Anti-derivatives/Indefinite Integrals of Basic Functions

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Anti-derivatives/Indefinite Integrals of Basic Functions"

Transcription

1 Anti-derivtives/Indefinite Integrls of Bsic Functions Power Rule: In prticulr, this mens tht x n+ x n n + + C, dx = ln x + C, if n if n = x 0 dx = dx = dx = x + C nd x (lthough you won t use the second formul until clc ). dx = ln x + C Integrl of Constnt: k dx = kx + C Trigonometric Functions: sin(x) dx = cos(x) + C sec (x) dx = tn(x) + C sec(x) tn(x) dx = sec(x) + C cos(x) dx = sin(x) + C csc (x) dx = cot(x) + C csc(x) cot(x) dx = csc(x) + C Constnt Multiple Rule: k f(x) dx = k f(x) dx (This pplies to definite integrls s well.) Sum/Difference Rule: f(x) ± g(x) dx = f(x) dx ± g(x) dx (This pplies to definite integrls s well.) Properties Prticulr to Definite Integrls: b f(x) dx = f(x) dx f(x) dx = 0 b f(x) dx + c b b f(x) dx = c f(x) dx If f is even [i.e., f( x) = f(x)], then If f is odd [i.e., f( x) = f(x)], then f(x) dx = f(x) dx f(x) dx = 0 0

2 Integrtion Theorems nd Techniques Riemnn Sums nd Approximting Definite Integrls Approximte the net re under the grph of f(x) over the intervl [, b] using n rectngles nd the indicted end/mid-point, where x = b n ; x 0 =, x i = + i x, x n = b; x i = x i + x i Left End-point Approximtion: b Right End-point Approximtion: b Mid-point Approximtion: b f(x) dx L n = xf(x 0 ) + xf(x ) xf(x n ) = x [f(x 0 ) + f(x ) f(x n )] n i=0 f(x) dx R n = xf(x ) + xf(x ) xf(x n ) = x [f(x ) + f(x ) f(x n )] i= f(x) dx M n = xf(x ) + xf(x ) xf(x n ) = x [f(x ) + f(x ) f(x n )] i= Forml Definition of Definite Integrl (the midpoint of the intervl [x i, x i ]) Let f be defined on the intervl [, b], nd let [, b] be prtitioned into n subintervls, x i be the length of the i th subintervl nd x i ny point in tht subintervl. If the limit lim n, x 0 f(x i ) x i, exists, then we sy f in integrble on [, b] nd denote tht limit by b i= f(x) dx = lim n, x 0 f(x i ) x i, To mke this definition little esier to work with, we force the size of x to be uniform nd dependent on n, nd then define x i in terms of x nd i: x = b n, x i = + i x nd then the definition becomes b f(x) dx = lim f(x i ) x i= n i=

3 The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus: Suppose f is continuous on the closed intervl [, b]. x. If g(x) = f(t) dt, then g (x) = f(x). [Sometimes clled the Second Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus.]. b f(x) dx = F (b) F (), where F is ny ntiderivtive of f, i.e., F = f. [Sometimes clled the Evlution Theorem.] u-substitution: If u = g(x) is differentible function whose rnge is n intervl I nd f is continuous on I, then f (g(x)) g (x) dx = f(u) du Generl Steps:. Let u = (some function of x). u is function whose derivtive (up to constnt multiple) ppers in the integrnd nd/or usully the inside of composition. It my not lwys be immeditely obvious wht u should be or tht it s derivtive is in the integrnd, but with prctice you ll strt to build librry of common tricks nd it will become esier/fster.. Rewrite the integrl in terms of u (chnging expressions with x s nd dx to expressions with u s nddu). If you hve definite integrl, then you cn convert the limits of integrtion to u s nd evlute everything in terms of u without chnging bck to x s: b f (g(x)) g (x) dx = g(b) g() f(u) du If you choose not to do this, then you should write x = in your limits of integrtion until you chnge bck to x s t the end. Either wy, you should end up with n integrnd in terms of only u, nd this integrl should be esier to evlute thn the one with which you strted. 3. Evlute this simpler u integrl. 4. If you hve n indefinite integrl, reverse the substitution to chnge your finl nswer bck to x s by replcing ll u s with whtever they re in terms of x (bsed on your originl substitution). If you hve definite integrl nd chnged your limits to u s bck in step, then simply use the Fundmentl Theorem s usul (without chnging bck to x s!). If you left your limits s x s in step, then you need to reverse the substitution (get nswer bck to x s) nd then use the Fundmentl Theorem. 3

4 Anti-derivtives/Indefinite Integrls of Bsic Functions, Clc II Exponentil Functions: With bse : With bse e, this becomes: x dx = x ln() + C e x dx = e x + C If we hve bse e nd liner function in the exponent, then e x+b dx = ex+b + C Anti-Derivtives Involving Inverse Trigonometric Functions: More generlly, dx = rctn(x) + C + x dx = rcsin(x) + C x x dx = rcsec(x) + C x + x dx = ( x ) rctn + C Integrtion Theorems nd Techniques, Clc II Integrtion by Prts: u dv = u v v du When choosing u nd dv, we wnt u tht will become simpler (or t lest no more complicted) when we differentite it to find du, nd dv wht will lso become simpler (or t lest no more complicted) when we integrte it to find v. If you re hving trouble deciding wht u nd dv should be to ccomplish this, you cn use LIATE to choose u (choose s high on the list s possible):. Logrithmic. Inverse Trigonometric 3. Algebric (such s polynomils [including powers of x] nd rtionl functions) 4. Trigonometric 5. Exponentil nd then whtever is left is dv. This doesn t lwys work, but it s good plce to strt. Trigonometric Integrls For integrls involving only powers of sine nd cosine (both with the sme rgument): If t lest one of them is rised to n odd power, pull off one to sve for u-sub, use the Pythgoren identities to convert the remining (now even) power to the other trig function, then mke u-sub with u =(whtever trig function you didn t sve), nd then the trig function you set side erlier will be prt of du. If they re both rised to n even power, use the hlf-ngle formuls (cos (x) = ( + cos(x)), sin (x) = ( cos(x))) to convert to cosines, expnd the result nd pply hlf-ngle formul gin if needed (keep doing this until you no longer hve ny powers of cosine), then integrte (my need simple u-sub). 4

