# Reduction to the associated homogeneous system via a particular solution

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1 June PURDUE UNIVERSITY Study Guide for the Credit Exam in (MA 5) Linear Algebra This study guide describes briefly the course materials to be covered in MA 5. In order to be qualified for the credit, one is expected not only to know these materials but also to demonstrate the skills to solve the quantitative and numerical problems. The current textbook used in MA 5 is: Introduction to Linear Algebra with Applications by Bernard Kolman. See also for recent course information and materials. The exam consists of short answer questions, multiple choice and several multi step worked out problems. The time limit is two hours. No books, notes, calculators or any other electronic devices are allowed. Topics to be covered:. Linear Systems of Algebraic Equations Method of elimination Elementary Operations Description of the set of solutions. Matrices Definition of a matrix Matrix Operations Addition Scalar multiplication Transpose Multiplication of matrices Properties of Matrix Operations Inverse Matrix How to find the inverse via Gauss Jordan method The formula A = det A adj(a).. Solutions of Linear Systems in terms of Matrices Augmented Matrix Reduced Row Echelon Form (RREF) Gauss-Jordan reduction Description of the set of solutions via RREF Homogeneous System Dimension of the set of solutions (the null space) Non-Homogeneous System. Determinants Reduction to the associated homogeneous system via a particular solution

2 Definition of a determinant Permutation The number of inversion Properties of determinants Cofactor Expansion A adj(a) = det A I Cramer s rule 5. Linear (Affine) Geometry of R n Vectors in R n Operations among vectors Addition Scalar multiplication Dot Product Orthogonality in terms of dot product Lines and planes in R and R Parametric and symmetric equations of a line Equation for a plane with a given normal vector and a point on it. Vector spaces Definition of an abstract vector space Subspaces Linear Independence and Dependence Basis and Dimension Column and row space of a matrix Rank of a matrix Inner Products Orthonormal basis Gram-Schmidt process Orthogonal complements Applications to the method of least squares. Linear Transformations Definition of a linear transformation Kernel and range of a linear transformation Matrix representing a linear transformation Coordinates and change of basis 8. Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors Definition of eigenvalues and eigenvectors Characteristic polynomial Diagonalization Diagonalization of a matrix (similar to a diagonal matrix)

3 Diagonalization of a symmetric matrix 9. Linear Differential Equations Solutions to linear differential equations (with diagonalizable matrices) real eigenvalues real solutions with complex eigenvalues Complex numbers and Euler s formula Solution of the form X = e ta for dx dt = AX exponential of a matrix. Matlab (computer) Understanding of basic commands Matrix operations in Matlab Elementary Row Operations in Matlab Vectors in Matlab Note: The use of Matlab is an essential and active part of MA 5, though the real use of computers in the exams is not required or practiced under the current curriculum. One should know the basic commands, such as rref and inv, and be able to interpret the output depending on the situation. The skills to read the necessary information off the output of Matlab will be tested.

4 Math 5 Linear Algebra Student Name (print): Credit Exam Practice Student ID: Do not write below this line. Please be neat and show all work. Write each answer in the provided box. Use the back of the sheets and the last pages for extra scratch space. Return this entire booklet to your instructor. No books. No notes. No calculators. Problem # Max pts. Earned points Section II Section III TOTAL Section I

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19 MA 5 FINAL EXAM Spring ANSWERS. (a). (b). a =... 5, 5 5. (c) A, A, A. (d) A, A, A... a = x = y + = z p p, 5 p p, (a) True. (b) False. (c) False. (d) True. (e) True.. (a) Yes. (b) No. (c) No. (d) Yes. (e) Yes.. (a) Independent. (b) Dependent. (c) Dependent. (d) not span. (e) span. 5. (a) =, P =. y =.. (a) =+5i, P =. =,P = i sin 5t (b) x(t) =c e t cos 5t 8. (a) (a) =, P = (b) x(t) =c e t (c) x(t) = e t. = 5i, P = + c e t cos 5t sin 5t. (b) P = 5. =,P = 5 + c e t 5 + e t c e 5t e 5t 5 i., = 5 5. =5,P =

### Columbus State Community College Mathematics Department Public Syllabus

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### Math 265 Linear Algebra Sample Spring 2002., rref (A) =

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### homogeneous 71 hyperplane 10 hyperplane 34 hyperplane 69 identity map 171 identity map 186 identity map 206 identity matrix 110 identity matrix 45

address 12 adjoint matrix 118 alternating 112 alternating 203 angle 159 angle 33 angle 60 area 120 associative 180 augmented matrix 11 axes 5 Axiom of Choice 153 basis 178 basis 210 basis 74 basis test

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