# Circuit Analysis. by John M. Santiago, Jr., PhD FOR. Professor of Electrical and Systems Engineering, Colonel (Ret) USAF. A Wiley Brand FOR-

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1 Circuit Analysis FOR A Wiley Brand by John M. Santiago, Jr., PhD Professor of Electrical and Systems Engineering, Colonel (Ret) USAF FOR- A Wiley Brand

2 Table of Contents. ' : '" '! " ' ' '... ',. 1 Introduction 1 About This Book 1 Conventions Used in This Book 1 What You're Not to Read 2 Foolish Assumptions 2 How This Book Is Organized 2 Part I: Getting Started with Circuit Analysis "2 Part II: Applying Analytical Methods for Complex Circuits 3 Part III: Understanding Circuits with Transistors and Operational Amplifiers 3 Part IV: Applying Time-Varying Signals to First- and Second-Order Circuits 3 Part V: Advanced Techniques and Applications in Circuit Analysis 3 Part VI: The Part of Tens 3 Icons Used in This Book 4 Where to Go from Here 4 Part 1: Gettina Started With Circuit Anatusis 5 Chapter 1: Introducing Circuit Analysis 7 Getting Started with Current and Voltage 7 Going with the flow with current 8 Recognizing potential differences with voltage 9 Staying grounded with zero voltage 9 Getting some direction with the passive sign convention 10 Beginning with the Basic Laws 11 Surveying the Analytical Methods for More-Complex Circuits 11 Introducing Transistors and Operational Amplifiers 12 Dealing with Time-Varying Signals, Capacitors, and Inductors 13 Avoiding Calculus with Advanced Techniques 13 Chapter 2: Clarifying Basic Circuit Concepts and Diagrams 15 Looking at Current-Voltage Relationships 15 Absorbing energy with resistors 16 Applying Ohm's law to resistors 16 Calculating the power dissipated by resistors 18 Offering no resistance: Batteries and short circuits 18 Batteries: Providing power independently 19 Short circuits: No voltage, no power 19

3 Circuit Analysis For Dummies Facing infinite resistance: Ideal current sources and open circuits 20 All or nothing: Combining open and short circuits with ideal switches 20 Mapping It All Out with Schematics 21 Going in circles with loops 22 Getting straight to the point with nodes 24 Chapter 3: Exploring Simple Circuits with Kirchhoff's Laws 25 Presenting Kirchhoff's Famous Circuit Laws 25 Kirchhoff's voltage law (KVL): Conservation of energy 26 Identifying voltage rises and drops 26 Forming a KVL equation 27 Kirchhoff's current law (KCL): Conservation of charge 29 Tracking incoming and outgoing current 29 Calculating KCL 30 Tackling Circuits with KVL, KCL, and Ohm's Law 31 Getting batteries and resistors to work together 31 Starting with voltage 32 Bringing in current 32 Combining device equations with KVL 33 Summarizing the results 34 Sharing the same current in series circuits 34 Climbing the ladder with parallel circuits 36 Describing total resistance using conductance 37 Using a shortcut for two resistors in parallel 38 Finding equivalent resistor combinations 38 Combining series and parallel resistors 40 Chapter 4: Simplifying Circuit Analysis with Source Transformation and Division Techniques 41 Equivalent Circuits: Preparing for the Transformation 42 Transforming Sources in Circuits 45 Converting to a parallel circuit with a current source 45 Changing to a series circuit with a voltage source 47 Divvying It Up with the Voltage Divider 49 Getting a voltage divider equation for a series circuit 49 Figuring out voltages for a series circuit with two or more resistors 51 Finding voltages when you have multiple current sources 52 Using the voltage divider technique repeatedly 55 Cutting to the Chase Using the Current Divider Technique 57 Getting a current divider equation for a parallel circuit 57 Figuring out currents for parallel circuits 59 Finding currents when you have multiple voltage sources 60 Using the current divider technique repeatedly 63

4 Table of Contents jf/// Part 11: Appluinq Analytical Methods for Complex Circuits 65 Chapter 5: Giving the Nod to Node-Voltage Analysis 67 Getting Acquainted with Node Voltages and Reference Nodes 67 Testing the Waters with Node Voltage Analysis 69 What goes in must come out: Starting with KCL at the nodes 70 Describing device currents in terms of node voltages with Ohm's law 70 Putting a system of node voltage equations in matrix form 72 Solving for unknown node voltages 73 Applying the NVA Technique 74 Solving for unknown node voltageswith a current source 74 Dealing with three or more node equations 76 Working with Voltage Sources in Node-Voltage Analysis 80 Chapter 6: Getting in the Loop on Mesh Current Equations 83 Windowpanes: Looking at Meshes and Mesh Currents 83 Relating Device Currents to Mesh Currents 84 Generating the Mesh Current Equations 86 Finding the KVL equations first 87 Ohm's law: Putting device voltages in terms of mesh currents...87 Substituting the device voltages into the KVL equations 88 Putting mesh current equations into matrix form 89 Solving for unknown currents and voltages 89 Crunching Numbers: Using Meshes to Analyze Circuits 90 Tackling two-mesh circuits 90 Analyzing circuits with three or more meshes 92 Chapter 7: Solving One Problem at a Time Using Superposition 95 Discovering How Superposition Works 95 Making sense of proportionality 96 Applying superposition in circuits 98 Adding the contributions of each independent source 100 Getting Rid of the Sources of Frustration 101 Short circuit: Removing a voltage source 101 Open circuit: Taking out a current source 102 Analyzing Circuits with Two Independent Sources 103 Knowing what to do when the sources are two voltage sources 103 Proceeding when the sources are two current sources 105 Dealing with one voltage source and one current source 107 Solving a Circuit with Three Independent Sources 108