5 Trigonometric Substitutions If the integrl contins n...then mke the...nd... expression of the form... substitution... x x = sin θ dx = cos(θ) dθ + x x = tn θ dx = sec (θ) dθ x x = sec θ dx = sec(θ) tn(θ) dθ Prtil Frction Decomposition Given rtionl function to integrte, follow these steps:. If the degree of the numertor is greter thn or equl to tht of the denomintor perform long division.. Fctor the denomintor into unique liner fctors or irreducible qudrtics. 3. Split the rtionl function into sum of prtil frctions with unknown constnts on top s follows: For exmple: A B + x + b cx + d + C (cx + d) }{{}}{{ } for liner fctor for repeted liner fctor x + 7 (x + )(x 3) (x + 3x + ) = A x Multiply both sides by the entire denomintor nd simplify. + B x 3 + Dx + E ex + fx + g }{{} for n irreducible qudrtic C (x 3) + Dx + E x + 3x + 5. Solve for the unknown constnts by using system of equtions or picking pproprite numbers to substitute in for x. 6. Integrte ech prtil frction. (You my need to use u-substitution nd/or x + dx = ( x ) tn + C). 5

Chapter 7 Notes, Stewart 8e. 7.1 Integration by Parts Trigonometric Integrals Evaluating sin m x cos n (x) dx...

Chapter 7 Notes, Stewart 8e. 7.1 Integration by Parts Trigonometric Integrals Evaluating sin m x cos n (x) dx... Contents 7.1 Integrtion by Prts................................... 2 7.2 Trigonometric Integrls.................................. 8 7.2.1 Evluting sin m x cos n (x)......................... 8 7.2.2 Evluting

More information

If u = g(x) is a differentiable function whose range is an interval I and f is continuous on I, then f(g(x))g (x) dx = f(u) du

If u = g(x) is a differentiable function whose range is an interval I and f is continuous on I, then f(g(x))g (x) dx = f(u) du Integrtion by Substitution: The Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus demonstrted the importnce of being ble to find nti-derivtives. We now introduce some methods for finding ntiderivtives: If u = g(x) is differentible

More information

Math 3B Final Review

Math 3B Final Review Mth 3B Finl Review Written by Victori Kl vtkl@mth.ucsb.edu SH 6432u Office Hours: R 9:45-10:45m SH 1607 Mth Lb Hours: TR 1-2pm Lst updted: 12/06/14 This is continution of the midterm review. Prctice problems

More information

Math 113 Exam 2 Practice

Math 113 Exam 2 Practice Mth Em Prctice Februry, 8 Em will cover sections 6.5, 7.-7.5 nd 7.8. This sheet hs three sections. The first section will remind you bout techniques nd formuls tht you should know. The second gives number

More information

Math 107H Topics for the first exam. csc 2 x dx = cot x + C csc x cotx dx = csc x + C tan x dx = ln secx + C cot x dx = ln sinx + C e x dx = e x + C

Math 107H Topics for the first exam. csc 2 x dx = cot x + C csc x cotx dx = csc x + C tan x dx = ln secx + C cot x dx = ln sinx + C e x dx = e x + C Integrtion Mth 07H Topics for the first exm Bsic list: x n dx = xn+ + C (provided n ) n + sin(kx) dx = cos(kx) + C k sec x dx = tnx + C sec x tnx dx = sec x + C /x dx = ln x + C cos(kx) dx = sin(kx) +

More information

The First Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. If f(x) is continuous on [a, b] and F (x) is any antiderivative. f(x) dx = F (b) F (a).

The First Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. If f(x) is continuous on [a, b] and F (x) is any antiderivative. f(x) dx = F (b) F (a). The Fundmentl Theorems of Clculus Mth 4, Section 0, Spring 009 We now know enough bout definite integrls to give precise formultions of the Fundmentl Theorems of Clculus. We will lso look t some bsic emples

More information

5.5 The Substitution Rule

5.5 The Substitution Rule 5.5 The Substitution Rule Given the usefulness of the Fundmentl Theorem, we wnt some helpful methods for finding ntiderivtives. At the moment, if n nti-derivtive is not esily recognizble, then we re in

More information

x = b a n x 2 e x dx. cdx = c(b a), where c is any constant. a b

x = b a n x 2 e x dx. cdx = c(b a), where c is any constant. a b CHAPTER 5. INTEGRALS 61 where nd x = b n x i = 1 (x i 1 + x i ) = midpoint of [x i 1, x i ]. Problem 168 (Exercise 1, pge 377). Use the Midpoint Rule with the n = 4 to pproximte 5 1 x e x dx. Some quick

More information

Test 3 Review. Jiwen He. I will replace your lowest test score with the percentage grade from the final exam (provided it is higher).

