Preparation and biomedical application of a nonpolymer coated superparamagnetic nanoparticle

 Norman Hall
 4 months ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 RIGINAL RESEARCH Preprtion n iomeil pplition of nonpolymer ote superprmgneti nnoprtile Lin Du 1 Jinzho Chen 1 Ynting Qi 1 Dn Li 1 Chonggng Yun 1 Mrie C Lin 3 Dvi T Yew 4 HsingFu Kung 5 Jimmy C Yu 2 Lihui Li 1 1 Institute of Moleulr n Chemil Biology, Est Chin Norml University, Shnghi, Chin; 2 Deprtment of Chemistry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Chin; 3 Deprtment of Chemistry, pen Lortory of Chemil Biology of the Institute of Moleulr Tehnology for Drug Disovery n Synthesis, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulm, Hong Kong, Chin; 4 Deprtment of Antomy, Fulty of Meiine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Chin; 5 Centre for Emerging Infetious Diseses, Fulty of Meiine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Chin Corresponene: Lihui Li Institute of Moleulr n Chemil Biology, Est Chin Norml University, N Zhongshn R., Shnghi 262, Chin Tel/Fx Emil Astrt: We report the preprtion of nonpolymer ote superprmgneti nnoprtile tht is stle n ioomptile oth in vitro n in vivo. The nonpolymer, etine, is nturl methylting gent in mmmlin liver with tive surfe property. Upon systemi ministrtion, the nnoprtile hs preferentil ioistriution in mmmlin liver n exhiits goo reution of relxivity time n negtive enhnement for the etetion of heptom noules in rts using MRI. ur t emonstrte tht the nonpolymer ote superprmgneti nnoprtile shoul hve potentil pplitions in iomeiine. Keywors: SPI nnoprtile, etine, heptom, MRI Introution The pplitions of superprmgneti iron oxie nnoprtiles (SPI) in iomeiine hve een tively pursue in reent yers (Wilkinson 23; Gupt n Gupt 25; Hu n Yu 26). However, reltively little work hs een rrie out on the nonpolymer ote superprmgneti nnoprtiles with entire size smller thn 1 nm. It hs een emonstrte tht the size of iron oxie prtile n the oting hve notle influene on its mgneti property, ellulr uptke n ell viility. Generlly speking, the nnoprtiles employe for in vivo pplitions shoul e suffiiently smll, stle t physiologil onition without ggregtion n present superprmgneti ehvior t room temperture. All SPI nnoprtiles presently unergoing prelinil or linil testing re ote with polymeri mteril (eg, extrn, roxyextrn, polyethylene glyol). Dextrn limits the tolerne of the ompoun, whih n therefore only e ministere s slow infusion (Pnym n Lhsetwr 23). In ft, ll polymers use, even the welltolerte polyethylene glyol, hve limittions in tissue istriution, penetrtion, metoli lerne n proue verse retions (Zhng et l 22). Reently, nonpolymer (itrte) ote superprmgneti nnoprtile hs een investigte in MR ngiogrphy (Shnorr et l 22; Tupitz et l 2; Wgner et l 22). Here we report nonpolymer ote SPI nnoprtile, whih hs n overll size roun 9 nm n is stle n ioomptile oth in vitro n in vivo. Following systemi ministrtion, the nnoprtile hs preferentil ioistriution in mmmlin liver n exhiits goo reution of relxivity time n negtive enhnement for the etetion of heptom noules in rt moel using mgneti resonne imging (MRI). The surfe hemistry of nnoprtiles is importnt for their potentil pplitions in iomeiine. In this report, we use etine s stilizing gent for the preprtion of SPI nnoprtiles. We hoose etine for this purpose se on the following onsiertions: (1) etine is moleule omprising mphiphili hrter, whih is stle over wie ph rnge in iologil onitions; (2) etine is nturl methylting gent in mmmlin liver, whih hs een foun to protet the livers of experimentl nimls Interntionl Journl of Nnomeiine 27:2(4) Dove Meil Press Limite. All rights reserve
2 Du et l ginst the heptotoxi ethnol n ron tetrhlorie; n (3) etine is n effetive hyrotrope with smll size, whih possesses welltolerte in tissue penetrtion n metoli lerne in vivo (Brk et l 1996). The im of this stuy is to generte etine ote SPI nnoprtile n investigte its potentil pplitions in vivo. ur preliminry t emonstrte tht the nonpolymer ote nnoprtile is useful s n MRI ontrst gent. Methos n results Preprtion n hrteriztion of SPI nnoprtiles For the preprtion of mgnetite nnoprtiles, 1 M FeCl 3.6H 2 (>99%) ws mixe with 2 M FeCl 2.4H 2 (>99%) t the rtio 2:1 n then 28.6% (w/w) Betine hyrohlorie (Fluk Biohemik) ws issolve in the solution y stirring. The ph of retion solution ws juste with the 3M NH until rehing ph vlue of 11. After stirring vigorously for 15 min, the solution ph ws juste to 4 y ing 2M HCl