SURFACE PLASMONS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRO-OPTICAL DEVICES

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "SURFACE PLASMONS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRO-OPTICAL DEVICES"

Transcription

1 SURFACE PLASMONS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRO-OPTICAL DEVICES Igor Zozouleno Solid State Electronics Department of Science and Technology Linöping University Sweden Brief outline: motivation basic theory of the surface plasmons application of surface plasmons

2 MOTIVATION Surface plasmons have a combined electromagnetic wave and surface charge character They reside at the interface between a metal and a dielectric material. The miniaturization of conventional photonic circuits is limited by the diffraction limit, such that the minimum feature size is of the order of wavelength. optical fiber Using the surface plasmons one can overcome the diffraction limit, which can lead to miniaturization of photonics circuits with length scales much smaller than those currently achieved light propagation in a plasmonic waveguide

3 BASIC THEORY OF THE SURFACE PLASMONS Maxwell s equations:

4 Games Cler Maxwell (83-879): Interplay of electric and magnetic field could result in electromagnetic waves (860) Maxwell s accomplishments are the most profound and the most fruitful that physics has experienced since the time of Newton (A. Einstein): Electricity magnetism OPTICS Before Maxwell: After Maxwell: Electricity magnetism OPTICS

5 Maxwell s equations what the equation describes Charges produce electric field No magnetic charges Changing magnetic flux produces electric field Electric current and changing electric flux produce magnetic field

6 Maxwell s equations Charge neutrality, ρ = 0 No direct current, j = 0 Nonmagnetic materials, μ r = (μ = μ 0 )

7 Boundary conditions In inhomogeneous media consisting of several dielectrics, the field lines of E, H will experience discontinuity or bending at the boundary E E The boundary conditions for E, H can be derived from Maxwell equations normal components: E E tangential components: E t E t

8 Electromagnetic waves Maxwell s E E = wave t μ00 x equations: B B (in vacuum) = t μ x 0 0 E = electric field B = magnetic field 0 = permittivity (vacuum) μ = permeability (vacuum) 0 y E r speed of light c = μ 0 0 = m s z B r E B x, t) ( 0 x, t) = E sin ω ( 0 = B sin ω ( t x) ( t x) x

9 The electromagnetic spectrum

10 r r r r v μ μ μ μ μ = = = = c = n refraction index n c v = Electromagnetic waves in matter x B t B x E t E = = μ μ vacuum: ) relative permeability; ( permeability : dielectric constant) ( permittivity : 0 0 = = = = r r r r r μ μ μ x B t B x E t E = = μ μ matter:

11 The dependence of the wave speed v and index of refraction n on the wavelength λ is called dispersion What is the wavelength of light in a medium with the refractive index n? v λ mat = λvac = c λ n vac λvac λ mat λvac

12 POLARIZATION Plane Polarized Electromagnetic Waves Illustrating vertical and horizontal polarized waves.

13 p-polarization: E-field is parallel to the plane of incidence s-polarization: E-field is perpendicular to the plane of incidence (German senrecht = perpedicular) E z E H z H z=0 H y E x θ z=0 E y H x θ y x y x θ θ z z Any linearly polarized radiation can be represented as a superposition of p- and s-polarization.

14 p-polarized incident radiation will create polarization charges at the interface. We will show that these charges give rise to a surface plasmon modes Boundary condition: (a) transverse component of E is conserved, (b) normal component of D is conserved E z y z=0 x H y E E x E z H y E E x creation of the polarization charges z if one of the materials is metal, the electrons will respond to this polarization. This will give rise to surface plasmon modes

15 Polarization charges are created at the interface between two material. The electrons in metal will respond to this polarization giving rise to surface plasmon modes

16 s-polarized incident radiation does not create polarization charges at the interface. It thus can not excite surface plasmon modes Boundary condition (note that E-field has a transverse component only): transverse component of E is conserved, y z z=0 H z x E y H H x H z E y H H x compare with p-polarization: no polarization charges are created no surface plasmon modes are excited! In what follows we shall consider the case of p-polarization only

17 More detailed theory Let us chec whether p-polarized incident radiation can excite a surface mode dielectric z=0 E z H y E E x ~ e i z z ; z intensity = ± iκ z y z x ~ e i( x x ωt ) wave propagating in x-direction we are looing for a localized surface mode, decaying into both materials z metall components of E-, H-fields: E = (E x, 0, E z ); H = (0, H y, 0) Thus, the solution can be written as

18 solution for a surface plasmon mode: dielectric E z y z=0 x H y E E x z metall Let us see whether this solution satisfies Maxwell equation and the boundary conditions: + condition imposed on -vector

19 λvac λ mat = ; n = n λvac λ mat λvac wave vector in vacuum dielectric n ~ i( x ωt ) e π π n = = = n λ λ

20 z x dielectric n ~ e i z z ; z = ± iκ z intensity ( n ) z = ± = x metall ( n ) ( n ) x + z n x < 0 x > z we are looing for a localized surface mode, decaying into both materials z has to be imaginary ω light cone ω = c The plasmonic dispersion curve lies beyond the light cone, therefore the direct coupling of propagating light to plasmonic states is difficult!

21 z x dielectric r n ~ e izz ; z = ± iκ intensity z sign of z : z z = = + ( n ) ( n ) x x metall r z = ± ( n ) z x z and z are of opposite signs! recall the condition imposed on -vector: because z and z are of opposite signs, this condition will be satisfied only if r and r are of opposite signs. This is the case when one material is dielectric r >0, and the second material is metal, r < 0. also, recall the condition x > ( n ) = r this condition is always satisfied for metals, where r < 0

22 dielectric ~ e i z z ; z = ± iκ z ~ i( x x ωt ) e intensity localized surface mode, decaying into both materials metall z Thus, we have established that on the surface between a metal and dielectric one can excite a localized surface mode. This localized mode is called a surface plasmon

23 What is the wavelength of the surface plasmon? π λ = let us find : ( ) ( ) x z x z n n = + = substitute r r r r x + = ω x r r r r x c ω + = light cone ω = c The surface plasmone mode always lies beyond the light line, that is it has greater momentum than a free photon of the same frequency ω