Test 3 Review. Jiwen He. I will replace your lowest test score with the percentage grade from the final exam (provided it is higher). Test 3 Review Jiwen He Test 3 Test 3: Dec. 4-6 in CASA Mteril - Through 6.3. No Homework (Thnksgiving) No homework this week! Hve GREAT Thnksgiving! Finl Exm Finl Exm: Dec. 14-17 in CASA You Might Be Interested

More information

Math 100 Review Sheet

Math 100 Review Sheet Mth 100 Review Sheet Joseph H. Silvermn December 2010 This outline of Mth 100 is summry of the mteril covered in the course. It is designed to be study id, but it is only n outline nd should be used s

More information

38 Riemann sums and existence of the definite integral.

38 Riemann sums and existence of the definite integral. 38 Riemnn sums nd existence of the definite integrl. In the clcultion of the re of the region X bounded by the grph of g(x) = x 2, the x-xis nd 0 x b, two sums ppered: ( n (k 1) 2) b 3 n 3 re(x) ( n These

More information

Math 113 Exam 1-Review

Math 113 Exam 1-Review Mth 113 Exm 1-Review September 26, 2016 Exm 1 covers 6.1-7.3 in the textbook. It is dvisble to lso review the mteril from 5.3 nd 5.5 s this will be helpful in solving some of the problems. 6.1 Are Between

More information

Week 10: Riemann integral and its properties

Week 10: Riemann integral and its properties Clculus nd Liner Algebr for Biomedicl Engineering Week 10: Riemnn integrl nd its properties H. Führ, Lehrstuhl A für Mthemtik, RWTH Achen, WS 07 Motivtion: Computing flow from flow rtes 1 We observe the

More information

63. Representation of functions as power series Consider a power series. ( 1) n x 2n for all 1 < x < 1

63. Representation of functions as power series Consider a power series. ( 1) n x 2n for all 1 < x < 1 3 9. SEQUENCES AND SERIES 63. Representtion of functions s power series Consider power series x 2 + x 4 x 6 + x 8 + = ( ) n x 2n It is geometric series with q = x 2 nd therefore it converges for ll q =

More information

Math 360: A primitive integral and elementary functions

Math 360: A primitive integral and elementary functions Mth 360: A primitive integrl nd elementry functions D. DeTurck University of Pennsylvni October 16, 2017 D. DeTurck Mth 360 001 2017C: Integrl/functions 1 / 32 Setup for the integrl prtitions Definition:

More information

Math Calculus with Analytic Geometry II

Math Calculus with Analytic Geometry II orem of definite Mth 5.0 with Anlytic Geometry II Jnury 4, 0 orem of definite If < b then b f (x) dx = ( under f bove x-xis) ( bove f under x-xis) Exmple 8 0 3 9 x dx = π 3 4 = 9π 4 orem of definite Problem

More information

different methods (left endpoint, right endpoint, midpoint, trapezoid, Simpson s).

different methods (left endpoint, right endpoint, midpoint, trapezoid, Simpson s). Mth 1A with Professor Stnkov Worksheet, Discussion #41; Wednesdy, 12/6/217 GSI nme: Roy Zho Problems 1. Write the integrl 3 dx s limit of Riemnn sums. Write it using 2 intervls using the 1 x different

More information

Improper Integrals. The First Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, as we ve discussed in class, goes as follows:

Improper Integrals. The First Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, as we ve discussed in class, goes as follows: Improper Integrls The First Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus, s we ve discussed in clss, goes s follows: If f is continuous on the intervl [, ] nd F is function for which F t = ft, then ftdt = F F. An integrl

More information

B Veitch. Calculus I Study Guide

B Veitch. Calculus I Study Guide Clculus I Stuy Guie This stuy guie is in no wy exhustive. As stte in clss, ny type of question from clss, quizzes, exms, n homeworks re fir gme. There s no informtion here bout the wor problems. 1. Some

More information

Chapter 6. Riemann Integral

Chapter 6. Riemann Integral Introduction to Riemnn integrl Chpter 6. Riemnn Integrl Won-Kwng Prk Deprtment of Mthemtics, The College of Nturl Sciences Kookmin University Second semester, 2015 1 / 41 Introduction to Riemnn integrl

More information

Math 554 Integration

Math 554 Integration Mth 554 Integrtion Hndout #9 4/12/96 Defn. A collection of n + 1 distinct points of the intervl [, b] P := {x 0 = < x 1 < < x i 1 < x i < < b =: x n } is clled prtition of the intervl. In this cse, we

More information

Summer MTH142 College Calculus 2. Section J. Lecture Notes. Yin Su University at Buffalo

Summer MTH142 College Calculus 2. Section J. Lecture Notes. Yin Su University at Buffalo Summer 6 MTH4 College Clculus Section J Lecture Notes Yin Su University t Bufflo yinsu@bufflo.edu Contents Bsic techniques of integrtion 3. Antiderivtive nd indefinite integrls..............................................

More information

Notes on Calculus II Integral Calculus. Miguel A. Lerma

Notes on Calculus II Integral Calculus. Miguel A. Lerma Notes on Clculus II Integrl Clculus Miguel A. Lerm November 22, 22 Contents Introduction 5 Chpter. Integrls 6.. Ares nd Distnces. The Definite Integrl 6.2. The Evlution Theorem.3. The Fundmentl Theorem

More information

Big idea in Calculus: approximation

Big idea in Calculus: approximation Big ide in Clculus: pproximtion Derivtive: f (x) = df dx f f(x +h) f(x) =, x h rte of chnge is pproximtely the rtio of chnges in the function vlue nd in the vrible in very short time Liner pproximtion:

More information

2 b. , a. area is S= 2π xds. Again, understand where these formulas came from (pages ).