ropwise. The etine ote Fe 3 prtiles were ollete y mgneti seprtion y pplying permnent mgnet for 3 min n wshe with eionize wter three times. To remove exess ions n etine further, the prout ws ilyze ginst with eionize wter overnight. Following this, the solution ws entrifuge t 35 g t RT for 1 min. Finlly the prout ws psse though.22 μm filter n use for investigtions. Eletron mirogrphs of the mgnetite ispersions were rrie out using rop of the smple onto opper mesh ote with n morphous ron film. This mesh ws then rie in vuum esitor. TEM imges were performe using type JELJEMCXΙΙ with working onition kv. Figure 1 shows TEM imge of the iron oxie suspensions with wellisperse feture. Intensity nm θ/ _ CH 3 + CH 3 N CH 3 etine %Trnsmittne R 1 R1 R 1 R 1 R 1 R 2 R 2 + N N + H R H Wvenumers (m) Fe R=CH 13 R =CH CH 2 2 Fe Figure 1 Chrteriztion of the SPI nnoprtile. () TEM imge of the SPI nnoprtiles from the ssynthesize olloil suspensions following entrifugtion t 1, rpm, Br 5 nm, mgnifi tion 2,, () Xry power iffrtion ptterns of the SPI nnoprtiles, () FTIR spetrum of the SPI nnoprtiles, n () hemil struture of etine (ove) n the propose eletrostti intertion of the etine with Fe 3 (elow). 86 Interntionl Journl of Nnomeiine 27:2(4)
3 A nonpolymer ote SPI nnoprtile To hrterize the prouts further, prtil prouts were rie in vuum oven t 25 C for 12 h n use for Xry iffrtion (XRD) nlysis (Tupitz et l 22). XRD t were ollete on Rigku D/mx 255 V Xry iffrtometer employing CuK rition (λ = A t 4 kv n ma). Figure 1 isplys the XRD ptterns for the spreipitte powers orresponing to Figure 1. As mgnetite (Fe 3 ) my e onverte to mghemite (gmm Fe 2 3 ) in the presene of oxygen, it is possile tht the ore of the resulting nnoprtiles n onsist of mghemite s it hs een emonstrte reently (Thünemnn et l 26). The surfe properties were hrterize using FTIR. The iron oxie preipittes were rie n groun with KBr for IR mesurements y Nexus 67 FTIR spetrophotometer with resolution of 2 m 1. FTIR nlysis ws performe to hrterize the surfe nture of the resulting mgnetite nnoprtiles, s epite in Figure 1. A virtionl feture t 1628 m 1 is foun n ssigne to the C N strething motion, whih oul e erive from etine tht ws ote on Fe 3. The ro pek ppere in the region m 1 region orrespons to the H strething virtion s the iron oxie surfes re reily overe with hyroxyl groups in n queous environment (Cheng et l 25). The propose eletrostti intertion of the etine with Fe 3 ws shown in sheme in Figure 1. To investigte the mgneti properties of the SPI nnoprtile, mgnetiztion mesurements hve een me t 23 C with respet to the prtile size using virting smple mgnetometer (VSM, JDM13) t 18 e H 18 e. The superprmgneti ehvior of the SPI nnoprtile ws eviene y zero oerivity n remnene on the mgnetiztion loop n sturtion mgnetiztion of 56.8 emu/g ws etermine (Figure 2). The Fe 3 onentrtions were mesure y treting the iron oxies with nitri i n were lulte on the sis of the verge imeter of the iron oxie prtiles. Moreover,.3T NMR spetrometer with n extremity 5 m oil ws use for the r1; r2 mesurement of SPI nnoprtiles in the wter. The T1 n T2 mesurements were rrie out using the inversion reovery n CrrPurellMeioomGill (CPMG) sequenes, respetively. Smples were issolve into eionize wter n were nlyze for susequent etermintion of the r1 n r2 properties. The ommeril GDTPA ws lso nlyze for omprtive stuy. At onentrtion of.1 mm of the mgnetite prtiles, the longituinl relxtion time (T1) ws reue from 2117 ms for pure wter to 48 ms (Figure 2), while the T2 relxtion time ws reue from 239 to 18 ms (Figure 2). A omprison of T1 n T2 vlues of H 2, GDTPA n SPI tht were mesure using eh pulse for refousing in the multieho sequene is given in Tle 1. ur t emonstrte tht the SPI nnoprtile strongly reue oth T1 n T2 relxtion times with T2 signifintly lower thn T1. Therefore, this prtile my hve the potentil for MR imging s ontrst gent. Cytotoxiity evlution Cell lines inluing SMMC7721 n HL772 were ulture in DME meium supplemente with 1% fetl ovine serum, 2 mm lglutmine n 5 mg/ml gentmiin t ells/ well in 24well pltes t 37 C uner humiifie tmosphere of 95% ir n 5% C 2. After 24 h, the ells were pplie with seril 5fol ilutions of the SPI nnoprtile n GDTPA (Shering AG, Germny) in triplite with finl onentrtions rnging from.2 to 5 mm for 4 h. Following replenishment with fresh meium, the ells were inute for ition 48 h. Histohemistry nlysis ws rrie out with Prussin lue stining for the presene of iron. Figure Mgneti Fiel (ke) Signl (logrithmi sle) Signl (logrithmi sle) y =.22x R 2 = TI (ms) y =.93x R 2 = TE(ms) Figure 2 Mgneti properties of the SPI nnoprtile. The mgneti hysteresis loops of the prtile were mesure t room temperture n sturtion mgnetiztion of 56.8 emu/g ws etermine (). Both r1 n r2 of the SPI nnoprtile (.1 mm in the wter t 23 C) were evlute y.3 T MR imger. The longituinl relxtion time (T1) ws reue from 2117 ms for pure wter to 48 ms (), while the T2 relxtion time ws reue from 239 to 18 ms (). Inversionreovery ws prepre with vriety of inversion time from 1 to 5 ms n the CPMG spin eho with vriety of eho time from TE = 1 4 ms. Interntionl Journl of Nnomeiine 27:2(4) 87
