# Convective Mass Transfer

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1 Convective Mass Transfer Definition of convective mass transfer: The transport of material between a boundary surface and a moving fluid or between two immiscible moving fluids separated by a mobile interface Convection is divided into two types: 1. Forced convection 2. Natural convection Compare between forced and natural convection mass transfer? Forced convection: In this type the fluid moves under the influence of an external force (pressure difference) as in the case of transfer of liquids by pumps and gases by compressors. Natural convection: Natural convection currents develop if there is any variation in density within the fluid phase. The density variation may be due to temperature differences or to relatively large concentration differences. The rate equation: The rate equation for convective mass transfer (either forced or natural) is: N A = k c c A N A k c c A is the molar-mass flux of species A, measured relative to fixed spatial coordinates is the convective mass-transfer coefficient is the concentration difference between the boundary surface concentration and the average concentration of the diffusing species in the moving fluid stream What is the mass transfer coefficient k c? From the rate equation (N A = k c c A ) the mass transfer coefficient is the rate of mass transfer per unit area per unit driving force. It gives an indication to how fast is the mass transfer by convection. 1

2 What are the factors affecting k c? The mass-transfer coefficient is related to: (1). The properties of the fluid, (2). The dynamic characteristics of the flowing fluid, and (3). The geometry of the specific system of interest Evaluation of the mass transfer coefficient There are four methods of evaluating convective mass-transfer coefficients. They are: (1). dimensional analysis coupled with experiment (2). analogy between momentum, energy, and mass transfer (3). exact laminar boundary-layer analysis (4). approximate boundary-layer analysis (1). Dimensional analysis Dimensionless analysis predicts the various dimensionless parameters that are helpful in correlating experimental data. Significant parameters in convective mass transfer A. Forced convection Dimensionless parameters are often used to correlate convective transfer data. In momentum transfer Reynolds number and friction factor play a major role. In the correlation of convective heat transfer data, Prandtl (Pr) and Nusselt (Nu) numbers are important. Some of the same parameters, along with some newly defined dimensionless numbers, will be useful in the correlation of convective mass-transfer data. The molecular diffusivities of the three transport process (momentum, heat and mass) have been defined as: Momentum diffusivity Thermal diffusivity Mass diffusivity ν = μ ρ α = k ρc p 2

3 It can be shown that each of the diffusivities has the dimensions of ( 2 ) hence; a ratio of any of the two of these must be dimensionless. T The ratio of the momentum diffusivity to the thermal diffusivity is designated as the Prandtl Number Pr = Momentum diffusivity Thermal diffusivity = ν α = μc p k The analogous number in mass transfer is Schmidt number given as which represents the ratio of the momentum diffusivity to mass diffusivity Sc = Momentum diffusivity Mass diffusivity = ν = μ ρ The ratio of the diffusivity of heat to the diffusivity of mass is designated the ewis number, and is given by e = Thermal diffusivity Mass diffusivity = α = k ρc p Note: ewis number is encountered in processes involving simultaneous convective transfer of mass and energy. The ratio of molecular mass transport resistance to the convective mass transport resistance of the fluid. This ratio is generally known as the Sherwood number, Sh and analogous to the Nusselt number Nu, in heat transfer. Sh = molecular mass transport resistance convective mass transport resistance = k c Note: is the characteristic length (it depends on the geometry) 3

4 Application of dimensionless analysis to mass transfer Consider the transfer of mass from the walls of a circular conduit to a fluid flowing through the conduit. To get the dimensionless groups that will be used to predict the mass transfer coefficient, we will follow the steps of dimensional analysis: 1. Identify the important variables in the system The important variables are:d, V, μ, ρ,, k c 2. ist all the problem variables and parameters, along with their dimensions Quantity Dimensional expression d V /t μ M/t ρ M/ 3 2 /t k c The number of dimensionless groups = number of variables number of fundamental dimensions The number of dimensionless groups = 6 3 = 3 3. Choose a set of reference variables Choose a set of reference variables. The choice of variables is arbitrary, except that the following criteria must be satisfied: The number of reference variables must be equal to the minimum number of fundamental dimensions in the problem (in this case, three). No two reference variables should have exactly the same dimensions. All the dimensions that appear in the problem variables must also appear somewhere in the dimensions of the reference variables. Note: In selection of the reference variable, try to select the variable of the simplest dimensions. In this case the reference variables will be: d, V and ρ d = /t 4