2 b. , a. area is S= 2π xds. Again, understand where these formulas came from (pages ). AP Clculus BC Review Chpter 8 Prt nd Chpter 9 Things to Know nd Be Ale to Do Know everything from the first prt of Chpter 8 Given n integrnd figure out how to ntidifferentite it using ny of the following

More information

MATH 222 Second Semester Calculus. Fall 2015

MATH 222 Second Semester Calculus. Fall 2015 MATH Second Semester Clculus Fll 5 Typeset:August, 5 Mth nd Semester Clculus Lecture notes version. (Fll 5) This is self contined set of lecture notes for Mth. The notes were written by Sigurd Angenent,

More information

If deg(num) deg(denom), then we should use long-division of polynomials to rewrite: p(x) = s(x) + r(x) q(x), q(x)

If deg(num) deg(denom), then we should use long-division of polynomials to rewrite: p(x) = s(x) + r(x) q(x), q(x) Mth 50 The method of prtil frction decomposition (PFD is used to integrte some rtionl functions of the form p(x, where p/q is in lowest terms nd deg(num < deg(denom. q(x If deg(num deg(denom, then we should

More information

Improper Integrals. Introduction. Type 1: Improper Integrals on Infinite Intervals. When we defined the definite integral.

Improper Integrals. Introduction. Type 1: Improper Integrals on Infinite Intervals. When we defined the definite integral. Improper Integrls Introduction When we defined the definite integrl f d we ssumed tht f ws continuous on [, ] where [, ] ws finite, closed intervl There re t lest two wys this definition cn fil to e stisfied:

More information

Section 6.1 Definite Integral

Section 6.1 Definite Integral Section 6.1 Definite Integrl Suppose we wnt to find the re of region tht is not so nicely shped. For exmple, consider the function shown elow. The re elow the curve nd ove the x xis cnnot e determined

More information

The final exam will take place on Friday May 11th from 8am 11am in Evans room 60.

The final exam will take place on Friday May 11th from 8am 11am in Evans room 60. Mth 104: finl informtion The finl exm will tke plce on Fridy My 11th from 8m 11m in Evns room 60. The exm will cover ll prts of the course with equl weighting. It will cover Chpters 1 5, 7 15, 17 21, 23

More information

Sections 5.2: The Definite Integral

Sections 5.2: The Definite Integral Sections 5.2: The Definite Integrl In this section we shll formlize the ides from the lst section to functions in generl. We strt with forml definition.. The Definite Integrl Definition.. Suppose f(x)

More information

Calculus and linear algebra for biomedical engineering Week 11: The Riemann integral and its properties

Calculus and linear algebra for biomedical engineering Week 11: The Riemann integral and its properties Clculus nd liner lgebr for biomedicl engineering Week 11: The Riemnn integrl nd its properties Hrtmut Führ fuehr@mth.rwth-chen.de Lehrstuhl A für Mthemtik, RWTH Achen Jnury 9, 2009 Overview 1 Motivtion:

More information

Math 113 Exam 2 Practice

Math 113 Exam 2 Practice Mth 3 Exm Prctice Februry 8, 03 Exm will cover 7.4, 7.5, 7.7, 7.8, 8.-3 nd 8.5. Plese note tht integrtion skills lerned in erlier sections will still be needed for the mteril in 7.5, 7.8 nd chpter 8. This

More information

(www.grantstutoring.com) DO NOT RECOPY

(www.grantstutoring.com) DO NOT RECOPY CALCULUS (INTEGRATION nd APPLICATIONS) THE ENTIRE COURSE IN ONE BOOK Grnt Skene for Grnt s Tutoring (www.grntstutoring.com) DO NOT RECOPY Grnt s Tutoring is privte tutoring orgniztion nd is in no wy ffilited

More information

MA123, Chapter 10: Formulas for integrals: integrals, antiderivatives, and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (pp.

MA123, Chapter 10: Formulas for integrals: integrals, antiderivatives, and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (pp. MA123, Chpter 1: Formuls for integrls: integrls, ntiderivtives, nd the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus (pp. 27-233, Gootmn) Chpter Gols: Assignments: Understnd the sttement of the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus.

More information

approaches as n becomes larger and larger. Since e > 1, the graph of the natural exponential function is as below

approaches as n becomes larger and larger. Since e > 1, the graph of the natural exponential function is as below . Eponentil nd rithmic functions.1 Eponentil Functions A function of the form f() =, > 0, 1 is clled n eponentil function. Its domin is the set of ll rel f ( 1) numbers. For n eponentil function f we hve.

More information

Trignometric Substitution

Trignometric Substitution Trignometric Substitution Trigonometric substitution refers simply to substitutions of the form x sinu or x tnu or x secu It is generlly used in conjunction with the trignometric identities to sin θ+cos

More information

Interpreting Integrals and the Fundamental Theorem

Interpreting Integrals and the Fundamental Theorem Interpreting Integrls nd the Fundmentl Theorem Tody, we go further in interpreting the mening of the definite integrl. Using Units to Aid Interprettion We lredy know tht if f(t) is the rte of chnge of

More information

MORE FUNCTION GRAPHING; OPTIMIZATION. (Last edited October 28, 2013 at 11:09pm.)

MORE FUNCTION GRAPHING; OPTIMIZATION. (Last edited October 28, 2013 at 11:09pm.) MORE FUNCTION GRAPHING; OPTIMIZATION FRI, OCT 25, 203 (Lst edited October 28, 203 t :09pm.) Exercise. Let n be n rbitrry positive integer. Give n exmple of function with exctly n verticl symptotes. Give

More information

A. Limits - L Hopital s Rule ( ) How to find it: Try and find limits by traditional methods (plugging in). If you get 0 0 or!!, apply C.! 1 6 C.