4 Du et l Tle 1 A omprison of T 1 n T 2 vlues of GDTPA n the SPI prtile in wter, whih were mesure using eh pulse for refousing in the multieho sequene Regents T 1 T 2 H ms 239 ms GDTPA 63 ms 559 ms SPIN 48 ms 18 ms shows the viilities of oth SMMC7721 n HL772 ells expose to the ferrofluis t vrious iron onentrtions. Cell viility ws etermine y using the 5imethylthizol 2yl2, 5iphenyl tetrzolium romie (MTT) ssy. The ells use for this purpose were fixe with 3% formlehye n wshe with PBS, followe y the inution with 2% potssium ferroynie in 6% hyrohlori i for 3 min. After wsh, the ells were ounterstine with Giems solution. The viility of the ells ws expresse s the men ± S.E. of the perentge of sorne of ontrols where % equle viility of untrete ontrol ells. Prussin lue stining of the trnsfete ells showe the uptking of the SPI nnoprtiles in the ytoplsm () n no stining ws oserve in the ytoplsm of the ells trnsfete with GDTPA () n the notrnsfete SMMC7721 (). In ition, the SPI nnoprtiles were ministrte into the Wistr rts vi lterl til vein t ose 1mg/kg for hemolysis ssy (Weissleer et l 199). The numer n morphology of loo ells were evlute 24 h ltter (e n f) n the feek of the rts in the following 3 months ws exmine. These t strongly suggeste tht the SPI nnoprtile woul e generlly onsiere to e ioomptile. Mgneti resonne imging Animls were purhse from Shnghi SLAC lortory niml Co. LTD n heptom moel of rt ws evelope with DEN s esrie elsewhere (Mthew et l 198; Willims et l 1996). MRI exmintions were performe on 1.5 T GE tweenspee MR imger using ommerilly ville extremity 7.6 m oil. To evlute the potentil of the SPI nnoprtile in linil MR imging further, the signl intensity ltertions Tle 2 The relxivities of GDTPA n the SPI nnoprtile t the sme mgneti fi el strength Smples Mgneti fiel r1 r2 r2/r1 strength (T) L/mmol.se 1 (L/mmol.se 1 ) GDTPA SPIN influene y intertions etween nnoprtiles n wter or whole loo were nlyze using ifferent imging sequenes. Seril 1fol ilutions of the SPI nnoprtiles were prepre in the eionize wter n humn whole loo to the finl onentrtions, rnging from 1 2 to 1 7 M. The sme onentrtion grients of GDTPA were lso prepre for omprtive oservtion. 1.5 ml of eh preprtion ws loe into n rry of 1.5 ml Eppenorf tues in plsti rk. The imge ws tken using the esigne sequenes y 3 quisitions with the fiel of view eing 8 8 mm 2. The prmeters for T1 imge ws spin eho (SE) with repetition time (TR) 46 ms, eho time (TE) 9. ms in mtrix size of , for T2 imge ws fst spin eho (FSE) with TR/TE = 3 ms/7.1 ms, eho trin length (ET) = 17 ms in mtrix size of n for T2 weighte imge ws grient eho with TR/TE/flip ngle = 34 ms/17ms/ 3 in mtrix size of The signl intensity of eh smple ws etermine y stnr regionofinterest mesurements of ross setionl imge of eh iniviul tue using the provie imge quntifition tool. In Figure 4, the representtive imges from T1 (), T2 () n T2W () revele tht MR signl intensity ws ffete y the ion onentrtions of the two ontrst gents. The ispersion of the SPI nnoprtile in n rry of onentrtion grient of humn whole loo rnge from 1 2 to 1 5 M iron onentrtion showe signifint eresing of signl intensity t 1 3 M (), espeilly in T2 weighte MR imge. In vitro MR imges of SPI nnoprtiles were highly onsistent with the results of r1 n r2 mesurements esrie ove. For the pplition of the SPI nnoprtile to etet heptom noules, the rts were nesthetize for MR imging y mens of intrmusulr injetion of 5 mg/kg ketmine hyrohlorie n the ontrst meium ws injete into lterl til vein. As the USPI nnoprtiles hve prolonge loo hlflife, the SPI nnoprtiles were use the lst to voi ny resiul effet on the stuies when performe with the GDTPA. The prmeters for T1 imge ws spin eho (SE) with repetition time (TR) 46 ms, eho time (TE) 9. ms in mtrix size of , for T1 weighte imge ws SE with TR/TE = 42 ms/9. ms in mtrix size of , for T2 imge ws fst spin eho (FSE) with TR/TE = 3 ms/69.9 ms, eho trin length (ET) = 17 ms in mtrix size of n for T2 weighte imge ws grient eho with TR/TE/flip ngle = 34 ms/17 ms/ 3 in mtrix size of In ition, onentrtion of SPI nnoprtiles t.18 mmol Fe/kg ws employe for in vivo stuies, whih roughly orrespons to ose of.7 88 Interntionl Journl of Nnomeiine 27:2(4)