24 x = r r + r r Ideal case: r and r are real (no imaginary components = no losses) Dielectric: r >0 Metal: r < 0, r >> r x is real resonant width = 0 lifetime = x = r r + r r

25 Realistic case: r is real, and r is complex, x = = K = r r + ' x r + i '' x ' '' r r i r + r = imaginary part describes losses in metal = r r ' '' ( r + i r ) ' '' ( + i ) + r r resonant width (gives rise to losses) '' x = 3/ r '' r ' ( ) r Dielectric functions of Ag, Al ' r '' r '' r ' ( ) r

26 decay into metal surface plasmon length scales: metall decay into dielectric dielectric z propagation length

27 How to excite a surface plasmon? is it possible to excite a plasmon mode by shining light on a dielectric/metal interface? dielectric metall ω x x ω = c light cone ω = c r r r + r The surface plasmone mode always lie beyond the light line, that is it has greater momentum than a free photon of the same frequency ω. This maes a direct excitation of a surface plasmon mode impossible!

28 Total internal reflection n sinθ = n sinθ Snell s law of refraction: n sinθ sinθ n < n = > n θ θ Total internal reflection θ glass n n n air n θ n θ n θ = 90o critical angle of the total internal reflection: θ = 90 sinθ 0 0 n sin 90 c = = n n n

29 Otto geometry x-component x = n sinθ z x n θ dielectric n x-component x = n sinθ (x-component is conserved) dielectric n metall to excite a plasmon mode in the region : x > n n > θ > sinθ n sin n n condition for the total internal reflection!

30 Utilization of a grating to excite a plasmon mode Grating The grooves in the grating surface brea the translation invariance and allow x of the outgoing wave to be different from that of the incoming wave x (outgoing) = x (incoming) ± NG, where G = π/d plasmon n sinθ reciprocal lattice vectors

31 APPLICATION OF SURFACE PLASMONS Extraordinary transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays, T. W. Ebbesen et al., Nature 39, 667 (998). Directional beaming, H. J. Lezec et al., Science 97, 80 (00) Plasmonic nanowire waveguides, J. B. Kren et al., Europhys. Lett. 60, 663 (00) Nanofocusing in plasmonic waveguides, M. Stocman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, (004). Nanoparticle plasmon waveguide, S. A. Maier et al., Nature Materials, 9 (003). Surface plasmon enhanced solar cells

32 a 0 d light thin metallic plate classical (ray optics) expectation: transmission = area of the plate area occupied by holes

33 wave optics: diffraction effect L d if λ/ > d, the transmission through the hole will be strongly suppressed λ =L Transmission Hans Bethe 944 d ~ λ 4 λ experiment 0d The experimental findings imply that that the array itself is an active element, not just a passive geometrical object in the path of incident light d d

34 absolute transmission intensity = transmitted light fraction of area occupied by the holes = 00% ~0d This observation implies that the light impinging on the metal between holes can be transmitted. In other words, the whole structure acts lie an antenna Explanation: all the observed features are related to excitation of the surface plasmons. [No enhanced transmission is observed for semiconductor hole arrays.] The resonant peas occur when surface plasmon momentum matches the momentum of the incident photon and the grating as follows

35 Standard diffraction theory: diffraction on a slit: position of the central maximum: λ sinθ = b b b θ m= λ sin θ = θ = o 90 diffraction puts a lower limit on the size of the feature that can be used in photonics.

36 Resolving power is given by the diffraction limit. diffraction pattern of two point sources To increase resolution people usually use smaller wavelength Transmission electron microscope λ el = nm resolution: nm θ ~ first minimum λ a λ θ c ~ a first minimum coincides with the maximum

37 Overcoming the diffraction limit with the help of surface plasmons metallic (Ag) film 50 nm surface plasmon 660nm directionality is ± 3 o 500 nm light

38 The coupling of light into SP modes is governed by geometrical momentum, selection rules (i.e., occurs only at a specific angle for a given wavelength), the light exiting a single aperture will follow the reverse process in the presence of the periodic structure on the exit surface. x (outgoing) = x (incoming) ± NG, where G = π/d plasmon n sinθ reciprocal lattice vectors Yu et al., Phys. Rev. B 7, (R) (005)

39 The miniaturization of dielectric waveguides is limited by diffraction to dimentions of the order of the wavelength in the waveguide core.

40 Metal nanowires sustaining surface plasmons can be used as optical waveguides. Thereby, the use of a metal allows to overcome the limitations of miniaturization imposed on conventional dielectric waveguides due to diffraction.

41 STM microphotography of the device 8 μm Optical near-field intensity It has been shown that the diffraction limit restricting the further miniaturization of dielectric waveguides can be broen by using gold nanowires to guide light fields via surface plasmons excitation. A propagation length of.5 µm was found for gold nanowires.

42 The central problem of the nano-optics is the delivery and concentration (nanofocusing)of the optical radiation energy on the nanoscale, This represents a difficult tas, because the wavelength of light is on the microscale, many orders of magnitude too large.

43 It was shown show that it is possible to focus and concentrate in three dimensions the optical radiation energy on the nanoscale without major losses. This can be done by exciting the surface plasmons propagating toward a tip of a tapered metal-nanowire surfaceplasmonic waveguide.

44 Both the phase and group velocity of surface plasmons asymptotically tend to zero toward the nanotip. Consequently, the surface plasmons are slowed down and adiabatically stopped at z = 0. This phenomenon leads to a giant concentration of energy on the nanoscale. The local field increase by 3 orders of magnitude in intensity and four orders in energy density.

45 metallic particles support plasmonic resonances: condition for plasmonic resonance: metall '( ω) = m host dielectric material

46 Watching energy transfer: Excitation and detection of energy transport in metal nanoparticle chains by near-field optical microscopy. The nanoparticle waveguide is locally excited by light emanating from the tip of an near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM). The electromagnetic energy is transported along the waveguide towards a fluorescent dye nanosphere sitting on top of the nanoparticles. The NSOM tip is scanned along the nanoparticle chain, and the fluorescence intensity for varying tip positions along the particle chain is collected in the far-field by a photodiode.