A. Limits - L Hopital s Rule ( ) How to find it: Try and find limits by traditional methods (plugging in). If you get 0 0 or!!, apply C.! 1 6 C. A. Limits - L Hopitl s Rule Wht you re finding: L Hopitl s Rule is used to find limits of the form f ( x) lim where lim f x x! c g x ( ) = or lim f ( x) = limg( x) = ". ( ) x! c limg( x) = 0 x! c x! c

More information

Precalculus Spring 2017

Precalculus Spring 2017 Preclculus Spring 2017 Exm 3 Summry (Section 4.1 through 5.2, nd 9.4) Section P.5 Find domins of lgebric expressions Simplify rtionl expressions Add, subtrct, multiply, & divide rtionl expressions Simplify

More information

UNIFORM CONVERGENCE MA 403: REAL ANALYSIS, INSTRUCTOR: B. V. LIMAYE

UNIFORM CONVERGENCE MA 403: REAL ANALYSIS, INSTRUCTOR: B. V. LIMAYE UNIFORM CONVERGENCE MA 403: REAL ANALYSIS, INSTRUCTOR: B. V. LIMAYE 1. Pointwise Convergence of Sequence Let E be set nd Y be metric spce. Consider functions f n : E Y for n = 1, 2,.... We sy tht the sequence

More information

Section 4: Integration ECO4112F 2011

Section 4: Integration ECO4112F 2011 Reding: Ching Chpter Section : Integrtion ECOF Note: These notes do not fully cover the mteril in Ching, ut re ment to supplement your reding in Ching. Thus fr the optimistion you hve covered hs een sttic

More information

NUMERICAL INTEGRATION. The inverse process to differentiation in calculus is integration. Mathematically, integration is represented by.

NUMERICAL INTEGRATION. The inverse process to differentiation in calculus is integration. Mathematically, integration is represented by. NUMERICAL INTEGRATION 1 Introduction The inverse process to differentition in clculus is integrtion. Mthemticlly, integrtion is represented by f(x) dx which stnds for the integrl of the function f(x) with

More information

Lecture 14: Quadrature

Lecture 14: Quadrature Lecture 14: Qudrture This lecture is concerned with the evlution of integrls fx)dx 1) over finite intervl [, b] The integrnd fx) is ssumed to be rel-vlues nd smooth The pproximtion of n integrl by numericl

More information

New Expansion and Infinite Series

New Expansion and Infinite Series Interntionl Mthemticl Forum, Vol. 9, 204, no. 22, 06-073 HIKARI Ltd, www.m-hikri.com http://dx.doi.org/0.2988/imf.204.4502 New Expnsion nd Infinite Series Diyun Zhng College of Computer Nnjing University

More information

Using integration tables

Using integration tables Using integrtion tbles Integrtion tbles re inclue in most mth tetbooks, n vilble on the Internet. Using them is nother wy to evlute integrls. Sometimes the use is strightforwr; sometimes it tkes severl

More information

Section 6.1 INTRO to LAPLACE TRANSFORMS

Section 6.1 INTRO to LAPLACE TRANSFORMS Section 6. INTRO to LAPLACE TRANSFORMS Key terms: Improper Integrl; diverge, converge A A f(t)dt lim f(t)dt Piecewise Continuous Function; jump discontinuity Function of Exponentil Order Lplce Trnsform

More information

Section 4.8. D v(t j 1 ) t. (4.8.1) j=1

Section 4.8. D v(t j 1 ) t. (4.8.1) j=1 Difference Equtions to Differentil Equtions Section.8 Distnce, Position, nd the Length of Curves Although we motivted the definition of the definite integrl with the notion of re, there re mny pplictions

More information

Polynomial Approximations for the Natural Logarithm and Arctangent Functions. Math 230

Polynomial Approximations for the Natural Logarithm and Arctangent Functions. Math 230 Polynomil Approimtions for the Nturl Logrithm nd Arctngent Functions Mth 23 You recll from first semester clculus how one cn use the derivtive to find n eqution for the tngent line to function t given

More information

Lecture 1. Functional series. Pointwise and uniform convergence.

Lecture 1. Functional series. Pointwise and uniform convergence. 1 Introduction. Lecture 1. Functionl series. Pointwise nd uniform convergence. In this course we study mongst other things Fourier series. The Fourier series for periodic function f(x) with period 2π is

More information

Riemann Integrals and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

Riemann Integrals and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus Riemnn Integrls nd the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus Jmes K. Peterson Deprtment of Biologicl Sciences nd Deprtment of Mthemticl Sciences Clemson University September 16, 2013 Outline Grphing Riemnn Sums

More information

ENGI 3424 Engineering Mathematics Five Tutorial Examples of Partial Fractions

ENGI 3424 Engineering Mathematics Five Tutorial Examples of Partial Fractions ENGI 44 Engineering Mthemtics Five Tutoril Exmples o Prtil Frctions 1. Express x in prtil rctions: x 4 x 4 x 4 b x x x x Both denomintors re liner non-repeted ctors. The cover-up rule my be used: 4 4 4

More information

Not for reproduction

Not for reproduction AREA OF A SURFACE OF REVOLUTION cut h FIGURE FIGURE πr r r l h FIGURE A surfce of revolution is formed when curve is rotted bout line. Such surfce is the lterl boundry of solid of revolution of the type

More information

Math 8 Winter 2015 Applications of Integration

Math 8 Winter 2015 Applications of Integration Mth 8 Winter 205 Applictions of Integrtion Here re few importnt pplictions of integrtion. The pplictions you my see on n exm in this course include only the Net Chnge Theorem (which is relly just the Fundmentl

More information

The problems that follow illustrate the methods covered in class. They are typical of the types of problems that will be on the tests.