5 A nonpolymer ote SPI nnoprtile % Cell viility SPIN + SMMC7721 SPIN + HL772 GDTPA + SMMC7721 GDTPA + HL772 ontrol Iron onentrtion (mm) 2 SPIN Control 2 e 2 SPIN Control 2 Figure 3 Evlution of the ytotoxiity of the SPI nnoprtile oth in vitro n in vivo. Two humn hepti elllines were employe for MTT ssy (). Prussin lue stining of the trnsfete ells showe the uptking of the SPI nnoprtiles in the ytoplsm (), n no stining ws oserve in the ytoplsm of the ells trnsfete with GDTPA () n the notrnsfete SMMC7721 (). In ition, hemolysis ssy ws rrie out n no verse effets on re loo ells regring its numer n shpe 24h lter following systemi ministrtion of the nnoprtiles (1mg/kg) in rts (e, the ilution of isolte RBCs ws 1:2). ur results emonstrte tht the prepre SPI nnoprtile woul e ioomptile. mmol Fe/kg ssuming tht the loo volume is 7 ml/kg.w. in mmmls. This ose results in inresing T2 shortening, whih le to negtive enhnement or lkout of the liver (Figure 5). As result, the SPI nnoprtile ws use for MRI etetion of heptom noules roun 1mm in imeters in the liver of rts (Figure 5). In Figure 6, HCC lesions in rt liver showe low signl intensity on the T1weighte SE (Figures 6 n 6) n isointensive noules on the T2 weighte SE (Figures 6 n 6). All the MRI finings were further onfirme y neropsy n histologil exmintions. The GDTPA ws use for omprtive oservtion (Figures 6e n 6f). Disussion Betine is liverorn Senosylmethionine (SAM) genertor with tive surfe property. It hs een known Interntionl Journl of Nnomeiine 27:2(4) 89
6 Du et l SPIN T1 Signl Intensity (T1) SPIN T2W Signl Intensity (T2W) G T G T2W G SPIN Smple Iron Conentrtion (M) G SPIN Smple Iron Conentrtion (M) SPIN T2 Signl Intensity (T2) Signl Intensity T1 T2 T2W 25 G T T1 T2 T2W G SPIN Smple Iron Conentrtion (M) Smple Iron Conentrtion (M) 12 Figure 4 The signl intensity ltertions infl uene y intertions etween nnoprtiles n wter or whole loo were nlyze using ifferent imging sequenes. The smples were ilute in wter or humn whole loo t ifferent onentrtions. The representtive imges of Figures 1 n 1 were quire from T1 n T2 respetively. The T2 weighte MR signl intensity ws ffete y the ion onentrtions of the two ontrst gents (). The nnoprtile in humn whole loo rnge from 1 2 to 1 5 M. Signifi nt eresing of signl intensity t 1 3 M, espeilly in T2 weighte MR imge, ws oserve (). tht etine is involve in the retion of methionine metolism in mmmlin liver n it is promising lterntive to expensive SAM gent in the tretment of liver ysfuntion n other humn mlies (Brk et l 1996). Tking the vntge of etine s liverorn SAM genertor with tive surfe property, we hypothesize tht etine moifition oul hnge oth the physil n iologil properties of the nnoprtiles n therey woul offer improvement of their iosfety profiles n phrmokineti properties. There re two reent reports of nonpolymer ote SPI nnoprtiles. The VSPC91 (Ferrophrm, Teltow, Germny) ote with itrte monomer is hrterize y fvorle rtio of T2 relxivity (r2) to T1 relxivity (r1) in omintion with long loo pool hlflife (Reimer et l 1992; Chouly et l 1996). In nother stuy, SPI nnoprtile inorporte with (CH3)4N+ ws investigte using 1.5 T linil MR imger, in whih signifint reution of the kgroun meium signl ws foun in the T2weighte n the T2*weighte sequene in the serum n whole loo (Tupitz et l 22) in vitro. In our pproh, the SPI nnoprtiles were stilize y etine monomer n were systemtilly investigte oth in vitro n in vivo. Kineti stuies of the liver MR ontrst gents suggest tht hyrophoi surfe my enhne the uptke of the nnoprtiles y the liver, while hyrophili oting n surfe hrges my influene their retention perio in the irultion (Tupitz et l 2; Shnorr et l 22; Wgner et l 22). In this stuy, we foun tht the etine ote SPI nnoprtile presente signifint reution of the kgroun signl in the T2weighte sequene, whih le to equte performne in the etetion of heptom noules vrie 1 25 mm t low 81 Interntionl Journl of Nnomeiine 27:2(4)
