k=0 /D : S + S /D = K 1 2 (3.5) consistently with the relation (1.75) and the RiemannRochHirzebruchAtiyahSinger index formula


 Berenice Mills
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1 20 VASILY PESTUN 3. Lecture: GrothendieckRiemannRochHirzebruchAtiyahSinger Index theorems 3.. Index for a holomorphic vector bundle. For a holomorphic vector bundle E over a complex variety of dim C = n the index ind(, E) is defined as n ind(, E) = ( ) k dim H k (, E) (3.) The localization theorem in Ktheory gives the index formula of GrothendieckRiemann RochHirzebruchAtiyahSinger relating the index to the Todd class ind(, E) = ( 2π td(t,0 ) n ) ch(e) (3.2) Similarly, the index of Dirac operator /D : S E S E from the positive chiral spinors S to the negative chiral spinors S, twisted by a vector bundle E, is defined as and is given by the AtiyahSinger index formula ind( /D, E) = dim ker /D dim coker /D (3.3) ind( /D, E) = ( 2π ) n Notice that on a Kahler manifold the Dirac complex is isomorphic to the Dolbeault complex /D : S S Ω 0,p () Ω 0,p ()... twisted by the square root of the canonical bundle K = Λ n (T,0 ) Â(T,0 ) ch(e) (3.4) /D = K 2 (3.5) consistently with the relation (.75) and the RiemannRochHirzebruchAtiyahSinger index formula 3.2. Euler characteristic from an index formula. The vector bundle E in the index formula (3.2) can be promoted to a complex E E (3.6) In particular, the index of the complex E = Λ (T,0 ) of (, 0)forms on a Kahler variety equals the Euler characteristic of n n e() = ind(, Λ (T,0 ) ) = ( ) pq dim H p,q () (3.7) We find ch Λ (T,0 ) = q=0 p=0 n ( e x i ) (3.8) i=
2 EQUIVARIANT COHOMOLOGY AND LOCALIZATIONWINTER SCHOOL IN LES DIABLERETSJANUARY where x i are Chern roots of the curvature of the ndimensional complex bundle T,0. Hence, the Todd index formula (3.2) gives e() = ( 2πı) n The above agrees with the Euler characteristic (.82) c n (T,0 ) (3.9) 3.3. Equivariant index formula (Dolbeault and Dirac). Let G be a compact connected Lie group. Suppose that is a complex variety and E is a holomorphic Gequivariant vector bundle over. Then the cohomology groups H (, E) form representation of G. In this case the index of E (3.) can be refined to an equivariant index or character n ind G (, E) = ( ) k ch G H k (, E) (3.0) where ch G H i (, E) is the character of a representation of G in the vector space H i (, E). More concretely, the equivariant index can be thought of as a gadget that attaches to G equivariant holomorphic bundle E a complex valued adjoint invariant function on the group G n ind G (, E)(g) = ( ) k tr H k (,E) g (3.) on elements g G. The sign alternating sum (3.) is also known as the supertrace ind G (, E)(g) = str H (,E) g (3.2) The index formula (3.2) is replaced by the equivariant index formula in which characteristic classes are promoted to Gequivariant characteristic classes in the Cartan model of Gequivariant cohomology with differential d G = d φ a i a as in (.42) ind(, E)(e φa T a ) = ( 2πı) n td G (T ) ch G (E) = ch G E e G (T ) ch G Λ T (3.3) Here φ a T a is an element of Lie algebra of G and e φa T a is an element of G, and T denotes the holomorphic tangent bundle of the complex manifold. If the set G of Gfixed points is discrete, then applying the localization formula (2.9) to the equivariant index (3.3) we find the equivariant Lefshetz formula ind(, E)(g) = x G tr Ex(g) det T,0 x ( g ) The Euler character is cancelled against the numerator of the Todd character. (3.4) 3.4. Example of equivariant index on CP. Let be CP and let E = O(n) be a complex line bundle of degree n over CP, and let G = U() equivariantly act on E as follows. Let z be a local coordinate on CP, and let an element t U() C send the point with coordinate z to the point with coordinate tz so that ch T,0 0 = t ch T,0 = t (3.5)