The problems that follow illustrate the methods covered in class. They are typical of the types of problems that will be on the tests. ADVANCED CALCULUS PRACTICE PROBLEMS JAMES KEESLING The problems tht follow illustrte the methods covered in clss. They re typicl of the types of problems tht will be on the tests. 1. Riemnn Integrtion

More information

Best Approximation in the 2-norm

Best Approximation in the 2-norm Jim Lmbers MAT 77 Fll Semester 1-11 Lecture 1 Notes These notes correspond to Sections 9. nd 9.3 in the text. Best Approximtion in the -norm Suppose tht we wish to obtin function f n (x) tht is liner combintion

More information

Practice final exam solutions

Practice final exam solutions University of Pennsylvni Deprtment of Mthemtics Mth 26 Honors Clculus II Spring Semester 29 Prof. Grssi, T.A. Asher Auel Prctice finl exm solutions 1. Let F : 2 2 be defined by F (x, y (x + y, x y. If

More information

STEP FUNCTIONS, DELTA FUNCTIONS, AND THE VARIATION OF PARAMETERS FORMULA. 0 if t < 0, 1 if t > 0.

STEP FUNCTIONS, DELTA FUNCTIONS, AND THE VARIATION OF PARAMETERS FORMULA. 0 if t < 0, 1 if t > 0. STEP FUNCTIONS, DELTA FUNCTIONS, AND THE VARIATION OF PARAMETERS FORMULA STEPHEN SCHECTER. The unit step function nd piecewise continuous functions The Heviside unit step function u(t) is given by if t

More information

Distance And Velocity

Distance And Velocity Unit #8 - The Integrl Some problems nd solutions selected or dpted from Hughes-Hllett Clculus. Distnce And Velocity. The grph below shows the velocity, v, of n object (in meters/sec). Estimte the totl

More information

Best Approximation. Chapter The General Case

Best Approximation. Chapter The General Case Chpter 4 Best Approximtion 4.1 The Generl Cse In the previous chpter, we hve seen how n interpolting polynomil cn be used s n pproximtion to given function. We now wnt to find the best pproximtion to given

More information

SOLUTIONS FOR ADMISSIONS TEST IN MATHEMATICS, COMPUTER SCIENCE AND JOINT SCHOOLS WEDNESDAY 5 NOVEMBER 2014

SOLUTIONS FOR ADMISSIONS TEST IN MATHEMATICS, COMPUTER SCIENCE AND JOINT SCHOOLS WEDNESDAY 5 NOVEMBER 2014 SOLUTIONS FOR ADMISSIONS TEST IN MATHEMATICS, COMPUTER SCIENCE AND JOINT SCHOOLS WEDNESDAY 5 NOVEMBER 014 Mrk Scheme: Ech prt of Question 1 is worth four mrks which re wrded solely for the correct nswer.

More information

RAM RAJYA MORE, SIWAN. XI th, XII th, TARGET IIT-JEE (MAIN + ADVANCE) & COMPATETIVE EXAM FOR XII (PQRS) INDEFINITE INTERATION & Their Properties

RAM RAJYA MORE, SIWAN. XI th, XII th, TARGET IIT-JEE (MAIN + ADVANCE) & COMPATETIVE EXAM FOR XII (PQRS) INDEFINITE INTERATION & Their Properties M.Sc. (Mths), B.Ed, M.Phil (Mths) MATHEMATICS Mob. : 947084408 9546359990 M.Sc. (Mths), B.Ed, M.Phil (Mths) RAM RAJYA MORE, SIWAN XI th, XII th, TARGET IIT-JEE (MAIN + ADVANCE) & COMPATETIVE EXAM FOR XII

More information

x ) dx dx x sec x over the interval (, ).

x ) dx dx x sec x over the interval (, ). Curve on 6 For -, () Evlute the integrl, n (b) check your nswer by ifferentiting. ( ). ( ). ( ).. 6. sin cos 7. sec csccot 8. sec (sec tn ) 9. sin csc. Evlute the integrl sin by multiplying the numertor

More information

1 i n x i x i 1. Note that kqk kp k. In addition, if P and Q are partition of [a, b], P Q is finer than both P and Q.

1 i n x i x i 1. Note that kqk kp k. In addition, if P and Q are partition of [a, b], P Q is finer than both P and Q. Chpter 6 Integrtion In this chpter we define the integrl. Intuitively, it should be the re under curve. Not surprisingly, fter mny exmples, counter exmples, exceptions, generliztions, the concept of the

More information

LECTURE 19. Numerical Integration. Z b. is generally thought of as representing the area under the graph of fèxè between the points x = a and

LECTURE 19. Numerical Integration. Z b. is generally thought of as representing the area under the graph of fèxè between the points x = a and LECTURE 9 Numericl Integrtion Recll from Clculus I tht denite integrl is generlly thought of s representing the re under the grph of fèxè between the points x = nd x = b, even though this is ctully only

More information

a 2 +x 2 x a 2 -x 2 Figure 1: Triangles for Trigonometric Substitution

a 2 +x 2 x a 2 -x 2 Figure 1: Triangles for Trigonometric Substitution I.B Trigonometric Substitution Uon comletion of the net two sections, we will be ble to integrte nlyticlly ll rtionl functions of (t lest in theory). We do so by converting binomils nd trinomils of the

More information

We know that if f is a continuous nonnegative function on the interval [a, b], then b

We know that if f is a continuous nonnegative function on the interval [a, b], then b 1 Ares Between Curves c 22 Donld Kreider nd Dwight Lhr We know tht if f is continuous nonnegtive function on the intervl [, b], then f(x) dx is the re under the grph of f nd bove the intervl. We re going

More information

Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Differentiating Under the Integral Sign

Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Differentiating Under the Integral Sign Necessry nd Sufficient Conditions for Differentiting Under the Integrl Sign Erik Tlvil 1. INTRODUCTION. When we hve n integrl tht depends on prmeter, sy F(x f (x, y dy, it is often importnt to know when

More information

Calculus Cheat Sheet. Integrals Definitions. where F( x ) is an anti-derivative of f ( x ). Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. dx = f x dx g x dx

Calculus Cheat Sheet. Integrals Definitions. where F( x ) is an anti-derivative of f ( x ). Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. dx = f x dx g x dx Clulus Chet Sheet Integrls Definitions Definite Integrl: Suppose f ( ) is ontinuous Anti-Derivtive : An nti-derivtive of f ( ) on [, ]. Divide [, ] into n suintervls of is funtion, F( ), suh tht F = f.