5 V = /t ρ = M/ 3 4. Solve the dimensional equations for the dimensions (, m and t) in terms of the reference variables = d t = d/v M = ρd 3 5. Write the dimensional equations for each of the remaining variables in terms of the reference variables μ = M t = ρd3 d(d/v) = ρvd (1) = 2 t = d2 d/v = Vd (2) k c = t = d d/v = V (3) Divide equation (1) by equation (2) and equation (3) by equation (2) μ = ρ k c = 1 d (4) (5) 6. The resulting equations are each a dimensional identity, so dividing one side by the other results in one dimensionless group from each equation From equations (1), (4) and (5) N 1 = ρvd μ = Re N 2 = μ = Sc ρ N 3 = k cd = Sh 5

6 These three dimensionless groups can now be used as the primary variables to define the system behavior in place of the original six variables (i.e. number of variables is reduced). The above groups can be written in the form of dimensionless equation represent the system: Sh = f(re, Sc) Sh = a Re α Sc β The above equation is a mass transfer correlation and the constants in the correlation are determined experimentally. There are different forms of correlations depending on the hydrodynamic conditions (laminar or turbulent flow) and the geometry of the solid surface. Convective mass transfer correlations Extensive data have been obtained for the transfer of mass between a moving fluid and certain shapes, such as flat plates, spheres and cylinders. The techniques employed include sublimation of a solid, vaporization of a liquid into a moving stream of air and the dissolution of a solid into water. By correlating the data in terms of dimensionless parameters, these empirical equations can be extended to other moving fluids and geometrically similar surfaces. Table (1) shows the dimensionless numbers used in correlating mass-transfer data ( = characteristic length) Mass transfer to plates, spheres, and cylinders Mass transfer correlations for flat plate: Correlation Conditions 0.5 Sh = Re Sc 0.33 (laminar) Re < Sh = Re Sc 0.33 (turbulent) Re > ocal and average mass transfer coefficient For a fluid flowing over a flat plate of total length and width W the average mass transfer coefficient is denoted by k c and at a distance x from the leading edge the local mass transfer efficient is denoted by k c. 6

7 Table (1) dimensionless numbers used in correlating mass-transfer data ( = characteristic length) Derive the relation between k c and k c? Assume a fluid passing over a flat surface of length and width W rate of mass transfer = k c W (c As c A ) = k c (c As c A )da A = Wx da = Wdx k c W (c As c A ) = k c W(c As c A )dx o k c = 1 k cdx o 7

8 The local mass transfer coefficient can be evaluated from the flowing correlations: Correlation Example (1): Conditions Sh x = Re x 0.5 Sc 0.33 (laminar) Re x < Sh x = Re x 0.8 Sc 0.33 (turbulent) Re x > If the local mass transfer coefficient is evaluated from the following correlation for laminar flow: Sh x = Re x 0.5 Sc Derive the corresponding equation (correlation) to calculate the average mass transfer coefficient. Repeat it for turbulent flow if Sh x = Re x 0.8 Sc Example (2): If the local Sherwood number for the laminar layer that is formed over a flat plate is and for the turbulent layer is evaluate Sh x = Re x 0.5 Sc 0.33 Sh x = Re x 0.8 Sc 0.33 a) The value of the mass-transfer coefficient at a point where the Reynolds number is 70,000 b) The average film-transfer coefficient, k c, for the flat plate from the leading edge to the point where the Reynolds number is 70,000. c) The value of the mass-transfer coefficient at a point where the Reynolds number is Given: 700,000 5 m2 = s Mass transfer correlations for single sphere: Sh = 2 + C Re m Sc m2 ν = s C and m are constants and their values depend on the type of fluid, the range of Re and the range of Sc. The characteristic length in Sh and Re is the sphere diameter. Ex: For mass transfer from a single sphere into gas streams: Sh = Re 0.5 Sc 0.33 The above equation is used for 2 < Re < 800 and 0.6 < Sc < 2.7 8