47 a chain of Ag nanoparticles 00µm 00µm grid of plasmon waveguides 50 nm topography fluorecsence fluorescent dye particles

48 fluorescence from nanospheres sitting on top of metal nanoparticles was significantly broader than that from isolated nanospheres. grid of plasmon waveguides Energy transport would results in dye emission even when the microscope tip is located away from the dye, and thus manifest itself in an increased spatial width of the fluorescence spot of a dye nanosphere attached to a plasmon waveguide compared with a single free dye nanosphere.

49 PLASMONS IN ORGANIC SOLAR CELLS PLASMONS IN ORGANIC SOLAR CELLS Glass Transparent electrode (ITO) Organic layer(s) Metal ', '' APFO3 40 Al ', '' λ, nm ' '' ' '' to provide total internal reflection λ, nm 900 Glass Transparent electrode (ITO) Organic layer(s) Metal

50 Estimation of the position of a plasmonic resonance 5 APFO3, m - 3.0x0 7.5 APF03-Al dispersion relation ', '' λ, nm ' '' 900 ' pl Δ ' y = y.5 + Δ = α π d ' y.0 y.5 y, m - = 0 ' pl x0 7 normal incidence where d is a period of grating (sinusoidal, tiranglar or step-lie) π = α d d=πα/ y, μm d=0.3 μm 600 λ, nm

51 R We applied the recursive Green s function technique (A.Rahachou, I.Zozouleno, Phys. Rev. B, 7, 557 (005)) to calculate spectra and intensity of the magnetic (H z ) field d h H z APFO3-Al d=0.3 mm, h=0.0, infinite dielectric λ, nm Resonance pea position agrees very well with the analytical estimation: 45 versus 450 nm

52 Effect of surface roughness d h d h d=0.3 μm, h=0nm no roughness roughness=0 nm roughness=0 nm R λ, nm

Dr. Tao Li

Dr. Tao Li Tao Li taoli@nju.edu.cn Nat. Lab. of Solid State Microstructures Department of Materials Science and Engineering Nanjing University Concepts Basic principles Surface Plasmon Metamaterial Summary Light

More information

Quantum Information Processing with Electrons?

Quantum Information Processing with Electrons? Quantum Information Processing with 10 10 Electrons? René Stock IQIS Seminar, October 2005 People: Barry Sanders Peter Marlin Jeremie Choquette Motivation Quantum information processing realiations Ions

More information

Substrate effect on aperture resonances in a thin metal film

Substrate effect on aperture resonances in a thin metal film Substrate effect on aperture resonances in a thin metal film J. H. Kang 1, Jong-Ho Choe 1,D.S.Kim 2, Q-Han Park 1, 1 Department of Physics, Korea University, Seoul, 136-71, Korea 2 Department of Physics

More information

Introduction. Chapter Optics at the Nanoscale

Introduction. Chapter Optics at the Nanoscale Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Optics at the Nanoscale The interaction of light with matter is one of the most significant processes on the planet, forming the basis of some of the most famous scientific discoveries

More information

Chapter 1 - The Nature of Light

Chapter 1 - The Nature of Light David J. Starling Penn State Hazleton PHYS 214 Electromagnetic radiation comes in many forms, differing only in wavelength, frequency or energy. Electromagnetic radiation comes in many forms, differing

More information

Electromagnetic fields and waves

Electromagnetic fields and waves Electromagnetic fields and waves Maxwell s rainbow Outline Maxwell s equations Plane waves Pulses and group velocity Polarization of light Transmission and reflection at an interface Macroscopic Maxwell

More information

Surface Plasmon Wave

Surface Plasmon Wave Surface Plasmon Wave In this experiment you will learn about a surface plasmon wave. Certain metals (Au, Ag, Co, etc) exhibit a negative dielectric constant at certain regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

More information

The Dielectric Function of a Metal ( Jellium )

The Dielectric Function of a Metal ( Jellium ) The Dielectric Function of a Metal ( Jellium ) Total reflection Plasma frequency p (10 15 Hz range) Why are Metals Shiny? An electric field cannot exist inside a metal, because metal electrons follow the

More information

EPSILON-NEAR-ZERO (ENZ) AND MU-NEAR-ZERO (MNZ) MATERIALS

EPSILON-NEAR-ZERO (ENZ) AND MU-NEAR-ZERO (MNZ) MATERIALS EPSILON-NEAR-ZERO (ENZ) AND MU-NEAR-ZERO (MNZ) MATERIALS SARAH NAHAR CHOWDHURY PURDUE UNIVERSITY 1 Basics Design ENZ Materials Lumped circuit elements Basics Decoupling Direction emission Tunneling Basics

More information

Surface plasmon polariton propagation around bends at a metal-dielectric interface

Surface plasmon polariton propagation around bends at a metal-dielectric interface Surface plasmon polariton propagation around bends at a metal-dielectric interface Keisuke Hasegawa, Jens U. Nöckel and Miriam Deutsch Oregon Center for Optics, 1274 University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403-1274

More information

Interaction X-rays - Matter

Interaction X-rays - Matter Interaction X-rays - Matter Pair production hν > M ev Photoelectric absorption hν MATTER hν Transmission X-rays hν' < hν Scattering hν Decay processes hν f Compton Thomson Fluorescence Auger electrons

More information

II Theory Of Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR)

II Theory Of Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) II Theory Of Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) II.1 Maxwell equations and dielectric constant of metals Surface Plasmons Polaritons (SPP) exist at the interface of a dielectric and a metal whose electrons

More information

Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons

Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons Physics Reports 408 (2005) 131 314 www.elsevier.com/locate/physrep Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons Anatoly V. Zayats a,, Igor I. Smolyaninov b, Alexei A. Maradudin c a School of Mathematics and

More information

Negative epsilon medium based optical fiber for transmission around UV and visible region

Negative epsilon medium based optical fiber for transmission around UV and visible region I J C T A, 9(8), 2016, pp. 3581-3587 International Science Press Negative epsilon medium based optical fiber for transmission around UV and visible region R. Yamuna Devi*, D. Shanmuga Sundar** and A. Sivanantha

More information

ECE280: Nano-Plasmonics and Its Applications. Week8

ECE280: Nano-Plasmonics and Its Applications. Week8 ECE280: Nano-Plasmonics and Its Applications Week8 Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) and Surface Plasmon Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (SPASER) Raman Scattering Chandrasekhara

More information

JRE Group of Institutions ASSIGNMENT # 1 Special Theory of Relativity

JRE Group of Institutions ASSIGNMENT # 1 Special Theory of Relativity ASSIGNMENT # 1 Special Theory of Relativity 1. What was the objective of conducting the Michelson-Morley experiment? Describe the experiment. How is the negative result of the experiment interpreted? 2.