3 22 VASILY PESTUN where T,0 0 denotes the fiber of the holomorphic tangent bundle at z = 0 and similarly T,0 the fiber at z =. Let the action of U() on the fiber of E at z = 0 be trivial. Then the action of U() on the fiber of E at z = is found from the gluing relation to be of weight n, so that Then ind(, O(n), CP )(t) = s = z n s 0 (3.6) ch E z=0 =, ch E z= = t n (3.7) t n t t = t n = t n t k, n 0 0, n =, t n 2 t k, n < (3.8) We can check against the direct computation. Assume n 0. The kernel of is spanned by n holomorphic sections of O(n) of the form z k for k = 0,..., n, the cokernel is empty by RiemannRoch. The section z k is acted upon by t T with weight t k. Therefore n ind T (, O(n), CP ) = t k (3.9) Even more explicitly, for illustration, choose a connection form A with constant curvature F A = 2 inω, denoted in the patch around θ = 0 (or z = 0) by A(0) and in the patch around θ = π (or z = ) by A (π) A (0) = 2 in( cos θ)dα A(π) = in( cos θ)dα (3.20) 2 The gauge transformation between the two patches A (0) = A (π) in dα (3.2) is consistent with the defining E bundle transformation rule for the sections s (0), s (π) in the patches around θ = 0 and θ = π s (0) = z n s (π) A (0) = A (π) z n dz n. (3.22) The equivariant curvature F T of the connection A in the bundle E is given by F T = in(ω ɛ( cos θ)) (3.23) 2 as can be verified against the definition (.60) F T = F ɛi v A. Notice that to verify the expression for the equivariant curvature (3.23) in the patch near θ = π one needs to take into account contributions from the vertical component g dg of the connection A on the total space of the principal U() bundle and from the T action on the fiber at θ = π with weight n. Then ch(e) θ=0 = exp(f T ) θ=0 = ch(e) θ=π = exp(f T ) θ=π = exp( inɛ) = t n (3.24) for t = exp(iɛ) in agreement with (3.8).
4 EQUIVARIANT COHOMOLOGY AND LOCALIZATIONWINTER SCHOOL IN LES DIABLERETSJANUARY A similar exercise gives the index for the Dirac operator on S 2 twisted by a magnetic field of flux n ind( /D, O(n), S 2 ) = tn/2 t n/2 (3.25) t 2 t 2 where now we have chosen the lift of the T action symmetrically to be of weight n/2 at θ = 0 and of weight n/2 at θ = π. Also notice that up to overall multiplication by a power of t related to the choice of lift of the T action to the fibers of the bundle E, the relation (3.5) holds ind( /D, O(n), S 2 ) = ind(, O(n ), CP ) (3.26) because on CP the canonical bundle is K = O( 2) Example of equivariant index on CP m.. Let = CP m be defined by the projective coordinates (x 0 : x : : x m ) and L n be the line bundle L n = O(n). Let T = U() (m) act on by (x 0 : x :... x m ) (t 0 x 0 : t x : : t m x m ) (3.27) and by t n k on the fiber of the bundle L n in the patch around the kth fixed point x k =, x i k = 0. We find the index as a sum of contributions from m fixed points ind T (D) = m t n k j k ( (t j/t k )) (3.28) For n 0 the index is a homogeneous polynomial in C[t 0,..., t m ] of degree n representing the character on the space of holomorphic sections of the O(n) bundle over CP m. s n (t 0,..., t m ), n 0 ind T (D) = 0, m n < 0 (3.29) ( ) m t 0 t... t m s n m (t 0,..., t m ), n m where s n (t 0,..., t m ) are complete homogeneous symmetric polynomials. This result can be quickly obtained from the contour integral representation of the sum (3.28) dz z n m 2πi z m j=0 ( t j/z) = t n k j k ( (t j/t k )), (3.30) C If n m we pick the contour of integration C to enclose all residues z = t j. The residue at z = 0 is zero and the sum of residues is (3.28). On the other hand, the same contour integral is evaluated by the residue at z = which is computed by expanding all fractions in inverse powers of z, and is given by the complete homogeneous polynomial in t i of degree n. If n < m we assume that the contour of integration is a small circle around the z = 0 and does not include any of the residues z = t j. Summing the residues outside of the contour, and taking that z = does not contribute, we get (3.28) with the ( ) sign. The residue at z = 0 contributes by (3.29). Also notice that the last line of (3.29) relates to the first line by the reflection t i t i t n k j k ( t j/t k ) = ( )m (t j k Thanks to Bruno Le Floch for the comment k ) n m ( j t j ) ( t j /t k ) (3.3)