9 For mass transfer into liquid streams: for (Pe < 10000) for (Pe > 10000) Sh = ( Pe 2/3 ) 1/2 Sh = 1.01Pe 1/3 The above three equations are used to describe forced convection mass-transfer coefficients only when the effects of free or natural convection are negligible Example (3): The mass flux from a 5 cm diameter naphthalene ball placed in stagnant air at 40 C and atmospheric pressure, is mol m 2 s. Assume the vapor pressure of naphthalene to be 0.15 atm at 40 C and negligible bulk concentration of naphthalene in air. If air starts blowing across the surface of naphthalene ball at 3 m/s by what factor will the mass transfer rate increase, all other conditions remaining the same? For mass transfer from a single sphere into gas streams: Sh = Re 0.5 Sc kg The viscosity and density of air are m s constant is cm3 atm mol K. Solution: The factor of increase in mass transfer = For k c2 : For k c1 : kg and m3, respectively and the gas Mass flux in moving air = k c1 c = k c1 Mass flux in stagnant air k c 2 c k c = k c2 ( p v RT 0.0) = k c k c2 = m/s?? Sh = Re 0.5 Sc 0.33 k c = ( ) 0.5 ( ) 0.33 For stagnant air (Re = 0.0) 9

10 The factor of increase = k c1 k c 2 Sh = 2 k c = = 2 = m 2 /s k c1 = m/s = = 40.5 Mass transfer correlations for single cylinder Several investigators have studied the sublimation from a solid cylinder into air flowing normal to its axis. Additional results on the dissolution of solid cylinders into a turbulent water stream have been reported. k c Sc 0.56 V = Re D 0.4 For the conditions: 400 < Re D < and 0.6 < Sc < 2.6 Flow through pipes: For mass transfer from the inner wall of a tube to a moving fluid: Sh = Re 0.8 Sc 0.33 For the conditions: 2000 < Re D < and 1000 < Sc < 2260 Example (4): A solid disc of benzoic acid 3 cm in diameter is spin at 20 rpm and 25 C. Calculate the rate of dissolution in a large volume of water. Diffusivity of benzoic acid in water is cm2 s, and solubility is g/cm3. The following mass transfer correlation is applicable: Sh = 0.62 Re 0.5 Sc 0.33 Where Re = d2 ωρ μ and ω is the angular speed in radians/time. 10

11 (2) Mass, heat and momentum transfer analogy Analogies among mass, heat and momentum transfer have their origin either in the mathematical description of the effects or in the physical parameters used for quantitative description. To explore those analogies, it could be understood that the diffusion of mass and conduction of heat obey very similar equations. In particular, diffusion in one dimension is described by the Fick s aw as J A = dc A dz Similarly, heat conduction is described by Fourier s law as where k is the thermal conductivity. q = k dt dz The similar equation describing momentum transfer as given by Newton s law is τ = μ du dz where is the momentum flux (or shear stress) and is the viscosity of fluid. At this point it has become conventional to draw an analogy among mass, heat and momentum transfer. Each process uses a simple law combined with a mass or energy or momentum balance. In this section, we shall consider several analogies among transfer phenomenon which has been proposed because of the similarity in their mechanisms. The analogies are useful in understanding the transfer phenomena and as a satisfactory means for predicting behavior of systems for which limited quantitative data are available. The similarity among the transfer phenomena and accordingly the existence of the analogies require that the following five conditions exist within the system 11