More information

Usama Anwar. June 29, 2012

Usama Anwar. June 29, 2012 June 29, 2012 What is SPR? At optical frequencies metals electron gas can sustain surface and volume charge oscillations with distinct resonance frequencies. We call these as plasmom polaritons or plasmoms.

More information

Chapter 33. Electromagnetic Waves

Chapter 33. Electromagnetic Waves Chapter 33 Electromagnetic Waves Today s information age is based almost entirely on the physics of electromagnetic waves. The connection between electric and magnetic fields to produce light is own of

More information

TRANSMISSION PROPERTIES OF SUB-WAVELENGTH HOLE ARRAYS IN METAL FILMS

TRANSMISSION PROPERTIES OF SUB-WAVELENGTH HOLE ARRAYS IN METAL FILMS TRANSMISSION PROPERTIES OF SUB-WAVELENGTH HOLE ARRAYS IN METAL FILMS By KWANGJE WOO A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS

More information

Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits

Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits J.A. Porto 1, F.J. García-Vidal 2, and J.B. Pendry 1 1 Condensed Matter Theory Group, The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London

More information

Spring 2009 EE 710: Nanoscience and Engineering

Spring 2009 EE 710: Nanoscience and Engineering Spring 009 EE 710: Nanoscience and Engineering Part 10: Surface Plasmons in Metals Images and figures supplied from Hornyak, Dutta, Tibbals, and Rao, Introduction to Nanoscience, CRC Press Boca Raton,

More information

POLARIZATION OF LIGHT

POLARIZATION OF LIGHT POLARIZATION OF LIGHT OVERALL GOALS The Polarization of Light lab strongly emphasizes connecting mathematical formalism with measurable results. It is not your job to understand every aspect of the theory,

More information

Left-handed materials: Transfer matrix method studies

Left-handed materials: Transfer matrix method studies Left-handed materials: Transfer matrix method studies Peter Markos and C. M. Soukoulis Outline of Talk What are Metamaterials? An Example: Left-handed Materials Results of the transfer matrix method Negative

More information

Optical Spectroscopy of Advanced Materials

Optical Spectroscopy of Advanced Materials Phys 590B Condensed Matter Physics: Experimental Methods Optical Spectroscopy of Advanced Materials Basic optics, nonlinear and ultrafast optics Jigang Wang Department of Physics, Iowa State University

More information

A Study on the Suitability of Indium Nitride for Terahertz Plasmonics

A Study on the Suitability of Indium Nitride for Terahertz Plasmonics A Study on the Suitability of Indium Nitride for Terahertz Plasmonics Arjun Shetty 1*, K. J. Vinoy 1, S. B. Krupanidhi 2 1 Electrical Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore,

More information

arxiv: v1 [physics.optics] 1 May 2011

arxiv: v1 [physics.optics] 1 May 2011 Robust method to determine the resolution of a superlens by analyzing the near-field image of a two-slit object B. D. F. Casse, W. T. Lu, Y. J. Huang, and S. Sridhar Electronic Materials Research Institute

More information

Lasers and Electro-optics

Lasers and Electro-optics Lasers and Electro-optics Second Edition CHRISTOPHER C. DAVIS University of Maryland III ^0 CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS Preface to the Second Edition page xv 1 Electromagnetic waves, light, and lasers 1

More information

Multiple extraordinary optical transmission peaks from evanescent coupling in perforated metal plates surrounded by dielectrics

Multiple extraordinary optical transmission peaks from evanescent coupling in perforated metal plates surrounded by dielectrics Multiple extraordinary optical transmission peaks from evanescent coupling in perforated metal plates surrounded by dielectrics R. Ortuño,* C. García-Meca, F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, J. Martí, and A. Martínez

More information

STM: Scanning Tunneling Microscope

STM: Scanning Tunneling Microscope STM: Scanning Tunneling Microscope Basic idea STM working principle Schematic representation of the sample-tip tunnel barrier Assume tip and sample described by two infinite plate electrodes Φ t +Φ s =

More information

= nm. = nm. = nm

= nm. = nm. = nm Chemistry 60 Analytical Spectroscopy PROBLEM SET 5: Due 03/0/08 1. At a recent birthday party, a young friend (elementary school) noticed that multicolored rings form across the surface of soap bubbles.

More information

Physics 214 Course Overview

Physics 214 Course Overview Physics 214 Course Overview Lecturer: Mike Kagan Course topics Electromagnetic waves Optics Thin lenses Interference Diffraction Relativity Photons Matter waves Black Holes EM waves Intensity Polarization

More information

OPTICAL PROPERTIES of Nanomaterials

OPTICAL PROPERTIES of Nanomaterials OPTICAL PROPERTIES of Nanomaterials Advanced Reading Optical Properties and Spectroscopy of Nanomaterials Jin Zhong Zhang World Scientific, Singapore, 2009. Optical Properties Many of the optical properties

More information

QUESTION BANK IN PHYSICS

QUESTION BANK IN PHYSICS QUESTION BANK IN PHYSICS LASERS. Name some properties, which make laser light different from ordinary light. () {JUN 5. The output power of a given laser is mw and the emitted wavelength is 630nm. Calculate

