d. The resistor rs 0 is given by Eq. (36). We can write µ i d i 0 + i 0 s i 0 1 R rs 0 + R v t r 0 + rskr 0 µ 1 R re 0 + R (39) 8
9 Figure 14: Hybrid π model with the r 0 approximations. Figure 15: T model with the r 0 approximations. It follows that r id is given by r id v t r 0 + r 0 µ skr i d 1 R / (rs 0 + R ) r 0 1+ R rs 0 + R (40) Figure 16: Circuit for calculating the resistance r id seen looking into the collector. The r 0 approximations for the source equivalent circuit, the hybrid π model, and the T model, respectively, are given Figs. 17 through 19. Because r 0 no longer connec to the source, there is only one source current and i s i 0 s.ifr 0, thenr ic is an open circuit in each. SmallSignal HighFrequency Models Figures 20 and 21 show the hybridπ and T models for the MOSFET with the gatesource capacitance c gs, the sourcebody capacitance c sb, the drainbody capacitance c db, the draingate capacitance c dg,and the gatebody capacitance c gb added. These capacitors model charge storage in the device which affect i highfrequency performance. The first three capacitors are given by c sb c gs 2 3 WLC ox (41) c sb0 (1 + V SB /ψ 0 ) 1/2 (42) 9
10 Figure 17: Source equivalent circuit with r 0 approximations. Figure 18: Hybrid π model with the r 0 approximations. Figure 19: T model with the r 0 approximations. 10
11 c db0 c db (43) (1 + V DB /ψ 0 ) 1/2 where V SB and V DB are dc bias voltages; c sb0 and c db0 are zerobias values; and ψ 0 is the builtin potential. Capacitors c gd and c gb model parasitic capacitances. For IC devices, c gd is typically in the range of 1 to 10 ff for small devices and c gb is in the range of 0.04 to 0.15 ff per square micron of interconnect. Figure 20: Highfrequency hybridπ model. Figure 21: Highfrequency T model. 11
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