12 1. The physical properties are constant 2. There is no mass or energy produced within the system. This implies that there is no chemical reaction within the system 3. There is no emission or absorption of radiant energy. 4. There is no viscous dissipation of energy. 5. The velocity profile is not affected by the mass transfer. This implies there should be a low rate of mass transfer Reynolds Analogy The first recognition of the analogous behavior of mass, heat and momentum transfer was reported by Osborne Reynolds in Although his analogy is limited in application, it served as the base for seeking better analogies. Reynolds postulated that the mechanisms for transfer of momentum, energy and mass are identical. Accordingly, k c = h = f V ρv c p 2 Where: h is heat transfer coefficient, f is friction factor, V is velocity of free stream The Reynolds analogy is interesting because it suggests a very simple relation between different transport phenomena. This relation is found to be accurate when Prandtl and Schmidt numbers are equal to one. This is applicable for mass transfer by means of turbulent eddies in gases. In this situation, we can estimate mass transfer coefficients from heat transfer coefficients or from friction factors Chilton Colburn Analogy Because the Reynolds analogy was practically useful, many authors tried to extend it to liquids. Chilton and Colburn, using experimental data, sought modifications to the Reynolds analogy that would not have the restrictions that Prandtl and Schmidt numbers must be equal to one. They defined for the j factor for mass transfer as j D = k c V Sc 2/3 12

13 and the analogous j factor for heat transfer as j H = St Pr 2/3 St is the Stanton number St = Nu Re Pr = h ρv c p Based on data collected in both laminar and turbulent flow regimes, they found j D = j H = f 2 This analogy is valid for gases and liquids within the range of 0.6 < Sc < 2500 and 0.6 < Pr < 100. The Chilton-Colburn analogy has been observed to hold for much different geometry for example, flow over flat plates, flow in pipes, and flow around cylinders. Example (5): A stream of air at 100 kpa pressure and 300 K is flowing on the top surface of a thin flat sheet of solid naphthalene of length 0.2 m with a velocity of 20 m/sec. The other data are: Mass diffusivity of naphthalene vapor in air = m 2 /s Kinematic viscosity of air = m 2 /s Concentration of naphthalene at the air-solid naphthalene interface = kmol/m 3 For heat transfer over a flat plate, convective heat transfer coefficient for laminar flow can be calculated by the equation: Nu = Re 0.5 Pr 0.33 Required: (a) Develop an equation for Sh for laminar flow over a flat plate by using Chilton Colburn analogy (b) the average mass transfer coefficient over the flat plate 13

14 (c) the rate of loss of naphthalene from the surface per unit width Solution: a. The analogous relation for mass transfer From Chilton Colburn analogy: k c Sc 2/3 = h Pr 2/3 V ρv c p Sc k c ρ c 2/3 p Pr k h = k c ρ c p Sc 2/3 2/3 Pr 2/3 = Re 0.5 Pr 0.33 ( k c ) ( μ c p k ) (ρ μ ) Sc2/3 = Re 0.5 Pr Sh = Re 0.5 Sc 0.33 b. k c is calculated from the mass transfer correlation k c = ( ) ( ) k c = m/s c. Rate of loss of naphthalene = k c A(c A,s c A, ) = k c W(c A,s c A, ) W = 1(unit width) Rate of loss of naphthalene per unit width = kmol m 2 s 14

15 Solved problems: Problem 1: In applying dimensional analysis to explain mass-transfer coefficient, one must consider the geometry involved, a variable to explain the flow characteristics of the moving stream, and the properties of the moving stream. Predict the variables that are necessary to explain the mass-transfer coefficient for a gas stream flowing over a flat plate and arrange these variables into dimensionless groups. Solution: To get the dimensionless groups that will be used to predict the mass transfer coefficient, we will follow the steps of dimensional analysis: 1. Identify the important variables in the system The important variables are:, V, μ, ρ,, k c 2. ist all the problem variables and parameters, along with their dimensions Quantity Dimensional expression V /t μ M/t ρ M/ 3 2 /t k c The number of dimensionless groups = number of variables number of fundamental dimensions The number of dimensionless groups = 6 3 = 3 3. Choose a set of reference variables Choose a set of reference variables. The choice of variables is arbitrary, except that the following criteria must be satisfied: The number of reference variables must be equal to the minimum number of fundamental dimensions in the problem (in this case, three). 15 /t