More information

Angular and polarization properties of a photonic crystal slab mirror

Angular and polarization properties of a photonic crystal slab mirror Angular and polarization properties of a photonic crystal slab mirror Virginie Lousse 1,2, Wonjoo Suh 1, Onur Kilic 1, Sora Kim 1, Olav Solgaard 1, and Shanhui Fan 1 1 Department of Electrical Engineering,

More information

PH 222-2C Fall Electromagnetic Waves Lectures Chapter 33 (Halliday/Resnick/Walker, Fundamentals of Physics 8 th edition)

PH 222-2C Fall Electromagnetic Waves Lectures Chapter 33 (Halliday/Resnick/Walker, Fundamentals of Physics 8 th edition) PH 222-2C Fall 2012 Electromagnetic Waves Lectures 21-22 Chapter 33 (Halliday/Resnick/Walker, Fundamentals of Physics 8 th edition) 1 Chapter 33 Electromagnetic Waves Today s information age is based almost

More information

Problem 8.0 Make Your Own Exam Problem for Midterm II by April 13

Problem 8.0 Make Your Own Exam Problem for Midterm II by April 13 MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science 6.007 Electromagnetic Energy: From Motors to Lasers Spring 2011 Problem Set 8: Electromagnetic Waves at Boundaries

More information

Lecture 2: Thin Films. Thin Films. Calculating Thin Film Stack Properties. Jones Matrices for Thin Film Stacks. Mueller Matrices for Thin Film Stacks

Lecture 2: Thin Films. Thin Films. Calculating Thin Film Stack Properties. Jones Matrices for Thin Film Stacks. Mueller Matrices for Thin Film Stacks Lecture 2: Thin Films Outline Thin Films 2 Calculating Thin Film Stack Properties 3 Jones Matrices for Thin Film Stacks 4 Mueller Matrices for Thin Film Stacks 5 Mueller Matrix for Dielectrica 6 Mueller

More information

βi β r medium 1 θ i θ r y θ t β t

βi β r medium 1 θ i θ r y θ t β t W.C.Chew ECE 350 Lecture Notes Date:November 7, 997 0. Reections and Refractions of Plane Waves. Hr Ei Hi βi β r Er medium θ i θ r μ, ε y θ t μ, ε medium x z Ht β t Et Perpendicular Case (Transverse Electric

More information

GRATING CLASSIFICATION

GRATING CLASSIFICATION GRATING CLASSIFICATION SURFACE-RELIEF GRATING TYPES GRATING CLASSIFICATION Transmission or Reflection Classification based on Regime DIFFRACTION BY GRATINGS Acousto-Optics Diffractive Optics Integrated

More information

Wave Phenomena Physics 15c. Lecture 15 Reflection and Refraction

Wave Phenomena Physics 15c. Lecture 15 Reflection and Refraction Wave Phenomena Physics 15c Lecture 15 Reflection and Refraction What We (OK, Brian) Did Last Time Discussed EM waves in vacuum and in matter Maxwell s equations Wave equation Plane waves E t = c E B t

More information

Overview in Images. S. Lin et al, Nature, vol. 394, p , (1998) T.Thio et al., Optics Letters 26, (2001).

Overview in Images. S. Lin et al, Nature, vol. 394, p , (1998) T.Thio et al., Optics Letters 26, (2001). Overview in Images 5 nm K.S. Min et al. PhD Thesis K.V. Vahala et al, Phys. Rev. Lett, 85, p.74 (000) J. D. Joannopoulos, et al, Nature, vol.386, p.143-9 (1997) T.Thio et al., Optics Letters 6, 197-1974

More information

16. More About Polarization

16. More About Polarization 16. More About Polarization Polarization control Wave plates Circular polarizers Reflection & polarization Scattering & polarization Birefringent materials have more than one refractive index A special

More information

Physics 9e/Cutnell. correlated to the. College Board AP Physics 2 Course Objectives

Physics 9e/Cutnell. correlated to the. College Board AP Physics 2 Course Objectives correlated to the College Board AP Physics 2 Course Objectives Big Idea 1: Objects and systems have properties such as mass and charge. Systems may have internal structure. Enduring Understanding 1.A:

More information

Simulation and Theory for Plasmonic Holography

Simulation and Theory for Plasmonic Holography Simulation and Theory for Plasmonic Holography I. Background There are three main purposes in the simulation and theoretical aspects of our work in plasmonic holography. They are (1) to guide the experiments

More information

FIBER OPTICS. Prof. R.K. Shevgaonkar. Department of Electrical Engineering. Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay. Lecture: 15. Optical Sources-LASER

FIBER OPTICS. Prof. R.K. Shevgaonkar. Department of Electrical Engineering. Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay. Lecture: 15. Optical Sources-LASER FIBER OPTICS Prof. R.K. Shevgaonkar Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Lecture: 15 Optical Sources-LASER Fiber Optics, Prof. R.K. Shevgaonkar, Dept. of Electrical

More information

The Electromagnetic Properties of Materials

The Electromagnetic Properties of Materials The Electromagnetic Properties of Materials Electrical conduction Metals Semiconductors Insulators (dielectrics) Superconductors Magnetic materials Ferromagnetic materials Others Photonic Materials (optical)

More information

Negative Index of Refraction in Optical Metamaterials

Negative Index of Refraction in Optical Metamaterials 1 Negative Index of Refraction in Optical Metamaterials V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev School of Electrical and Computer Engineering,

More information

Polarized Light. Nikki Truss. Abstract:

Polarized Light. Nikki Truss. Abstract: Polarized Light Nikki Truss 9369481 Abstract: In this experiment, the properties of linearly polarised light were examined. Malus Law was verified using the apparatus shown in Fig. 1. Reflectance of s-polarised

More information

Optics in a Fish Tank Demonstrations for the Classroom

Optics in a Fish Tank Demonstrations for the Classroom Optics in a Fish Tank Demonstrations for the Classroom Introduction: This series of demonstrations will illustrate a number of optical phenomena. Using different light sources and a tank of water, you