5 24 VASILY PESTUN which is the consequence of the Serre duality on CP m Equivariant index on general flag manifold and Weyl formula for the character. The CP in example (3.25) can be thought of as a flag manifold SU(2)/U(), and (3.8) (3.25) as characters of SU(2)modules. For index theory on general flag manifolds G C /B C, that is BorelWeylBott theorem 2, the shift of the form (3.26) is a shift by the Weyl vector ρ = α>0 α where α are positive roots of g. The index formula with localization to the fixed points on a flag manifold is equivalent to the Weyl character formula. The generalization of formula (3.25) for generic flag manifold appearing from a coadjoint orbit in g is called Kirillov character formula [8], [9], [20]. Let G be a compact simple Lie group. The Kirillov character formula equates the T  equivariant index of the Dirac operator ind T (D) on the Gcoadjoint orbit of the element λ ρ g with the character χ λ of the G irreducible representation with highest weight λ. The character χ λ is a function g C determined by the representation of the Lie group G with highest weight λ as χ λ : tr λ e, g (3.32) Let λ be an orbit of the coadjoint action by G on g. Such orbit is specified by an element λ t /W where t is the Lie algebra of the maximal torus T G and W is the Weyl group. The coadjoint orbit λ is a homogeneous symplectic Gmanifold with the canonical symplectic structure ω defined at point x g on tangent vectors in g by the formula ω x (, 2 ) = x, [, 2 ], 2 g (3.33) The converse is also true: any homogeneous symplectic Gmanifold is locally isomorphic to a coadjoint orbit of G or central extension of it. The minimal possible stabilizer of λ is the maximal abelian subgroup T G, and the maximal coadjoint orbit is G/T. Such orbit is called a full flag manifold. The real dimension of the full flag manifold is 2n = dim G rk G, and is equal to the number of roots of g. If the stabilizer of λ is a larger group H, such that T H G, the orbit λ is called a partial flag manifold G/H. A degenerate flag manifold is a projection from the full flag manifold with fibers isomorphic to H/T. Flag manifolds are equipped with natural complex and Kahler structure. There is an explicitly holomorphic realization of the flag manifolds as a complex quotient G C /P C where G C is the complexification of the compact group G and P C G C is a parabolic subgroup. Let g = g h g be the standard decomposition of g into the Cartan h algebra and the upper triangular g and lower triangular g subspaces. The minimal parabolic subgroup is known as Borel subgroup B C, its Lie algebra is conjugate to h g. The Lie algebra of generic parabolic subgroup P C B C is conjugate to the direct sum of h g and a proper subspace of g. Full flag manifolds with integral symplectic structure are in bijection with irreducible Grepresentations π λ of highest weight λ λρ π λ (3.34) This is known as the Kirillov correspondence in geometric representation theory. 2 For a short presentation see exposition by J. Lurie at bwb.pdf
6 EQUIVARIANT COHOMOLOGY AND LOCALIZATIONWINTER SCHOOL IN LES DIABLERETSJANUARY Namely, if λ g is a weight, the symplectic structure ω is integral and there exists a line bundle L λ with a unitary connection of curvature ω. The line bundle L λ is acted upon by the maximal torus T G and we can study the T equivariant geometric objects. The KirillovBerlineGetzlerVergne character formula equates the equivariant index of the Dirac operator /D twisted by the line bundle L λρ on the coadjoint orbit λρ with the character χ λ of the irreducible representation of G with highest weight λ ind T ( /D)( λρ ) = χ λ (3.35) This formula can be easily proven using the AtiyahSinger equivariant index formula ind T ( /D)( λρ ) = ch ( 2πı) n T (L)ÂT (T ) (3.36) λρ and the AtiyahBottBerlineVergne formula to localize the integral over λρ to the set of fixed points λρ T. The localization to λρ T yields the Weyl formula for the character. Indeed, the stabilizer of λ ρ, where λ is a dominant weight, is the Cartan torus T G. The coadjoint orbit λρ is the full flag manifold. The T fixed points are in the intersection λρ t, and hence, the set of the T fixed points is the Weyl orbit of λ ρ T λρ = Weyl(λ ρ) (3.37) At each fixed point p λρ T the tangent space T λρ p is generated by the root system of g. The tangent space is a complex T module α>0 C α with weights α given by the positive roots of g. Consequently, the denominator of ÂT gives the Weyl denominator, the numerator of ÂT cancels with the Euler class e T (T ) in the localization formula, and the restriction of ch T (L) = e ω is e w(λρ) ind T ( /D)( λρ ) = ch ( 2πı) n T (L)Â(T ) = λρ w W e iw(λρ)ɛ α>0 (e 2 iαɛ e 2 iαɛ ) (3.38) We conclude that the localization of the equivariant index of the Dirac operator on λρ twisted by the line bundle L to the set of fixed points λρ T is precisely the Weyl formula for the character Equivariant index for differential operators. See the book by Atiyah [2]. Let E k be a family of vector bundles over a manifold indexed by integer k Z. Let G be a compact Lie group acting equivariantly E k. The action of G on a bundle E induces canonically a linear action on the space of sections Γ(E). For g G and a section φ Γ(E) the action is (gφ)(x) = gφ(g x), x (3.39) Let D k : Γ(E k ) Γ(E k ) be linear differential operators compatible with the G action, and let E be the complex (that is D k D k = 0) E : Γ(E 0 ) D 0 Γ(E ) D Γ(E 2 )... (3.40) Since D k are Gequivariant operators, the Gaction on Γ(E k ) induces the Gaction on the cohomology H k (E). The equivariant index of the complex E is the virtual character ind G (D) : g C (3.4)
7 26 VASILY PESTUN defined by ind G (D)(g) = k ( ) k tr H k (E) g (3.42) If the set G of Gfixed points is discrete, the AtiyahSinger equivariant index formula is ind G (D) = k ( )k ch G (E k ) x (3.43) det Tx( g ) x G For the Dolbeault complex E k = Ω 0,k and D k = : Ω 0,k Ω 0,k Ω 0, Ω 0, (3.44) the index (3.43) agrees with (3.4) because the numerator in (3.43) decomposes as ch G E ch G Λ T0, and the denominator as ch G Λ T0, ch G Λ T,0 and the factor ch G Λ T0, cancels out. For example, the equivariant index of : Ω 0,0 () Ω 0, () on = C x under the T = U() action x t x where t T is the fundamental character is contributed by the fixed point x = 0 as ind T (C, ) t = ( t)( t) = t = t k (3.45) where the denominator is the determinant of the operator t over the twodimensional normal bundle to 0 C spanned by the vectors x and x with eigenvalues t and t. In the numerator, comes from the equivariant Chern character on the fiber of the trivial line bundle at x = 0 and t comes from the equivariant Chern character on the fiber of the bundle of (0, ) forms d x. We can compare the expansion in power series in t k of the index with the direct computation. The terms t k for k Z 0 come from the local T equivariant holomorphic functions x k which span the kernel of on C x. The cokernel is empty by the Poincaré lemma. Compare with (3.9). Similarly, for the complex on C r we obtain [ r ] ind T (C r, ) = (3.46) ( t k ) k= where [] means expansion in positive powers of t k. For application to the localization computation on spheres of even dimension S 2r we can compute the index of a certain transversally elliptic operator D which naturally interpolates between the complex in the neighborhood of one fixed point (north pole) of the rtorus T r action on S 2r and the complex in the neighborhood of another fixed point (south pole). The index is a sum of two fixed point contributions [ r ] [ r ] ind T (S 2r, D) = ( t k ) ( t k ) = [ r k= k= ( t k ) ] [ r k= k= ( ) r t... t r ( t k ) where [] and [] denotes the expansions in positive and negative powers of t k. ] (3.47)
8 EQUIVARIANT COHOMOLOGY AND LOCALIZATIONWINTER SCHOOL IN LES DIABLERETSJANUARY AtiyahSinger index formula for a free action Gmanifold. Suppose that a compact Lie group G acts freely on a manifold and let Y = /G be the quotient, and let π : Y (3.48) be the associated Gprincipal bundle. Suppose that D is a G T equivariant operator (differential) for a complex (E, D) of vector bundles E k over as in (3.40). The G T equivariance means that the complex E and the operator D are pullbacks by π of a T equivariant complex Ẽ and operator D on the base Y E = π Ẽ, D = π D (3.49) We want to compute the G T equivariant index ind G T (D; ) for the complex (E, D) on the total space for a G T transversally elliptic operator D using T equivariant index theory on the base Y. We can do that using Fourier theory on G (counting KK modes in Gfibers). Let R G be the set of all irreducible representations of G. For each irreducible representation α R G we denote by χ α the character of this representation, and by W α the vector bundle over Y associated to the principal Gbundle (3.48). Then, for each irrep α R G we consider a complex Ẽ W α on Y obtained