More information

The Trapezoidal Rule

The Trapezoidal Rule _.qd // : PM Pge 9 SECTION. Numericl Integrtion 9 f Section. The re of the region cn e pproimted using four trpezoids. Figure. = f( ) f( ) n The re of the first trpezoid is f f n. Figure. = Numericl Integrtion

More information

KOÇ UNIVERSITY MATH 106 FINAL EXAM JANUARY 6, 2013

KOÇ UNIVERSITY MATH 106 FINAL EXAM JANUARY 6, 2013 KOÇ UNIVERSITY MATH 6 FINAL EXAM JANUARY 6, 23 Durtion of Exm: 2 minutes INSTRUCTIONS: No clcultors nd no cell phones my be used on the test. No questions, nd tlking llowed. You must lwys explin your nswers

More information

Homework 4. (1) If f R[a, b], show that f 3 R[a, b]. If f + (x) = max{f(x), 0}, is f + R[a, b]? Justify your answer.

Homework 4. (1) If f R[a, b], show that f 3 R[a, b]. If f + (x) = max{f(x), 0}, is f + R[a, b]? Justify your answer. Homework 4 (1) If f R[, b], show tht f 3 R[, b]. If f + (x) = mx{f(x), 0}, is f + R[, b]? Justify your nswer. (2) Let f be continuous function on [, b] tht is strictly positive except finitely mny points

More information

3.1 Review of Sine, Cosine and Tangent for Right Angles

3.1 Review of Sine, Cosine and Tangent for Right Angles Foundtions of Mth 11 Section 3.1 Review of Sine, osine nd Tngent for Right Tringles 125 3.1 Review of Sine, osine nd Tngent for Right ngles The word trigonometry is derived from the Greek words trigon,

More information

f[a] x + f[a + x] x + f[a +2 x] x + + f[b x] x =

f[a] x + f[a + x] x + f[a +2 x] x + + f[b x] x = Chpter 3 Symbolic Integrtion This chpter contins the bsic tricks of the symbolic integrtion trde. The gol of this chpter is not to mke you slow inncurte integrtion softwre, but rther to help you understnd

More information

For a continuous function f : [a; b]! R we wish to define the Riemann integral

For a continuous function f : [a; b]! R we wish to define the Riemann integral Supplementry Notes for MM509 Topology II 2. The Riemnn Integrl Andrew Swnn For continuous function f : [; b]! R we wish to define the Riemnn integrl R b f (x) dx nd estblish some of its properties. This

More information

Math 4200: Homework Problems

Math 4200: Homework Problems Mth 4200: Homework Problems Gregor Kovčič 1. Prove the following properties of the binomil coefficients ( n ) ( n ) (i) 1 + + + + 1 2 ( n ) (ii) 1 ( n ) ( n ) + 2 + 3 + + n 2 3 ( ) n ( n + = 2 n 1 n) n,

More information

(0.0)(0.1)+(0.3)(0.1)+(0.6)(0.1)+ +(2.7)(0.1) = 1.35

(0.0)(0.1)+(0.3)(0.1)+(0.6)(0.1)+ +(2.7)(0.1) = 1.35 7 Integrtion º½ ÌÛÓ Ü ÑÔÐ Up to now we hve been concerned with extrcting informtion bout how function chnges from the function itself. Given knowledge bout n object s position, for exmple, we wnt to know

More information

Mapping the delta function and other Radon measures

Mapping the delta function and other Radon measures Mpping the delt function nd other Rdon mesures Notes for Mth583A, Fll 2008 November 25, 2008 Rdon mesures Consider continuous function f on the rel line with sclr vlues. It is sid to hve bounded support

More information

FINALTERM EXAMINATION 2011 Calculus &. Analytical Geometry-I

FINALTERM EXAMINATION 2011 Calculus &. Analytical Geometry-I FINALTERM EXAMINATION 011 Clculus &. Anlyticl Geometry-I Question No: 1 { Mrks: 1 ) - Plese choose one If f is twice differentible function t sttionry point x 0 x 0 nd f ''(x 0 ) > 0 then f hs reltive...

More information

The Wave Equation I. MA 436 Kurt Bryan

The Wave Equation I. MA 436 Kurt Bryan 1 Introduction The Wve Eqution I MA 436 Kurt Bryn Consider string stretching long the x xis, of indeterminte (or even infinite!) length. We wnt to derive n eqution which models the motion of the string

More information

u( t) + K 2 ( ) = 1 t > 0 Analyzing Damped Oscillations Problem (Meador, example 2-18, pp 44-48): Determine the equation of the following graph.

u( t) + K 2 ( ) = 1 t > 0 Analyzing Damped Oscillations Problem (Meador, example 2-18, pp 44-48): Determine the equation of the following graph. nlyzing Dmped Oscilltions Prolem (Medor, exmple 2-18, pp 44-48): Determine the eqution of the following grph. The eqution is ssumed to e of the following form f ( t) = K 1 u( t) + K 2 e!"t sin (#t + $