7 A nonpolymer ote SPI nnoprtile e Figure 5 MR imge n histologil exmintion of heptom noule in rt moel. Following ministrtion of SPI nnoprtiles 45 min, MR imges for the lmost sme xil slie of the liver on the T1weighte SE () n on the T2weighte SE () were performe. n the T2weighte SE MR imge, the enhnement of negtive signls of liver n smll noules isointensive to liver ws foun. At neropsy 1h lter fter MRI, heptom noules were foun in the liver of rt (). Hemtoxylin stining of the resete prffin speimen from the rt showe wellifferentite heptom ells (), ompring with norml ontrols (e). The histologil results onfirme the MRI n neropsy finings further. SPIN T1 45 min SPIN T2 55 min SPIN T2 24h SPIN T2 24h GDTPA T1 5 min GDTPA T2 5 min e f Figure 6 MR imges of heptom lesions in rt liver. Following ministrtion of SPI nnoprtiles 45 min n 24 hours lter, the heptom noules were shown low signl intensity on the T1weighte SE ( n ), isointensive noules were foun on the T2weighte SE ( n ). The GDTPA ws use s ontrol (e n f). To voi ny resiul effet on the stuy, the SPI nnoprtiles were ministrte 48 hours lter following injetion of the ommeril GDTPA. Interntionl Journl of Nnomeiine 27:2(4) ose. In ition, the nnoprtiles frite in the wter phse hve itionl vntges over those synthesize in the orgni phse or those require itionl polymer protetion for stiliztion. This oul not only provie more physiologil retion kgroun for the tgge iomoleules, ut hve istint ioistriution n metoli lerne proﬁle thn the onventionl polymer ote prtiles. Moreover, etine moiﬁtion oul improve the iosfety proﬁles of the SPI nnoprtile n oul e promising SAM rrier for the tretment of some liver ysfuntion. Aknowlegments The uthors woul like to thnk Dr. Jinqi Li in Deprtment of Physis, Est Chin Norml University, Dr. Weijun Peng in Deprtment of Riology, Cner Hospitl of Fun University, for their ssistnt to performing MRI. This work ws supporte y Shnghi metropolitn fun for reserh n evelopment (4DZ145 n 4JC1496) n y key progrms of NSFC (34324). Author s Contriution Lin Du n Jinzho Chen Contriute eqully to this work. 811
8 Du et l Referenes Brk AJ, Bekenhuer HC, Tum DJ Betine, ethnol n the liver: review. Alohol, 13: Cheng Fu, Su CH, Yng YS, et l. 25. Chrteriztion of queous ispersions of Fe 3 nnoprtiles n their iomeil pplitions. Biomterils, 26: Chouly C, Pouliquen D, Luet I, et l Development of superprmgneti nnoprtiles for MRI: effet of prtile size, hrge n surfe nture on ioistriution. J Miroenpsul, 13: Gupt AK, Gupt M. 25. Synthesis n surfe engineering of iron oxie nnoprtiles for iomeil pplition. Biomteril, 26: Hu XL, Yu JC. 26. Mirowvessiste synthesis of superprmgneti surfefuntionlize porous Fe 3 /C nnoomposite. Chem Asin J, 1:65 1. Mthew T, Krunnithy R, Yee MH, et l Heptotoxiity of imethylformmie n imethylsulfoxie t n ove the levels use in some fltoxin stuies. L Invest, 42: Pnym J, Lhsetwr V. 23. Bioegrle nnoprtiles for rug n gene elivery to ells n tissue. Av Drug Del Rev, 55: Reimer P, Kwong KK, Weisskoff R, et l Dynmi signl intensity hnges in liver with superprmgneti MR ontrst gents. J Mgn Reson Imging, 2: Shnorr J, Wgner S, Pilgrimm H, et l. 22. Prelinil hrteriztion of monomerstilize very smll superprmgneti iron oxie prtiles (VSP) s loo pool ontrst meium for MR ngiogrphy. A Riol, 9(Suppl 2):S37 9. Tupitz M, Shnorr J, Armjuk A, et l. 2. New genertion of monomerstilize very smll superprmgneti iron oxie prtiles (vsop) s ontrst meium for ngiogrphy: prelinil results in rts n rits. Journl of Mgneti Resonne Imging, 12: Tupitz M, Shnorr J, Wgner S, et l. 22. Coronry MR ngiogrphy: experimentl results with monomer stilize loo pool ontrst meium. Riology, 222:12 6. Thünemnn AF, Shütt D, Kufner L, et l. 26. Mghemite nnoprtiles protetively ote with poly (ethyleneimine) n poly (ethylene oxie) lokpoly(glutmi i). Lngmuir, 22: Wgner S, Shnorr J, Pilgrimm H, et l. 22. Monomerote very smll superprmgneti iron oxie prtiles s ontrst meium for mgneti resonne imging: prelinil in vivo hrteriztion. Invest Riol, 37: Weissleer R, Elizono G, Wittenerg J, et l Ultrsmll superprmgneti iron oxie: hrteriztion of new lss of ontrst gents for MR imging. Riology, 175: Wilkinson JM. 23. Nnotehnology pplitions in meiine. Me Devie Tehnol, 14: Willims GM, Itropoulos MJ, Wng CX, et l Diethylnitrosmine exposureresponses for DNA mge, entriloulr ytotoxiity, ell prolifertion n rinogenesis in rt liver exhiit some nonlinerities. Crinogenesis, 1: Zhng Y, Kohler N, Zhng M. 22. Surfe moifition of superprmgneti mgnetite nnoprtiles n their intrellulr uptke. Biomterils, 23: Interntionl Journl of Nnomeiine 27:2(4)
6.3.2 Spectroscopy. N Goalby chemrevise.org 1 NO 2 CH 3. CH 3 C a. NMR spectroscopy. Different types of NMR
