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1 M1 a. Remember that overflow is defined as the result of the operation making no sense, which in 2's complement representa tion is equivalent to the mathematical result not fitting in the format. if any of the operands is zero, there is no overflow if one of the operands is positive, and the other is negative, there can be no overflow if the two operands have the same sign, we have the following cases: 10 (-2) + 10 (-2) = 00 (0!= -4) 1 case 11 (-1) + 10 (-2) = 01 (1!= -3) 1 case 10 (-2) + 11 (-1) = 01 (1!= -3) 1 case 01 (1) + 01 (1) = 10 (-2!= 2) 1 case So there are 4 cases from the total 16.

2 M1b. The easiest solution is to represent all possible values. An 8-bit exponent covers [0 255], which with 127 bias means [ ]. Nibble for a float. SEEM. Exponent bias = 1, thus 00,01,10,11 = 0,1,2,3-1,0,1,2 Expon en t S i gn i f i c a n d Ob j e c t nonz e r o Deno rm any t h i n g +/- f l. p t. # /- 255 nonz e r o NaN denorm: 0.1 x 2 0 = 0.1 = 1/ x 2 0 = x 2 0 = x 2 1 = 10 = x 2 1 = 10 = reserved for reserved for NaN similarly for positive numbers Ans: MostNeg= [ -3 = 0b1101 = 0xD], SmallestPos = [1/2 = 0b0 001 =0x1] NextSmallestPos = [1=0b0 010=0x2]

3 M2 a. Static = 0 (no globals) Stack = 4 (1 pointer) Heap = 48 (2 * [8 (2 ints) + 4 (4 chars) + 8 (2 ptrs) + 4 (1 ptr)]) = 2*24 = 48 M2b. Advan t a g e: Sav e s a ma l l o c ca l l (cou l d t a k e a l o n g t i m e t o se a r c h f r e e l i s t ) A l e x : l e s s i n t e r n a l f r a g m e n t a t i o n (?), f r e e i n g on l y r e q u i r e s one ca l l ( l e s s p r o g r a mme r e f f o r t ) D i s a d v a n t a g e : Mi g h t no t su c c e e d whe r e t h e o t h e r wou l d ha v e ( i f memo r y f r a g m e n t e d no t one l a r g e ch u n k bu t tw o sma l l e r ch u n k s ), we ha v e t o wa i t un t i l bo t h a r e unu s e d be f o r e we ca n f r e e! M2 c. T F We d i s c u s s e d 3 sc h em e s: K&R, s l a b a l l o c a t o r, and t h e bud d y sy s t e m. I t s po s s i b l e t o wr i t e cod e t o make an y o f t h e s e t h e be s t and an y o f t h e s e t h e wo r s t pe r f o r m e r ( i.e., one w i l l ne v e r a l w a y s dom i n a t e ano t h e r, pe r f o r m a n c e - w i s e ). One o f t h e t r u i s m s abo u t t h e s e sc h em e s i s t h a t t h e r e i s no s i n g l e be s t one. T F Ma r k and swee p ga r b a g e co l l e c t i o n doe s no t wo r k f o r c i r c u l a r da t a s t r u c t u r e s. Tha t s r e f e r e n c e cou n t i n g t o wh i c h you r e r e f e r r i n g, my f r i e n d. T F I f yo u wr o t e co d e t h a t had no ca l l s t o free and we on l y ga r b a g e co l l e c t when we ha v e t o, r e f e r e n c e co u n t i n g w i l l s t a r t co l l e c t i n g be f o r e cop y i n g. Cop y i n g wou l d s t a r t co l l e c t i n g be f o r e RC, be c a u s e i t HAS t o GC when t h e memo r y i s ha l f - f u l l (RC ca n wa i t un t i l i t s v i r t u a l l y a l l f u l l ).

4 M3. (a): NO. Po i n t e r t y p e s (t o f l o a t and t o po i n t e r t o d l i s t ) ha v e t h e same s i z e. Once t h i s ha s be e n sa i d, t h e au t h o r o f l i n e (a) sh o u l d be t u r n e d i n t o sh a r k ba i t. (b): NO. Po i n t e r a r i t h m e t i c i s f i n e. (c): CT. p[ i ][ j ].n e x t r e q u i r e s a s t r u c t d l i s t * as s i g n m e n t. p[ i ][ j ] i s a s t r u c t d l i s t, so t h e r i g h t pa s t sh o u l d be p r e c e d e d by an ampe r s a n d. R i g h t : p[ i ][ j ]. n e x t = &(p[ i][ j + 1]); (d): RT, t h e l a s t i t e r a t i o n i s ou t o f bou n d. No t e t h a t t h i s e r r o r oc c u r s on l y when t h e ou t - o f- bo u n d memo r y i s p r o t e c t e d. Ot h e r w i s e, we a r e j u s t ove r w r i t i n g ano t h e r po s i t i o n o f memo r y. I f we a r e un l u c k y, t h a t ano t h e r po s i t i o n o f memo r y w i l l co r r e s p o n d t o t h e hea p me t a d a t a, and we w i l l r e a l i z e t h i s on l y when t r y i n g t o f r e e t h e f o l l o w i n g memo r y po s i t i o n. (e): 70 be c a u s e i t s 5*14.