16 No two reference variables should have exactly the same dimensions. All the dimensions that appear in the problem variables must also appear somewhere in the dimensions of the reference variables. Note: In selection of the reference variable, try to select the variable of the simplest dimensions. In this case the reference variables will be:, V and ρ = V = /t ρ = M/ 3 4. Solve the dimensional equations for the dimensions (, m and t) in terms of the reference variables = t = d/v M = ρd 3 6. Write the dimensional equations for each of the remaining variables in terms of the reference variables μ = M t = ρd3 (/V) = ρv (1) = 2 t = 2 /V = V (2) k c = t = /V = V (3) Divide equation (1) by equation (2) and equation (3) by equation (2) μ = ρ k c = 1 (4) (5) 7. The resulting equations are each a dimensional identity, so dividing one side by the other results in one dimensionless group from each equation 16

17 From equations (1), (4) and (5) Problem 2: N 1 = ρvd μ = Re N 2 = μ = Sc ρ N 3 = k cd = Sh In a mass transfer spray column, a liquid is sprayed into a gas stream, and mass is transferred between the liquid and gas phases. The mass of the drops that are formed from a spray nozzle is considered a function of the nozzle diameter, acceleration of gravity, and surface tension of the liquid against the gas, fluid density, fluid viscosity, fluid velocity, and the viscosity and density of the gas medium. Arrange these variables in dimensionless groups. Should any other variables have been included? Note: surface tension has a unit of force per unit length or Solution: 1. Identify the important variables in the system The important variables are:m, d, g, σ, ρ, μ, V, ρ g, μ g 2. ist all the problem variables and parameters, along with their dimensions Quantity Dimensional expression m d M g /t 2 σ M/t 2 ρ M/ 3 μ V M/t /t ρ g M/ 3 μ g M/t 17

18 The number of dimensionless groups = number of variables number of fundamental dimensions The number of dimensionless groups = 9 3 = 6 3. Choose a set of reference variables In this case the reference variables will be: d, V and ρ d = V = /t ρ = M/ 3 4. Solve the dimensional equations for the dimensions (, m and t) in terms of the reference variables = d t = d/v M = ρd 3 5. Write the dimensional equations for each of the remaining variables in terms of the reference variables Quantity Dimensional expression In terms of the reference variables m M ρ d 3 g /t 2 σ M/t 2 ρ dv 2 μ M/t ρ dv ρ g M/ 3 ρ μ g M/t ρ dv 6. The resulting equations are each a dimensional identity, so dividing one side by the other results in one dimensionless group from each equation V 2 d N 1 N 2 ( ρ d 3 m ) ( V2 gd ) 18

19 N 3 N 4 N 5 N 6 ( ρ dv 2 σ ) ( ρ dv μ ) ( ρ ρ g ) ( ρ dv μ g ) Problem 3: Dry air, flowing at a velocity of 1.5 m/s, enters a 6-m- long, 0.15-m-diameter tube at 310 K and Pa. The inner surface of the tube is lined with a felt material (diameter-to- roughness ratio, D, of 10,000) that is continuously saturated with water at ε 290 K. Assuming constant temperature of the air and the pipe wall, determine the exit concentration of water in the exit gas stream. Given that: 5 m2 Diffusivity of water in air at 300 K = s 5 m2 Kinematic viscosity of air at 300 K = s The vapor pressure of water at 290 K = 17.5 mm Hg The gas constant = atm mol K The Fanning friction factor is given by: f = Re 0.12 Solution: By making material balance on water over a control volume of air of a thickness Δx Water input with air + water transferred to air from the wall by convection = water out with air 19