6.. Spetrosopy NMR spetrosopy Different types of NMR NMR spetrosopy involves intertion of mterils with the lowenergy rdiowve region of the eletromgneti spetrum NMR spetrosopy is the sme tehnology s tht
More information6.3.2 Spectroscopy. N Goalby chemrevise.org 1 NO 2 H 3 CH3 C. NMR spectroscopy. Different types of NMR
6.. Spetrosopy NMR spetrosopy Different types of NMR NMR spetrosopy involves intertion of mterils with the lowenergy rdiowve region of the eletromgneti spetrum NMR spetrosopy is the sme tehnology s tht
More informationNumbers and indices. 1.1 Fractions. GCSE C Example 1. Handy hint. Key point
GCSE C Emple 7 Work out 9 Give your nswer in its simplest form Numers n inies Reiprote mens invert or turn upsie own The reiprol of is 9 9 Mke sure you only invert the frtion you re iviing y 7 You multiply
More informationJ. Environ. Sci. & Natural Resources, 4(2): 8387, 2011 ISSN
J. Environ. Si. & Nturl Resoures, 4(2): 8387, 2011 ISSN 19997361 Totl Nutrient Uptke y Grin plus Strw n Eonomi of Fertilizer Use of Rie Muttion STL655 Grown uner Boro Seson in Sline Are M. H. Kir, N.
More informationH 4 H 8 N 2. Example 1 A compound is found to have an accurate relative formula mass of It is thought to be either CH 3.
. Spetrosopy Mss spetrosopy igh resolution mss spetrometry n e used to determine the moleulr formul of ompound from the urte mss of the moleulr ion For exmple, the following moleulr formuls ll hve rough
More informationLecture 27: Diffusion of Ions: Part 2: coupled diffusion of cations and
Leture 7: iffusion of Ions: Prt : oupled diffusion of tions nd nions s desried y NernstPlnk Eqution Tody s topis Continue to understnd the fundmentl kinetis prmeters of diffusion of ions within n eletrilly
More informationI 3 2 = I I 4 = 2A
ECE 210 Eletril Ciruit Anlysis University of llinois t Chigo 2.13 We re ske to use KCL to fin urrents 1 4. The key point in pplying KCL in this prolem is to strt with noe where only one of the urrents
More informationThe Stirling Engine: The Heat Engine
Memoril University of Newfounln Deprtment of Physis n Physil Oenogrphy Physis 2053 Lortory he Stirling Engine: he Het Engine Do not ttempt to operte the engine without supervision. Introution Het engines
More informationSUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION
SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION Evlution of Modified Boehm Titrtion Methods for Use with Lignoellulosi Biohrs Rivk B. Fidel, Dvid A. Lird*, Mihel L. Thompson Deprtment of Agronomy, Iow Stte University, Ames,
More informationMCH T 111 Handout Triangle Review Page 1 of 3
Hnout Tringle Review Pge of 3 In the stuy of sttis, it is importnt tht you e le to solve lgeri equtions n tringle prolems using trigonometry. The following is review of trigonometry sis. Right Tringle:
More informationWhey Processing with Nano Chitosan
World Applied Sienes Journl 19 (4): 530537, 2012 ISSN 18184952; IDOSI Pulitions, 2012 DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wsj.2012.19.04.986 Whey Proessing with Nno Chitosn 1 1 2 Mzyr Shrifzdeh Bei, Mohmmd Jvd Hosseinzdeh
More informationfor all x in [a,b], then the area of the region bounded by the graphs of f and g and the vertical lines x = a and x = b is b [ ( ) ( )] A= f x g x dx
Applitions of Integrtion Are of Region Between Two Curves Ojetive: Fin the re of region etween two urves using integrtion. Fin the re of region etween interseting urves using integrtion. Desrie integrtion
More informationBivariate drought analysis using entropy theory
Purue University Purue epus Symposium on DtDriven Approhes to Droughts Drought Reserh Inititive Network 3 Bivrite rought nlysis using entropy theory Zengho Ho exs A & M University  College Sttion,
More informationSolution chemistry and cytotoxic properties of novel organogold(iii) compounds
Bioorgni & iinl Chemistry 12 (24) 639 643 Solution hemistry n ytotoxi properties of novel orgnogol(iii) ompouns Luigi ssori,, * Giorn Mron, Mri gostin Cinellu, Mrell Coronnello, Enrio Mini, Chir Gini n
More informationSECOND HARMONIC GENERATION OF Bi 4 Ti 3 O 12 FILMS
SECOND HARMONIC GENERATION OF Bi 4 Ti 3 O 12 FILMS INSITU PROBING OF DOMAIN POLING IN Bi 4 Ti 3 O 12 THIN FILMS BY OPTICAL SECOND HARMONIC GENERATION YANIV BARAD, VENKATRAMAN GOPALAN Mterils Reserh Lortory
More informationSUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION
doi:1.1/nture1 NFκB/REGFP TNFα pdna CA CA + DN d e NFκB/REGFP GFP+DAPI NFκB/REGFP GFP+DAPI NFκB/REGFP GFP+DAPI V V DAPI DAPI NFκB RE/GFP V V Mediosl hypothlmus Thlmus Cortex Suppl. Figure 1.