5 M4. 01 add \$dst, \$0, \$shamtreg # copy \$shamtreg so we don t alter it 02 andi dst, \$dst, 0x1f # The shamt has a maximum size! 03 sll \$dst, \$dst, 6 # slide the shamt to the right location 04 lui \$at, shiftlby0(upper) # This lui and the following ori serve to 05 ori \$at, \$at, shiftlby0(lower) # point to the shiftlby0 instruction 06 lw \$at, 0(\$at) # reg now contains the shiftlby0 inst 07 or \$dst, \$dst, \$at # paste shamt into instruction 08 lui \$at, shiftlby0(upper) # Again, lui and the following oriserve to 09 ori \$at, \$at, shiftlby0(lower) # point to the shiftlby0 instruction 10 sw \$dst, 0(\$at) # Self-modify our code! 11 shiftlby0: sll \$dst, \$src, 0 # The shiftlby0 instruction

6 F 1 a. The r e a r e 2 6 = 64 l i n e s i n t h e t r u t h t a b l e. Tha t equ a t e s t o a 64- b i t numbe r, wh i c h i s 16E\$.= 16E x a \$ F 1 b. A B C Foo Foo = XY + XZ + YZ Foo i s t h e No tma j o r i t y, o r An t i M a j o r i t y, o r Mi n o r i t y c i r c u i t F 1 c. A B C Bar We are requested to use C as the selector line of a 1-bit multiplexor. We know a multiplexor has the form O= MUX(S,M,N) => O = S M + not(s) N Bar = A not(b) + A C + not(b) C = A not(b) (C + not(c)) + A C + not(b) C = C (A not(b) + A + not(b)) + not(c) (A not(b)) = C (A + not(b)) + not(c) (A not(b)) We need a not gate for B, one OR for the C part, and one AND for the not(c) part. notb = Not(B) Bar = MUX(C, AND(A,notB), OR(A, notb)) 1 Not 1 Mux 1 And 1 Or

7 F 2 a. 1. Add a sma l l add e r w i t h one i n p u t t i e d t o 1, t h e o t h e r t i e d t o busa, & ou t p u t t i e d t o t h e MemToReg mux 2. Chang e t h e 2- i n p u t MemToReg mux t o be a 3- i n p u t mux (add i n g ou t p u t o f add e r ) 3. Chang e t h e w i d t h o f MemToReg f r o m 1 t o 2 (and t h e co r r e s p o n d i n g l o g i c ) 4. Chang e t h e RegDs t - con t r o l l i n g 2- i n p u t Rd/R t mux t o be a 3- i n p u t Rd/R t/r s mux 5. Chang e t h e w i d t h o f RedDs t f r o m 1 t o 2 (and t h e co r r e s p o n d i n g l o g i c ) F 2 b. NO bec a u s e we can t wr i t e two r e g i s t e r s a t onc e

8 F 3 a. loop: ## [S=Stage, w=written, r=read] 1 addi \$t0, \$t0, 4 ## \$t0 w S5 (need 2 no-ops for \$t0) 2 lw \$v0, 0(\$t0) ## \$t0 r S2, \$v0 w S5 (need 2 no-ops for \$v0) 3 sw \$v0, 20(\$t0) ## \$v0, \$t0 r S2 4 lw \$s0, 60(\$t0) ## \$t0 r S2, \$s0 w S5 (need 2 no-ops for \$s0) 5 bne \$s0, \$0, loop ## \$s0 r S2, ALU S3 BEFORE addi I D A M Wt lw I Dt A M Wv sw I tdv A M W lw I Dt A M Ws bne I Ds A M W AFTER addi I D A M Wt no-op no-op lw I Dt A M Wv no-op no-op sw I tdv A M W lw I Dt A M Ws no-op no-op bne I Ds A M W 2@1.5, 2@2.5, 2@4.5