by tensoring Ẽ with the vector bundle W α over Y. The AtiyahSinger formula is ind G T (D; ) = α R G ind T ( D W α ; Y )χ α. (3.50) 3.9. Index of Dirac operator on odddimensional sphere S 2r. We consider an example relevant for localization on odddimensional spheres S 2r which are subject to the equivariant action of the maximal torus T r of the isometry group SO(2r). The sphere π : S 2r CP r is the total space of the S Hopf fibration over the complex projective space CP r. We will apply the equation (3.50) for a transversally elliptic operator D induced from the Dolbeault operator D = on CP r by the pullback π. To compute the index of operator D = π on π : S 2r CP r we apply (3.50) and use (3.29) and obtain [ ] [ ind(d, S 2r ) = ind T (, CP r ( ), O(n)) = r t ]... t r r n= k= ( t r k) k= ( t k ) (3.5) where [] and [] denotes the expansion in positive and negative powers of t k. See further review in Contribution [22] General AtiyahSinger index formula. The AtiyahSinger index formula for the Dolbeault and Dirac complexes and the equivariant index formula (3.43) can be generalized to a generic situation of an equivariant index of transversally elliptic complex (3.40). Let be a real manifold. Let π : T be the cotangent bundle. Let {E } be an indexed set of vector bundles on and π E be the vector bundles over T defined by the pullback. The symbol σ(d) of a differential operator D : Γ(E) Γ(F ) (3.40) is a linear operator σ(d) : π E π F which is defined by taking the highest degree part of the differential
9 28 VASILY PESTUN operator and replacing all derivatives by the conjugate coordinates p µ in the fibers of x µ T. For example, for the Laplacian : Ω 0 (, R) Ω 0 (, R) with highest degree part in some coordinate system {x µ } given by = g µν µ ν where g µν is the inverse Riemannian metric, the symbol of is a Hom(R, R)valued (i.e. number valued) function on T given by σ( ) = g µν p µ p ν (3.52) where p µ are conjugate coordinates (momenta) on the fibers of T. A differential operator D : Γ(E) Γ(F ) is elliptic if its symbol σ(d) : π E π F is an isomorphism of vector bundles π E and π F on T outside of the zero section T. The index of a differential operator D depends only on the topological class of its symbol in the topological Ktheory of vector bundles on T. The AtiyahSinger formula for the index of the complex (3.40) is ind G (D, ) = Â (2π) dim R G (π T ) ch G (π E ) (3.53) T Here T denotes the total space of the cotangent bundle of with canonical orientation such that dx dp dx 2 dp 2... is a positive element of Λ top (T ). Let n = dim R. Let π T denote the vector bundle of dimension n over the total T obtained as pullback of T to T. The ÂGcharacter of π T is ( ) Â G (π R G T ) = det π T (3.54) e R G/2 e R G/2 where R G denotes the Gequivariant curvature of the bundle π T. Notice that the argument of Â is n n matrix where n = dim R T (real dimension of ) while if general index formula is specialized to Dirac operator on Kahler manifold as in (3.4) the argument of the Â character is an n n matrix where n = dim C T,0 (complex dimension of ). Even though the integration domain T is noncompact the integral (3.54) is welldefined because of the (Gtransversal) ellipticity of the complex π E. For illustration take the complex to be E D 0 E. Since σ(d) : π E 0 π E is an isomorphism outside of the zero section we can pick a smooth connection on π E 0 and π E such that its curvature on E 0 is equal to the curvature on E away from a compact tubular neighborhood U ɛ of T. Then ch G (π E ) is explicitly vanishing away from U ɛ and the integration over T reduces to integration over the compact domain U ɛ. It is clear that under localization to the fixed points of the Gaction on the general formula (3.54) reduces to the fixed point formula (3.43). This is due to the fact that the numerator in the Âcharacter det π T R G = Pf TT (R G ) is the Euler class of the tangent bundle T T to T which cancels with the denominator in (2.9), while the restriction of the denominator of (3.54) to fixed points is equal to (3.54) or (3.43), because det e R G =, since R G is a curvature of the tangent bundle T with orthogonal structure group.
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