More informationParticle Lifetime. Subatomic Physics: Particle Physics Lecture 3. Measuring Decays, Scatterings and Collisions. N(t) = N 0 exp( t/τ) = N 0 exp( Γt/)
Sutomic Physics: Prticle Physics Lecture 3 Mesuring Decys, Sctterings n Collisions Prticle lifetime n with Prticle ecy moes Prticle ecy kinemtics Scttering cross sections Collision centre of mss energy
More informationAPPROXIMATION AND ESTIMATION MATHEMATICAL LANGUAGE THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF ARITHMETIC LAWS OF ALGEBRA ORDER OF OPERATIONS
TOPIC 2: MATHEMATICAL LANGUAGE NUMBER AND ALGEBRA You shoul unerstn these mthemtil terms, n e le to use them ppropritely: ² ition, sutrtion, multiplition, ivision ² sum, ifferene, prout, quotient ² inex
More informationSupplementary Information
Supplementry Informtion Spontneously mplified homochirl orgnicinorgnic nnohelix complex vi selfprolifertion Hlei Zhi, Yn Qun, Li Li, XingYng Liu, Xurong Xu c nd Ruikng Tng*,c Centre for Biomterils
More informationData Structures LECTURE 10. Huffman coding. Example. Coding: problem definition
Dt Strutures, Spring 24 L. Joskowiz Dt Strutures LEURE Humn oing Motivtion Uniquel eipherle oes Prei oes Humn oe onstrution Etensions n pplitions hpter 6.3 pp 385 392 in tetook Motivtion Suppose we wnt
More informationProject 6: Minigoals Towards Simplifying and Rewriting Expressions
MAT 51 Wldis Projet 6: Minigols Towrds Simplifying nd Rewriting Expressions The distriutive property nd like terms You hve proly lerned in previous lsses out dding like terms ut one prolem with the wy
More informationStochastic Subsurface Data Integration Assessing Aquifer Parameter and Boundary Condition Uncertainty
Journl of Hyrology mnusript No. (will e inserte y the eitor) Stohsti Susurfe Dt Integrtion Assessing Aquifer Prmeter n Bounry Conition Unertinty Dongong Wng Ye Zhng Reeive: te / Aepte: te Astrt This reserh
More informationRanking Generalized Fuzzy Numbers using centroid of centroids
Interntionl Journl of Fuzzy Logi Systems (IJFLS) Vol. No. July ning Generlize Fuzzy Numers using entroi of entrois S.Suresh u Y.L.P. Thorni N.vi Shnr Dept. of pplie Mthemtis GIS GITM University Vishptnm
More informationModeling of the Scattering Process and the Optical Photogeneration Rate of a Dye Sensitized Solar Cell: Influence of the TiO 2 Radius
Amerin Journl of Nnomterils, 2016, Vol. 4, No. 3, 5862 Aville online t http://pus.siepu.om/jn/4/3/2 Siene n Eution Pulishing DOI:10.12691/jn432 Moeling of the Sttering Proess n the Optil Photogenertion
More informationGeneralized Kronecker Product and Its Application
Vol. 1, No. 1 ISSN: 19169795 Generlize Kroneker Prout n Its Applition Xingxing Liu Shool of mthemtis n omputer Siene Ynn University Shnxi 716000, Chin Emil: lxx6407@163.om Astrt In this pper, we promote
More informationThermal Diffusivity. Paul Hughes. Department of Physics and Astronomy The University of Manchester Manchester M13 9PL. Second Year Laboratory Report
Therml iffusivity Pul Hughes eprtment of Physics nd Astronomy The University of nchester nchester 3 9PL Second Yer Lbortory Report Nov 4 Abstrct We investigted the therml diffusivity of cylindricl block
More informationSolutions for HW9. Bipartite: put the red vertices in V 1 and the black in V 2. Not bipartite!
Solutions for HW9 Exerise 28. () Drw C 6, W 6 K 6, n K 5,3. C 6 : W 6 : K 6 : K 5,3 : () Whih of the following re iprtite? Justify your nswer. Biprtite: put the re verties in V 1 n the lk in V 2. Biprtite:
More informationProving the Pythagorean Theorem
Proving the Pythgoren Theorem W. Bline Dowler June 30, 2010 Astrt Most people re fmilir with the formul 2 + 2 = 2. However, in most ses, this ws presented in lssroom s n solute with no ttempt t proof or
More informationSUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION
doi:1.138/nture1241 Figure S1., TEM imge of gold nnoprtiles.,, Chemil strutures of nioni itrte nd tioni polyurethne opolymer, respetively. Comment: Gold nnoprtiles were synthesized ording to slightly modified
More informationInfluence of stress ratio and moisture condition of loose deposit on dynamic parameters and ground response spectrum
Jpnese Geotehnil Soiety Speil Publition The 5th Asin Regionl Conferene on Soil Mehnis n Geotehnil ngineering Influene of stress rtio n oisture onition of loose eposit on yni preters n groun response spetru
More information(Thymus fallax Fisch.et C.A. Mey.)