9 F 3 b e a s y. The addi lw ha z a r d i s han d l e d w i t h f o r w a r d i n g, now we on l y ha v e t o f i l l t h e l o a d and b r a n c h de l a y s l o t s. Thu s, we can s im p l i f y t h e cod e t o be:. Loop: 1 addi \$t0, \$t0, 4 ## 2 lw \$v0, 0(\$t0) ## (v0 read can t follow, otherwise must stall) 3 sw \$v0, 20(\$t0) ## 4 lw \$s0, 60(\$t0) ## (s0 read can t follow, otherwise must stall) 5 bne \$s0, \$0, loop ## We can f i l l bo t h l o a d de l a y s l o t s a t on c e by swapp i n g t h e sw and t h e l o w e r lw and i n s e r t i n g a no-op i n t h e b r a n c h - de l a y s l o t. Loop: 1 addi \$t0, \$t0, 4 ## 2 lw \$v0, 0(\$t0) ## (v0 read can t follow, otherwise must stall) 4 lw \$s0, 60(\$t0) ## (s0 read can t follow, otherwise must stall) 3 sw \$v0, 20(\$t0) ## 5 bne \$s0, \$0, loop ## (next instruction will always be executed) 6 no-op Or we cou l d move t h e sw t o t h e b r a n c h - de l a y s l o t and i n s e r t a noop i n t h e lw s0 de l a y s l o t. Bu t wha t i f we swap p e d t h e tw o l o a d s? Hmmm Loop: 1 addi \$t0, \$t0, 4 ## 2 lw \$v0, 0(\$t0) ## (v0 read can t follow, otherwise must stall) 4 lw \$s0, 60(\$t0) ## (s0 read can t follow, otherwise must stall) 6 no-op 5 bne \$s0, \$0, loop ## (next instruction will always be executed) 3 sw \$v0, 20(\$t0) ## We can t move one o f t h e lws t o t h e b r a n c h - de l a y s l o t be c a u s e we don t know wha t i n s t r u c t i o n i s a f t e r ou r s, and s i n c e t h e r e a r e no ha r d w a r e i n t e r l o c k s (s t a l l s on unp r o t e c t e d l o a d s ), we cou l d ha v e i n c o r r e c t beh a v i o r.

10 F 3 b h a r d. I t seems l i k e we r e s t u c k! The t w o lw i n s t r u c t i o n s po i s o n \$v0 and \$s0 f o r one cy c l e, whe r e nob o d y can r e a d t h em immed i a t e l y. Bu t t h e tw o f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s r e a d \$v0 and \$s0! Wha t t o do, wha t t o do Wel l ce r t a i n l y t h e beq ha s t o be a t o r nea r t h e end o f t h e l o o p i d e a l l y one away f r o m t h e end. We l l nee d t o f i l l i t s b r a n c h de l a y s l o t, and t h e r e can t be a lw \$s0 r i g h t be f o r e i t. So t h a t con s t r a i n s us t o: loop: 1 addi \$t0, \$t0, 4 ## Can t be lw \$s0 (so can be sw \$v0 or lw \$v0) 5 bne \$s0, \$0, loop So one co n s t r a i n t i s t h a t t h e lw \$s0 can t be be f o r e i t. And we ve go t t o f i l l t h e b r a n c h - de l a y s l o t. We can t pu t a l o a d t h e r e bec a u s e we don t know wha t comes a f t e r ou r sn i p p e t. So t h e on l y mova b l e i n s t r u c t i o n i s t h e sw. Bu t s l o t 3 ca n now on l y be lw \$v0, wh i c h l e a v e s lw \$s0 f o r s l o t 2. Th i s a l s o come s f r o m l o o k i n g a t t h e l a s t ea s y so l u t i o n and swap p i n g t h e t w o l o a d s. loop: 1 addi \$t0, \$t0, 4 4 lw \$s0, 60(\$t0) 2 lw \$v0, 0(\$t0) 5 bne \$s0, \$0, loop 3 sw \$v0, 20(\$t0)