20 c A V πd2 4 x + k c (c As c A )πd x = c A V πd2 4 x+ x c A x+ x c A x x Take the limits as Δx approaches zero πd2 4 x = 4 k c d V (c A s c A ) dc A dx = 4 k c d V (c A s c A ) c A dc A (c As c A ) c A o = 4 k c d V dx ln ( c A s c Ao ) = 4 k c (1) c As c A d V 0 ln ( c A s c Ao ) = 4 k c c As c A d V d = 0.15 m V = 1.5 m s = 6 m c Ao = 0(dry air) c As = p v RT = = mol/ k c =??? (from anlogy) From Chilton Colburn analogy: Re = Vd ν k c V Sc 2/3 = f 2 f = Re = = f = ( ) 0.12 = Sc = μ = ν = ρ = k c (0.603) 2/3 = V 2 20

21 k c V = Substitute in equation (1) we can get c A = mol/ Notes about this problem: a) If the equation f = Re 0.12 is not given, the friction factor can be obtained from Moody chart by using the value of the given surface roughness. b) The diffusion coefficient may be not given. In this case you have to use the Hirschfelder equation to calculate it. Problem 4: Air passes through a naphthalene tube, that has an inside diameter of 2.5 cm, flowing at a bulk velocity of 15 m/s. The air is at 283 K and an average pressure of Pa. Assuming that the change in pressure along the tube is negligible and that the naphthalene surface is at 283 K, determine the length of tube that is necessary to produce a naphthalene concentration in the exiting gas stream of mol/m 3. At 283 K, naphthalene has a vapor pressure of 3 Pa and a diffusivity in air of m 2 /s. Given that: 6 m2 Diffusivity of naphthalene in air at 283 K = s 5 m2 Kinematic viscosity of air at 283 K = s The vapor pressure of water at 283 K = 3 Pa The gas constant = m3 Pa mol K The Fanning friction factor is given by: f = Re 0.11 Solution: By the same procedure as in the above problem get the equation: ln ( c A s c Ao ) = 4 k c c As c A d V d = 2.5 cm V = 15 m s =?? 21 c Ao = 0(pure air) c As = p v RT = = mol/m 3 c A = mol/m 3

22 From Chilton Colburn analogy: Re = Vd ν k c V Sc 2/3 = f 2 f = Re = = Problem 5: f = ( ) 0.12 = Sc = μ = ν = ρ = 2.62 k c (2.62) 2/3 = V 2 k c V = ln ( c A s c Ao ) = 4 k c c As c A d V ln ( ) = = 1.9 m Davis investigated heat transfer to fluids flowing in the annular section between concentric tubes. He proposed the following correlation for the heat-transfer coefficient when considering the film on the inner tube: hd 1 k = 0.031(Re d 1 ) 0.8 (Pr) 0.31 ( μ 0.14 ) ( d ) μ s d 1 where d 1 and d 2 are the outer diameter of the inner tube and the inner diameter of the outer tube, respectively, μ is the viscosity of the fluid at the bulk temperature of the fluid, and μ s is the viscosity of the fluid at the heating surface temperature. Use this equation and the analogy between heat and mass transfer to get the corresponding mass transfer correlation that can be used to predict the mass-transfer coefficient from a naphthalene rod used to form the inner tube of an annular duct. 22