More information

Geometries and materials for subwavelength surface plasmon modes

Geometries and materials for subwavelength surface plasmon modes Geometries and materials for subwavelength surface plasmon modes Plasmon slot waveguides : Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) Metal nanorods and nanotips Metal nanoparticles Metal Dielectric Dielectric Metal

More information

1. Reminder: E-Dynamics in homogenous media and at interfaces

1. Reminder: E-Dynamics in homogenous media and at interfaces 0. Introduction 1. Reminder: E-Dynamics in homogenous media and at interfaces 2. Photonic Crystals 2.1 Introduction 2.2 1D Photonic Crystals 2.3 2D and 3D Photonic Crystals 2.4 Numerical Methods 2.5 Fabrication

More information

Coherent thermal emission by excitation of magnetic polaritons between periodic strips and a metallic film

Coherent thermal emission by excitation of magnetic polaritons between periodic strips and a metallic film Coherent thermal emission by excitation of magnetic polaritons between periodic strips and a metallic film B. J. Lee, L. P. Wang, and Z. M. Zhang George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering Georgia

More information

Typical anisotropies introduced by geometry (not everything is spherically symmetric) temperature gradients magnetic fields electrical fields

Typical anisotropies introduced by geometry (not everything is spherically symmetric) temperature gradients magnetic fields electrical fields Lecture 6: Polarimetry 1 Outline 1 Polarized Light in the Universe 2 Fundamentals of Polarized Light 3 Descriptions of Polarized Light Polarized Light in the Universe Polarization indicates anisotropy

More information

Scanning Probe Microscopy. Amanda MacMillan, Emmy Gebremichael, & John Shamblin Chem 243: Instrumental Analysis Dr. Robert Corn March 10, 2010

Scanning Probe Microscopy. Amanda MacMillan, Emmy Gebremichael, & John Shamblin Chem 243: Instrumental Analysis Dr. Robert Corn March 10, 2010 Scanning Probe Microscopy Amanda MacMillan, Emmy Gebremichael, & John Shamblin Chem 243: Instrumental Analysis Dr. Robert Corn March 10, 2010 Scanning Probe Microscopy High-Resolution Surface Analysis

More information

REFLECTION AND REFRACTION AT A SINGLE INTERFACE

REFLECTION AND REFRACTION AT A SINGLE INTERFACE REFLECTION AND REFRACTION AT A SINGLE INTERFACE 5.1 THE BEHAVIOUR OF LIGHT AT A DIELECTRIC INTERFACE The previous Chapters have been concerned with the propagation of waves in empty space or in uniform,

More information

ABC s of Electrochemistry series Materials Characterization techniques: SEM and EDS Ana María Valenzuela-Muñiz November 3, 2011

ABC s of Electrochemistry series Materials Characterization techniques: SEM and EDS Ana María Valenzuela-Muñiz November 3, 2011 ABC s of Electrochemistry series Materials Characterization techniques: SEM and EDS Ana María Valenzuela-Muñiz November 3, 2011 CEER, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Outline Introduction

More information

Chapter 9. Reflection, Refraction and Polarization

Chapter 9. Reflection, Refraction and Polarization Reflection, Refraction and Polarization Introduction When you solved Problem 5.2 using the standing-wave approach, you found a rather curious behavior as the wave propagates and meets the boundary. A new

More information

Chapter 5. Effects of Photonic Crystal Band Gap on Rotation and Deformation of Hollow Te Rods in Triangular Lattice

Chapter 5. Effects of Photonic Crystal Band Gap on Rotation and Deformation of Hollow Te Rods in Triangular Lattice Chapter 5 Effects of Photonic Crystal Band Gap on Rotation and Deformation of Hollow Te Rods in Triangular Lattice In chapter 3 and 4, we have demonstrated that the deformed rods, rotational rods and perturbation

More information

4. Circular Dichroism - Spectroscopy

4. Circular Dichroism - Spectroscopy 4. Circular Dichroism - Spectroscopy The optical rotatory dispersion (ORD) and the circular dichroism (CD) are special variations of absorption spectroscopy in the UV and VIS region of the spectrum. The

More information

Surface plasmon toy-model of a rotating black hole.

Surface plasmon toy-model of a rotating black hole. Surface plasmon toy-model of a rotating black hole. Igor I. Smolyaninov Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (February 2, 2008) arxiv:cond-mat/0309356v1

More information

Surface plasmon resonance based refractive index sensor for liquids

Surface plasmon resonance based refractive index sensor for liquids Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics Vol. 43, November 005, pp. 854-858 Surface plasmon resonance based refractive index sensor for liquids Navina Mehan, Vinay Gupta, K Sreenivas & Abhai Mansingh Department

More information

Tutorial 7: Solutions

Tutorial 7: Solutions Tutorial 7: Solutions 1. (a) A point source S is a perpendicular distance R away from the centre of a circular hole of radius a in an opaque screen. f the distance to the periphery is (R + l), show that

More information

Surface Plasmon Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. By: Jonathan Massey-Allard Graham Zell Justin Lau

Surface Plasmon Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. By: Jonathan Massey-Allard Graham Zell Justin Lau Surface Plasmon Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation By: Jonathan Massey-Allard Graham Zell Justin Lau Surface Plasmons (SPs) Quanta of electron oscillations in a plasma. o Electron gas in

More information

S-matrix approach for calculations of the optical properties of metallic-dielectric photonic crystal slabs

S-matrix approach for calculations of the optical properties of metallic-dielectric photonic crystal slabs S-matrix approach for calculations of the optical properties of metallic-dielectric photonic crystal slabs N. I. Komarevskiy1,2, T. Weiss3, and S. G. Tikhodeev2 1 Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State

More information

Plasmonic nanoguides and circuits

Plasmonic nanoguides and circuits Plasmonic nanoguides and circuits Introduction: need for plasmonics? Strip SPPs Cylindrical SPPs Gap SPP waveguides Channel plasmon polaritons Dielectric-loaded SPP waveguides PLASMOCOM 1. Intro: need

More information

Propagation of Surface Plasmon Polariton in the Single Interface of Gallium Lanthanum Sulfide and Silver