11 F 4 a. The f i r s t - l e v e l da t a ca c h e f o r a ce r t a i n p r o c e s s o r can ca c h e 64 KB o f ph y s i c a l memo r y. Ass ume t h a t t h e wo r d s i z e i s 32 b i t s, t h e b l o c k s i z e i s 64 by t e s, t h e s i z e o f t h e ph y s i c a l memo r y i s 2 GB, and t h e ca c h e i s 4- way se t as s o c i a t i v e. a) How many b i t s a r e nee d e d f o r t h e T IO? Of f s e t : 64- by t e b l o c k, by t e - add r e s s i n g 2 6 b i t s t o spe c i f y by t e Of f s e t = 6. I n d e x : 64 KB ca c h e / 64 by t e s = 1K b l o c k s. #se t s = 1K b l o c k s / 4- way se t - as s o c i a t i v e = 256 se t s = 2 8 se t s I n d e x = 8. Tag = 32 b i t s (8+6) = 18 F 4 b. Do u b l e t h e Ca c h e S i z e f o l l o w s -1 O f f s e t = 0, I n d e x +1, t a g Do u b l e t h e wo r d s i z e ( f r om 3 2 b i t s t o 6 4 b i t s ) = 0, I n d e x = 0, T a g+ 3 2 Chang e t h e as s o c i a t i v i t y t o f u l l y as s o c i a t i v e Of f s e t = 0, I n d e x - 8, Tag+8 (no i n d e x!) F 4 c. O f f s e t Man y r e a s o n s: Memo r y p r o t e c t i o n! (u s e r - u s e r a n d p r o g r am-p r o g r am) Wi t h o u t i t, a p r o g r a m won t be ab l e t o t h i n k i t can add r e s s a l l 32- b i t s. (r emembe r, t h e OS, o t h e r app s & u t i l i t i e s a r e a l s o r u n n i n g ). E.g., i f pho t o s h o p de c i d e s t o ope n up a huge T I F F, no t h i n g w i l l be ab l e t o r u n! You ca n s i m u l t a n e o u s l y r u n many l a r g e p r o g r a m s ve r y e f f i c i e n t l y be c a u s e on l y a sma l l su b s e t w i l l nee d t o r e s i d e n t a t an y one t i m e Be t t e r p r o g r a mme r p r o d u c t i v i t y s i n c e p r o g r a mme r s don t ha v e t o manag e memo r y ov e r l a y s t h em s e l v e s and Enha n c e d po r t a b i l i t y s i n c e t h e p r o g r a m ha s no dep e n d e n c i e s on t h e ph y s i c a l co n f i g u r a t i o n o f

12 t h e mach i n e (f r om h t t p ://www2.pa r c. c om/c s l / g r o u p s / s d a / p r o j e c t s / o i / w o r k s h o p - 94/ f o i l / n o t e - vmem-ad v a n t a g e s. h t m l ) F 4 d. 32- b i t v i r t u a l add r e s s spa c e, 64 MB ph y s i c a l memo r y and a 4 KB pag e s i z e. How many v i r t u a l pag e s a r e t h e r e? 2 32 by t e s / VA- sp a c e / 2 12 by t e s / p a g e = 2 20 = 1M How many ph y s i c a l pag e s a r e t h e r e? 2 26 by t e s / PA- sp a c e / 2 12 by t e s / p a g e = 2 14 = 16K 1- l e v e l pa g e- t a b l e, ea c h en t r y 4B, t a b l e s i z e? 1M pa g e s * 4 By t e s / p a g e = 2 22 = 4MB.

13 F 5 a. CPU T im e = I n s t r u c t i o n C o u n t * CP I * C l o c k C y c l e T i m e Wan t: wh i c h i s CPU T im e A = CPU T im e B I n s t r u c t i o n C o u n t A * CP I A * C l o c k C y c l e T i m e A = I n s t r u c t i o n C o u n t B * Bu t Thu s o r o r CP I B * C l o c k C y c l e T i m e B I n s t r u c t i o n C o u n t A = I n s t r u c t i o n C o u n t B (same p r o - g r am r u n t h r o u g h bo t h!) CP I A * C l o c k C y c l e T i m e A = CP I B * C l o c k C y c l e T i m e B CP I A / C l o c k C y c l e F r e q u e n c y A = CP I B / C l o c k C y c l e - F r e q u e n c y B CP I A * C l o c k C y c l e F r e q u e n c y B = CP I B * C l o c k C y c l e - wh i c h i s F r e q u e n c y A CP I A * 1GHz = CP I B * 3GHz And d i v i d i n g bo t h s i d e s by 1GHz g i v e s CP I A = 3 * CP I B Ca l c u l a t i n g CP I (and p l u g g i n g i n t o t h e a b o v e e q u a t i o n) g i v e s:.2 * * +.5 * 3 = 3 * [.2 * * * 2] Mu l t i p l y i n g bo t h s i d e s by 10 (t o ge t t h o s e f r a c t i o n s ou t ) g i v e s 2 * * + 5 * 3 = 3 * [ 2 * * * 2] D i v i d i n g bo t h s i d e s by 3 ( i t s i n ev e r y t e r m) g i v e s = 2 * * * = = 8 F 5 b. Ne two r k t r a n sm i s s i o n t i m e : 100 0[B]x 8[ b/b]/10 0 0[Mb/ s] = 8000 b/ (100 0 b/ µs) = 8 µs E f f e c t i v e bandw i d t h : b/(x+8) s = 10 Mb/s X+8=8 0 0 X=7 9 2 µ s

14 F 5 c. Wha t shou l d RA ID 0 be ca l l e d? A ID, s i n c e t h e r e s NO r e d u n d a n c y! RAID 6 : TWO d r i v e f a i l u r e s High e s t Da t a - r a t e I/O dev i c e? Gi g a b i t E t h e r n e t (@ 1x1 0 9 b/s), RamD i s k (eve n h i g h e r! ) New Benchma r k s? Ava i l a b i l i t y!

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