23 Solution: From Chilton Colburn analogy: Problem 6: k c Sc 2/3 = h Pr 2/3 V ρv c p h = k c ρ c p Sc 2/3 Pr 2/3 Sc k c ρ c 2/3 p Pr 2/3 d 1 = 0.031(Re k d1 ) 0.8 (Pr) 0.31 ( μ 0.14 ) ( d ) μ s d 1 ( k c d 1 ) ( μ c p k ) (ρ μ ) Sc2/3 = 0.031(Re d1 ) 0.8 Pr ( μ 0.14 ) ( d ) μ s d 1 ( k c d 1 ) = 0.031(Re D d1 ) 0.8 Sc 0.31 ( μ 0.14 ) ( d ) AB μ s d 1 McAdams presented the heat-transfer equation for the turbulent flow of gases past a single sphere: Nu = 0.37(Re d ) 0.6 Pr 0.33 where d p is the diameter of the sphere. Predict the equation you might use to correlate the mass-transfer coefficient from a single sphere into a turbulent gas stream. Solution: The same procedure as the above problem and we will get the equation: Sh = 0.37(Re d ) 0.6 Sc 0.33 Problem 7: The boundary layer solution for a flat plate predicts the following equations: For laminar flow is: and for the turbulent layer is k c x = Re x 0.5 Sc 0.33 k c x = Re x 0.8 Sc 0.33 with the transition occurring at Re x =

24 Determine what percentage of the mass transfer occurs in the laminar zone of the flow over the flat plate if the Reynolds number at the end of the plate is Re = Solution: % mass transfer occurs in the laminar zone = = k claminar k c k claminar = 1 tr k c dx t = 1 (0.332)Sc 0.33 ( V 0.5 tr t ν ) x 0.5 dx 0 0 N A N A + N At = N A N A k claminar = t Sc 0.33 Re tr 0.5 k c = tr k 0 c laminar + k claminar tr k cturbulent = Sc 0.33 ( V 0.8 t ν ) x 0.8 dx tr = Sc 0.33 ( Re 0.8 Re tr 0.8 ) k c = Sc0.33 Re tr Sc 0.33 ( Re 0.8 Re tr 0.8 ) laminar fraction = t Sc 0.33 Re tr Sc 0.33 Re tr Sc 0.33 ( Re 0.8 Re tr 0.8 ) Re tr laminar fraction = Re 0.5 tr ( Re 0.8 Re 0.8 tr ) t 24

25 Re tr laminar fraction = Re 0.5 tr ( Re 0.8 Re 0.8 tr ) Re Re tr = Problem 8: ( ) ( ) (( ) 0.8 ( ) 0.8 ) ( ) 0.8 ( ) 0.5 A very thin polymeric coating of thickness 0.1 mm uniformly coats a rectangular surface. The rectangular surface has a length of 20 cm and a width of 10 cm. The coating contains a solvent that must be evaporated away from the coating in order to cure the coating. Initially, there is mole of solvent per cm 3 of coating loaded in the coating. A heated plate just beneath the surface maintains the coating at a uniform temperature of 40 C, and the vapor pressure exerted by the solvent is 0.05 atm at 40 C. Air gently flows parallel to the surface at a velocity of 5.0 cm/s. The surrounding air at 1.0 atm total system pressure and 20 C represents an infinite sink for mass transfer. You may neglect any molecular diffusion of the solvent through the very thin polymeric film and focus only on the convection aspects of the problem. a) What is the average mass transfer coefficient, k c? b) How long will it take for the solvent to completely evaporate from the coating? Given: The physical properties at 303 K are: Kinematic viscosity ν = cm 2 /s Density ρ = g/cm 3 The diffusion coefficient of species in air at 30 C, = cm 2 /s Correlation Conditions Sh = Re 0.5 Sc 0.33 (laminar) Re < Sh = Re 0.8 Sc 0.33 (turbulent) Re >

26 Solution: a) The mass transfer coefficient is determined from the correlation and depending on the nature of the flow Re = ρv μ = V ν = 5 20 = 633 ( laminar flow) Sc = ν = = Sh = (633) 0.5 (0.154) 0.33 = 9.16 k c = 9.16 k c = cm/s b) The time required for the solvent to completely evaporate from the coating time (s) = total moles of solvent rate of evaporation ( mol s ) total moles of solvent = = mole rate of evaporation = k c A(c As c A ) c As = p v RT = 0.05 mol = = 1.94 mol 10 6 cm 3 c A = 0.0 (fresh air) mole time = ( mol = sec s ) 26

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