Propagation of Surface Plasmon Polariton in the Single Interface of Gallium Lanthanum Sulfide and Silver PHOTONIC SENSORS / Vol., No., : 58 6 Propagation of Surface Plasmon Polariton in the Single Interface of Gallium Lanthanum Sulfide and Silver Rakibul Hasan SAGOR, Md. Ghulam SABER *, and Md. Ruhul AMIN

More information

Astronomy. Optics and Telescopes

Astronomy. Optics and Telescopes Astronomy A. Dayle Hancock adhancock@wm.edu Small 239 Office hours: MTWR 10-11am Optics and Telescopes - Refraction, lenses and refracting telescopes - Mirrors and reflecting telescopes - Diffraction limit,

More information

Lecture notes 5: Diffraction

Lecture notes 5: Diffraction Lecture notes 5: Diffraction Let us now consider how light reacts to being confined to a given aperture. The resolution of an aperture is restricted due to the wave nature of light: as light passes through

More information

OPTI510R: Photonics. Khanh Kieu College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona Meinel building R.626

OPTI510R: Photonics. Khanh Kieu College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona Meinel building R.626 OPTI510R: Photonics Khanh Kieu College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona kkieu@optics.arizona.edu Meinel building R.626 Announcements Mid-term exam on Monday, March 6 th Review Properties of light

More information

EM Waves. From previous Lecture. This Lecture More on EM waves EM spectrum Polarization. Displacement currents Maxwell s equations EM Waves

EM Waves. From previous Lecture. This Lecture More on EM waves EM spectrum Polarization. Displacement currents Maxwell s equations EM Waves EM Waves This Lecture More on EM waves EM spectrum Polarization From previous Lecture Displacement currents Maxwell s equations EM Waves 1 Reminders on waves Traveling waves on a string along x obey the

More information

ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES WHAT IS LIGHT?

ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES WHAT IS LIGHT? VISUAL PHYSICS ONLINE MODULE 7 NATURE OF LIGHT ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES WHAT IS LIGHT? James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879), was a Scottish mathematician and theoretical physicist. He had an unquenchable curiosity

More information

Localized surface plasmons (Particle plasmons)

Localized surface plasmons (Particle plasmons) Localized surface plasmons (Particle plasmons) ( Plasmons in metal nanostructures, Dissertation, University of Munich by Carsten Sonnichsen, 2001) Lycurgus cup, 4th century (now at the British Museum,

More information

MCQs E M WAVES. Physics Without Fear.

MCQs E M WAVES. Physics Without Fear. MCQs E M WAVES Physics Without Fear Electromagnetic Waves At A Glance Ampere s law B. dl = μ 0 I relates magnetic fields due to current sources. Maxwell argued that this law is incomplete as it does not

More information

CHAPTER 2. COULOMB S LAW AND ELECTRONIC FIELD INTENSITY. 2.3 Field Due to a Continuous Volume Charge Distribution

CHAPTER 2. COULOMB S LAW AND ELECTRONIC FIELD INTENSITY. 2.3 Field Due to a Continuous Volume Charge Distribution CONTENTS CHAPTER 1. VECTOR ANALYSIS 1. Scalars and Vectors 2. Vector Algebra 3. The Cartesian Coordinate System 4. Vector Cartesian Coordinate System 5. The Vector Field 6. The Dot Product 7. The Cross

More information

Cathodoluminescence spectroscopy on lamellar metal and semiconductor gratings for nano-photonic devices

Cathodoluminescence spectroscopy on lamellar metal and semiconductor gratings for nano-photonic devices ICAMMP 11 International Conference on Advances in Materials and Materials Processing, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, 9-11 December, 11 Cathodoluminescence spectroscopy on lamellar metal and

More information

LIGHT CONTROLLED PHOTON TUNNELING. University of Maryland, College Park, MD Phone: , Fax: ,

LIGHT CONTROLLED PHOTON TUNNELING. University of Maryland, College Park, MD Phone: , Fax: , LIGHT CONTROLLED PHOTON TUNNELING Igor I. Smolyaninov 1), Anatoliy V. Zayats 2), and Christopher C. Davis 1) 1) Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Maryland, College Park, MD

More information

Dept. of Physics, MIT Manipal 1

Dept. of Physics, MIT Manipal 1 Chapter 1: Optics 1. In the phenomenon of interference, there is A Annihilation of light energy B Addition of energy C Redistribution energy D Creation of energy 2. Interference fringes are obtained using

More information

9 Atomic Coherence in Three-Level Atoms

9 Atomic Coherence in Three-Level Atoms 9 Atomic Coherence in Three-Level Atoms 9.1 Coherent trapping - dark states In multi-level systems coherent superpositions between different states (atomic coherence) may lead to dramatic changes of light

More information

MP5: Soft Matter: Physics of Liquid Crystals

MP5: Soft Matter: Physics of Liquid Crystals MP5: Soft Matter: Physics of Liquid Crystals 1 Objective In this experiment a liquid crystal display (LCD) is built and its functionality is tested. The light transmission as function of the applied voltage

More information

BREWSTER S LAW AND POLARIZATION

BREWSTER S LAW AND POLARIZATION MISN-0-225 BREWSTER S LAW AND POLARIZATION BREWSTER S LAW AND POLARIZATION by J. Kovacs and P. Signell Michigan State University 1. Description................................................ 1 2. Study

More information

Scattering-type near-field microscopy for nanoscale optical imaging

Scattering-type near-field microscopy for nanoscale optical imaging Scattering-type near-field microscopy for nanoscale optical imaging Rainer Hillenbrand Nano-Photonics Group Max-Planck-Institut für Biochemie 82152 Martinsried, Germany Infrared light enables label-free

More information

Introduction to Polarization

Introduction to Polarization Phone: Ext 659, E-mail: hcchui@mail.ncku.edu.tw Fall/007 Introduction to Polarization Text Book: A Yariv and P Yeh, Photonics, Oxford (007) 1.6 Polarization States and Representations (Stokes Parameters

More information

Polarised Light. Evan Sheridan, Chris Kervick, Tom Power October

Polarised Light. Evan Sheridan, Chris Kervick, Tom Power October Polarised Light Evan Sheridan, Chris Kervick, Tom Power 11367741 October 22 2012 Abstract Properties of linear polarised light are investigated using Helium/Neon gas laser, polaroid,a silicon photodiode,a

More information

WAVE PARTICLE DUALITY

WAVE PARTICLE DUALITY WAVE PARTICLE DUALITY Evidence for wave-particle duality Photoelectric effect Compton effect Electron diffraction Interference of matter-waves Consequence: Heisenberg uncertainty principle PHOTOELECTRIC

More information

Laser Basics. What happens when light (or photon) interact with a matter? Assume photon energy is compatible with energy transition levels.