5 Circuit Analysis For Dummies Chapter 8: Applying Thevenin's and Norton's Theorems 113 Showing What You Can Do with Thevenin's and Norton's Theorems 114 Finding the Norton and Thevenin Equivalents for Complex Source Circuits 115 Applying Thevenin's theorem 117 Finding the Thevenin equivalent of a circuit with a single independent voltage source 117 Applying Norton's theorem 119 Using source transformation to find Thevenin or Norton 122 A shortcut: Finding Thevenin or Norton equivalents with source transformation 122 Finding the Thevenin equivalent of a circuit with multiple independent sources 122 Finding Thevenin or Norton with superposition 124 Gauging Maximum Power Transfer: A Practical Application of Both Theorems 127 Part HI: Understanding Circuits urith Transistors and Operational Amplifiers 131 Chapter 9: Dependent Sources and the Transistors That Involve Them 133 Understanding Linear Dependent Sources: Who Controls What 134 Classifying the types of dependent sources 134 Recognizing the relationship between dependent and independent sources 136 Analyzing Circuits with Dependent Sources 136 Applying node-voltage analysis 137 Using source transformation 138 Using the Thevenin technique 140 Describing a JFET Transistor with a Dependent Source 142 Examining the Three Personalities of Bipolar Transistors 145 Making signals louder with the common emitter circuit 146 Amplifying signals with a common base circuit 149 Isolating circuits with the common collector circuit 151 Chapter 10: Letting Operational Amplifiers Do the Tough Math Fast 155 The Ins and Outs of Op-Amp Circuits 155 Discovering how to draw op amps 156 Looking at the ideal op amp and its transfer characteristics 157 Modeling an op amp with a dependent source 158 Examining the essential equations for analyzing ideal op-amp circuits 159

6 Table of Contents #(/ Looking at Op-Amp Circuits 160 Analyzing a noninverting op amp 160 Following the leader with the voltage follower 162 Turning things around with the inverting amplifier 163 Adding it all up with the summer 164 What's the difference? Using the op-amp subtractor 166 Increasing the Complexity of What You Can Do with Op Amps 168 Analyzing the instrumentation amplifier 168 Implementing mathematical equations electronically 170 Creating systems with op amps 171 Part IV: Applying Time-Varying Signals to First- and Second-Order Circuits 173 Chapter 11: Making Waves with Funky Functions 175 Spiking It Up with the Lean, Mean Impulse Function 176 Changing the strength of the impulse 178 Delaying an impulse 178 Evaluating impulse functions with integrals 179 Stepping It Up with a Step Function 180 Creating a time-shifted, weighted step function 181 Being out of step with shifted step functions 182 Building a ramp function with a step function 182 Pushing the Limits with the Exponential Function 184 Seeing the Signs with Sinusoidal Functions 186 Giving wavy functions a phase shift 187 Expanding the function and finding Fourier coefficients 189 Connecting sinusoidal functions to exponentials with Euler's formula 190 Chapter 12: Spicing Up Circuit Analysis with Capacitors and Inductors 193 Storing Electrical Energy with Capacitors 193 Describing a capacitor 194 Charging a capacitor (credit cards not accepted) 195 Relating the current and voltage of a capacitor 195 Finding the power and energy of a capacitor 196 Calculating the total capacitance for parallel and series capacitors 199 Finding the equivalent capacitance of parallel capacitors 199 Finding the equivalent capacitance of capacitors in series 200 Storing Magnetic Energy with Inductors 200 Describing an inductor 201 Finding the energy storage of an attractive inductor 202