More information

Line Integrals. Partitioning the Curve. Estimating the Mass

Line Integrals. Partitioning the Curve. Estimating the Mass Line Integrls Suppose we hve curve in the xy plne nd ssocite density δ(p ) = δ(x, y) t ech point on the curve. urves, of course, do not hve density or mss, but it my sometimes be convenient or useful to

More information

20 MATHEMATICS POLYNOMIALS

20 MATHEMATICS POLYNOMIALS 0 MATHEMATICS POLYNOMIALS.1 Introduction In Clss IX, you hve studied polynomils in one vrible nd their degrees. Recll tht if p(x) is polynomil in x, the highest power of x in p(x) is clled the degree of

More information

Pre-Session Review. Part 1: Basic Algebra; Linear Functions and Graphs

Pre-Session Review. Part 1: Basic Algebra; Linear Functions and Graphs Pre-Session Review Prt 1: Bsic Algebr; Liner Functions nd Grphs A. Generl Review nd Introduction to Algebr Hierrchy of Arithmetic Opertions Opertions in ny expression re performed in the following order:

More information

Numerical Integration

Numerical Integration Chpter 1 Numericl Integrtion Numericl differentition methods compute pproximtions to the derivtive of function from known vlues of the function. Numericl integrtion uses the sme informtion to compute numericl

More information

Lecture 19: Continuous Least Squares Approximation

Lecture 19: Continuous Least Squares Approximation Lecture 19: Continuous Lest Squres Approximtion 33 Continuous lest squres pproximtion We begn 31 with the problem of pproximting some f C[, b] with polynomil p P n t the discrete points x, x 1,, x m for

More information

Section 5.1 #7, 10, 16, 21, 25; Section 5.2 #8, 9, 15, 20, 27, 30; Section 5.3 #4, 6, 9, 13, 16, 28, 31; Section 5.4 #7, 18, 21, 23, 25, 29, 40

Section 5.1 #7, 10, 16, 21, 25; Section 5.2 #8, 9, 15, 20, 27, 30; Section 5.3 #4, 6, 9, 13, 16, 28, 31; Section 5.4 #7, 18, 21, 23, 25, 29, 40 Mth B Prof. Audrey Terrs HW # Solutions by Alex Eustis Due Tuesdy, Oct. 9 Section 5. #7,, 6,, 5; Section 5. #8, 9, 5,, 7, 3; Section 5.3 #4, 6, 9, 3, 6, 8, 3; Section 5.4 #7, 8,, 3, 5, 9, 4 5..7 Since

More information

4037 ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS

4037 ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS GCE Ordinry Level MARK SCHEME for the October/November 0 series 07 ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS 07/ Pper, mximum rw mrk 80 This mrk scheme is published s n id to techers

More information

PARTIAL FRACTION DECOMPOSITION

PARTIAL FRACTION DECOMPOSITION PARTIAL FRACTION DECOMPOSITION LARRY SUSANKA 1. Fcts bout Polynomils nd Nottion We must ssemble some tools nd nottion to prove the existence of the stndrd prtil frction decomposition, used s n integrtion

More information

Lecture 6: Singular Integrals, Open Quadrature rules, and Gauss Quadrature

Lecture 6: Singular Integrals, Open Quadrature rules, and Gauss Quadrature Lecture notes on Vritionl nd Approximte Methods in Applied Mthemtics - A Peirce UBC Lecture 6: Singulr Integrls, Open Qudrture rules, nd Guss Qudrture (Compiled 6 August 7) In this lecture we discuss the

More information

Chapter 4 Contravariance, Covariance, and Spacetime Diagrams

Chapter 4 Contravariance, Covariance, and Spacetime Diagrams Chpter 4 Contrvrince, Covrince, nd Spcetime Digrms 4. The Components of Vector in Skewed Coordintes We hve seen in Chpter 3; figure 3.9, tht in order to show inertil motion tht is consistent with the Lorentz

More information

Calculus MATH 172-Fall 2017 Lecture Notes

Calculus MATH 172-Fall 2017 Lecture Notes Clculus MATH 172-Fll 2017 Lecture Notes These notes re concise summry of wht hs been covered so fr during the lectures. All the definitions must be memorized nd understood. Sttements of importnt theorems

More information

Summary of Elementary Calculus

Summary of Elementary Calculus Summry of Elementry Clculus Notes by Wlter Noll (1971) 1 The rel numbers The set of rel numbers is denoted by R. The set R is often visulized geometriclly s number-line nd its elements re often referred

More information

Partial Derivatives. Limits. For a single variable function f (x), the limit lim

Partial Derivatives. Limits. For a single variable function f (x), the limit lim Limits Prtil Derivtives For single vrible function f (x), the limit lim x f (x) exists only if the right-hnd side limit equls to the left-hnd side limit, i.e., lim f (x) = lim f (x). x x + For two vribles

More information

The Definite Integral

The Definite Integral CHAPTER 3 The Definite Integrl Key Words nd Concepts: Definite Integrl Questions to Consider: How do we use slicing to turn problem sttement into definite integrl? How re definite nd indefinite integrls

More information

Mathematics Higher Block 3 Practice Assessment A

Mathematics Higher Block 3 Practice Assessment A Mthemtics Higher Block 3 Prctice Assessment A Red crefully 1. Clcultors my be used. 2. Full credit will be given only where the solution contins pproprite working. 3. Answers obtined from reding from scle

More information

7 - Continuous random variables

7 - Continuous random variables 7-1 Continuous rndom vribles S. Lll, Stnford 2011.01.25.01 7 - Continuous rndom vribles Continuous rndom vribles The cumultive distribution function The uniform rndom vrible Gussin rndom vribles The Gussin

More information