Laser Basics. What happens when light (or photon) interact with a matter? Assume photon energy is compatible with energy transition levels. What happens when light (or photon) interact with a matter? Assume photon energy is compatible with energy transition levels. Electron energy levels in an hydrogen atom n=5 n=4 - + n=3 n=2 13.6 = [ev]

More information

Lab #13: Polarization

Lab #13: Polarization Lab #13: Polarization Introduction In this experiment we will investigate various properties associated with polarized light. We will study both its generation and application. Real world applications

More information

Self-assembled nanostructures for antireflection optical coatings

Self-assembled nanostructures for antireflection optical coatings Self-assembled nanostructures for antireflection optical coatings Yang Zhao 1, Guangzhao Mao 2, and Jinsong Wang 1 1. Deaprtment of Electrical and Computer Engineering 2. Departmentof Chemical Engineering

More information

Polarization Mode Dispersion

Polarization Mode Dispersion Unit-7: Polarization Mode Dispersion https://sites.google.com/a/faculty.muet.edu.pk/abdullatif Department of Telecommunication, MUET UET Jamshoro 1 Goos Hänchen Shift The Goos-Hänchen effect is a phenomenon

More information

Optical Properties of Left-Handed Materials by Nathaniel Ferraro 01

Optical Properties of Left-Handed Materials by Nathaniel Ferraro 01 Optical Properties of Left-Handed Materials by Nathaniel Ferraro 1 Abstract Recently materials with the unusual property of having a simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity have been tested

More information

Guided and defect modes in periodic dielectric waveguides

Guided and defect modes in periodic dielectric waveguides Fan et al. Vol. 12, No. 7/July 1995/J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1267 Guided and defect modes in periodic dielectric waveguides Shanhui Fan, Joshua N. Winn, Adrian Devenyi, J. C. Chen, Robert D. Meade, and J. D.

More information

Seminars in Nanosystems - I

Seminars in Nanosystems - I Seminars in Nanosystems - I Winter Semester 2011/2012 Dr. Emanuela Margapoti Emanuela.Margapoti@wsi.tum.de Dr. Gregor Koblmüller Gregor.Koblmueller@wsi.tum.de Seminar Room at ZNN 1 floor Topics of the

More information

Lasers. Stimulated Emission Lasers: Trapping Photons Terahertz Lasers Course Overview

Lasers. Stimulated Emission Lasers: Trapping Photons Terahertz Lasers Course Overview Lasers Stimulated Emission Lasers: Trapping Photons Terahertz Lasers Course Overview 1 P-N Junctions and LEDs Terminal Pins Emitted Light Beams Diode Transparent Plastic Case High energy electrons (n-type)

More information

Report submitted to Prof. P. Shipman for Math 540, Fall 2009

Report submitted to Prof. P. Shipman for Math 540, Fall 2009 Dynamics at the Horsetooth Volume 1, 009. Three-Wave Interactions of Spin Waves Aaron Hagerstrom Department of Physics Colorado State University aaronhag@rams.colostate.edu Report submitted to Prof. P.

More information

Electromagnetic Metamaterials

Electromagnetic Metamaterials Electromagnetic Metamaterials Dr. Alkim Akyurtlu Center for Electromagnetic Materials and Optical Systems University of Massachusetts Lowell September 19, 2006 Objective Outline Background on Metamaterials

More information

Studying Metal to Insulator Transitions in Solids using Synchrotron Radiation-based Spectroscopies.

Studying Metal to Insulator Transitions in Solids using Synchrotron Radiation-based Spectroscopies. PY482 Lecture. February 28 th, 2013 Studying Metal to Insulator Transitions in Solids using Synchrotron Radiation-based Spectroscopies. Kevin E. Smith Department of Physics Department of Chemistry Division

More information

PHYS 110B - HW #5 Fall 2005, Solutions by David Pace Equations referenced equations are from Griffiths Problem statements are paraphrased

PHYS 110B - HW #5 Fall 2005, Solutions by David Pace Equations referenced equations are from Griffiths Problem statements are paraphrased PHYS 0B - HW #5 Fall 005, Solutions by David Pace Equations referenced equations are from Griffiths Problem statements are paraphrased [.] Imagine a prism made of lucite (n.5) whose cross-section is a

More information

Phys102 Lecture Diffraction of Light

Phys102 Lecture Diffraction of Light Phys102 Lecture 31-33 Diffraction of Light Key Points Diffraction by a Single Slit Diffraction in the Double-Slit Experiment Limits of Resolution Diffraction Grating and Spectroscopy Polarization References

More information

Limitations on Sub-Diffraction Imaging with a Negative Refractive Index Slab

Limitations on Sub-Diffraction Imaging with a Negative Refractive Index Slab Limitations on Sub-Diffraction Imaging with a Negative Refractive Index Slab David R. Smith*, David Schurig, Marshall Rosenbluth, Sheldon Schult, Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego,

More information

Electromagnetic Waves Properties. The electric and the magnetic field, associated with an electromagnetic wave, propagating along the z=axis. Can be represented by E = E kˆ, = iˆ E = E ˆj, = ˆj b) E =

More information

Introduction to Spectroscopic methods

Introduction to Spectroscopic methods Introduction to Spectroscopic methods Spectroscopy: Study of interaction between light* and matter. Spectrometry: Implies a quantitative measurement of intensity. * More generally speaking electromagnetic

More information