7 Circuit Analysis For Dummies Calculating total inductance for series and parallel inductors 203 Finding the equivalent inductance for inductors in series 203 Finding the equivalent inductance for inductors in parallel 204 Calculus: Putting a Cap on Op-Amp Circuits 205 Creating an op-amp integrator 205 Deriving an op-amp differentiator 207 Using Op Amps to Solve Differential Equations Really Fast 208 Chapter 13: Tackling First-Order Circuits 211 Solving First-Order Circuits with Diff EQ 211 Guessing at the solution with the natural exponential function 213 Using the characteristic equation for a first-order equation 214 Analyzing a Series Circuit with a Single Resistor and Capacitor 215 Starting with the simple RC series circuit 215 Finding the zero-input response 217 Finding the zero-state response by focusing on the input source 219 Adding the zero-input and zero-state responses to find the total response 222 Analyzing a Parallel Circuit with a Single Resistor and Inductor 224 Starting with the simple RL parallel circuit 225 Calculating the zero-input response for an RL parallel circuit Calculating the zero-state response for an RL parallel circuit 228 Adding the zero-input and zero-state responses to find the total response 230 Chapter 14: Analyzing Second-Order Circuits 233 Examining Second-Order Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients 233 Guessing at the elementary solutions: The natural exponential function 235 From calculus to algebra: Using the characteristic equation 236 Analyzing an RLC Series Circuit 236 Setting up a typical RLC series circuit 237 Determining the zero-input response 239 Calculating the zero-state response 242 Finishing up with the total response 245 Analyzing an RLC Parallel Circuit Using Duality 246 Setting up a typical RLC parallel circuit 247 Finding the zero-input response 249 Arriving at the zero-state response 250 Getting the total response 251

8 Table of Contents #(// Part V: Advanced Techniques and Applications in Circuit Analysis 253 Chapter 15: Phasing in Phasors for Wave Functions 255 Taking a More Imaginative Turn with Phasors 256 Finding phasor forms 256 Examining the properties of phasors 258 Using Impedance to Expand Ohm's Law to Capacitors and Inductors 259 Understanding impedance 260 Looking at phasor diagrams 261 Putting Ohm's law for capacitors in phasor form 262 Putting Ohm's law for inductors in phasor form 263 Tackling Circuits with Phasors 263 Using divider techniques in phasor form 264 Adding phasor outputs with superposition 266 Simplifying phasor analysis with Thevenin and Norton 268 Getting the nod for nodal analysis 270 Using mesh-current analysis with phasors 271 Chapter 16: Predicting Circuit Behavior with Laplace Transform Techniques 273 Getting Acquainted with the Laplace Transform and Key Transform Pairs 273 Getting Your Time Back with the Inverse Laplace Transform 276 Rewriting the transform with partial fraction expansion 276 Expanding Laplace transforms with complex poles 278 Dealing with transforms with multiple poles 280 Understanding Poles and Zeros of F(s) 282 Predicting the Circuit Response with Laplace Methods 285 Working out a first-order RC circuit 286 Working out a first-order RL circuit 290 Working out an RLC circuit 292 Chapter 17: Implementing Laplace Techniques for Circuit Analysis 295 Starting Easy with Basic Constraints 296 Connection constraints in the s-domain 296 Device constraints in the s-domain 297 Independent and dependent sources 297 Passive elements: Resistors, capacitors, and inductors 297 Op-amp devices 299 Impedance and admittance 299 Seeing How Basic Circuit Analysis Works in the s-domain 300 Applying voltage division with series circuits 300 Turning to current division for parallel circuits 302

9 XViii Circuit Analysis For Dummies Conducting Complex Circuit Analysis in the s-domain 303 Using node-voltage analysis 303 Using mesh-current analysis 304 Using superposition and proportionality 305 Using the Thevenin and Norton equivalents 309 Chapter 18: Focusing on the Frequency Responses 313 Describing the Frequency Response and Classy Filters 314 Low-pass filter 315 High-pass filter 316 Band-pass filters 316 Band-reject filters 317 Plotting Something: Showing Frequency Response ä la Bode 318 Looking at a basic Bode plot 319 Poles, zeros, and scale factors: Picturing Bode plots from transfer functions 320 Turning the Corner: Making Low-Pass and High-Pass Filters with RC Circuits 325 First-order RC low-pass filter (LPF) 325 First-order RC high-pass filter (HPF) 326 Creating Band-Pass and Band-Reject Filters with RLC or RC Circuits 327 Getting serious with RLC series circuits 327 RLC series band-pass filter (BPF) 327 RLC series band-reject filter (BRF) 330 Climbing the ladder with RLC parallel circuits 330 RC only: Getting a pass with a band-pass and band-reject filter 332 Part VI: The Part of Tens 335 Chapter 19: Ten Practical Applications for Circuits 337 Potentiometers 337 Homemade Capacitors: Leyden Jars 338 Digital-to-Analog Conversion Using Op Amps 338 Two-Speaker Systems 338 Interface Techniques Using Resistors 338 Interface Techniques Using Op Amps 339 The Wheatstone Bridge 339 Accelerometers 339 Electronic Stud Finders Timer Circuits 340

10 Table of Contents )Cl)C Chapter 20: Ten Technologies Affecting Circuits 341 Smartphone Touchscreens 341 Nanotechnology 341 Carbon Nanotubes 342 Microelectromechanical Systems 342 Supercapacitors 343 The Memristor 343 Superconducting Digital Electronics 343 Wide Bandgap Semiconductors 343 Flexible Electronics 344 Microelectronic Chips that Pair Up with Biological Cells 344 Index 345

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