DOI: http://x.oi.org/10.22092/ijmpr.2014.982 (19) 519528 4 0 (Thymus fllx Fish.et C.A. Mey.) 2 2 *1 *1 Mohmmin5@yhoo.om : 2 191 : 191 : 190 :. Nepetoiee (Lmiee) (Thymus). Thymus fllx Fish.et C.A. Mey..
More informationMaterials Analysis MATSCI 162/172 Laboratory Exercise No. 1 Crystal Structure Determination Pattern Indexing
Mterils Anlysis MATSCI 16/17 Lbortory Exercise No. 1 Crystl Structure Determintion Pttern Inexing Objectives: To inex the xry iffrction pttern, ientify the Brvis lttice, n clculte the precise lttice prmeters.
More informationCS 360 Exam 2 Fall 2014 Name
CS 360 Exm 2 Fll 2014 Nme 1. The lsses shown elow efine singlylinke list n stk. Write three ifferent O(n)time versions of the reverse_print metho s speifie elow. Eh version of the metho shoul output
More informationPROOF COPY [BIO ] JBY
Tly P. Appelmn Joseph Mizrhi Dror Seliktr emil: ror@m.tehnion..il Fulty of Biomeil Engineering, Tehnion  Isrel Institute of Tehnology, Hif 3, Isrel A Finite Element Moel of CellMtrix Intertions to Stuy
More informationA Nonparametric Approach in Testing Higher Order Interactions
A Nonprmetri Approh in Testing igher Order Intertions G. Bkeerthn Deprtment of Mthemtis, Fulty of Siene Estern University, Chenkldy, Sri Lnk nd S. Smit Deprtment of Crop Siene, Fulty of Agriulture University
More informationLinear Systems with Constant Coefficients
Liner Systems with Constnt Coefficients 4305 Here is system of n differentil equtions in n unknowns: x x + + n x n, x x + + n x n, x n n x + + nn x n This is constnt coefficient liner homogeneous system
More informationStress concentration in castellated Ibeams under transverse bending
466 ISSN 13921207. MECHANIKA. 2016 olume 22(6): 466473 Stress onentrtion in stellte Iems uner trnsverse ening A. Pritykin Kliningr Stte Tehnil University (KGTU), Sovetsky v. 1, 236022, Kliningr, Russi,
More informationNew Expansion and Infinite Series
Interntionl Mthemticl Forum, Vol. 9, 204, no. 22, 06073 HIKARI Ltd, www.mhikri.com http://dx.doi.org/0.2988/imf.204.4502 New Expnsion nd Infinite Series Diyun Zhng College of Computer Nnjing University
More informationSUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION doi: 1.138/nnno.29.451 Aovendgp voltges from ferroelectric photovoltic devices S. Y. Yng, 1 J. Seidel 2,3, S. J. Byrnes, 2,3 P. Shfer, 1 C.H. Yng, 3 M. D. Rossell, 4 P. Yu,
More informationThe DOACROSS statement
The DOACROSS sttement Is prllel loop similr to DOALL, ut it llows proueronsumer type of synhroniztion. Synhroniztion is llowe from lower to higher itertions sine it is ssume tht lower itertions re selete
More informationResearch Article Correlations between Antioxidant Activity and Alkaloids and Phenols of Maca (Lepidium meyenii)
Hinwi Journl of Foo Qulity Volume 217, Artile ID 31894, 1 pges https://oi.org/1.11/217/31894 Reserh Artile Correltions etween Antioxint Ativity n Alklois n Phenols of M (Lepiium meyenii) Jin Gn, Ying Feng,
More informationLesson 2: The Pythagorean Theorem and Similar Triangles. A Brief Review of the Pythagorean Theorem.
27 Lesson 2: The Pythgoren Theorem nd Similr Tringles A Brief Review of the Pythgoren Theorem. Rell tht n ngle whih mesures 90º is lled right ngle. If one of the ngles of tringle is right ngle, then we
More informationSynchronization of different 3D chaotic systems by generalized active control
ISSN 7467659, Englnd, UK Journl of Informtion nd Computing Siene Vol. 7, No. 4, 0, pp. 78 Synhroniztion of different D hoti systems y generlized tive ontrol Mohmmd Ali Khn Deprtment of Mthemtis, Grhet
More informationMA123, Chapter 10: Formulas for integrals: integrals, antiderivatives, and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (pp.
MA123, Chpter 1: Formuls for integrls: integrls, ntiderivtives, nd the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus (pp. 27233, Gootmn) Chpter Gols: Assignments: Understnd the sttement of the Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus.
More informationCalculus Cheat Sheet. Integrals Definitions. where F( x ) is an antiderivative of f ( x ). Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. dx = f x dx g x dx
Clulus Chet Sheet Integrls Definitions Definite Integrl: Suppose f ( ) is ontinuous AntiDerivtive : An ntiderivtive of f ( ) on [, ]. Divide [, ] into n suintervls of is funtion, F( ), suh tht F = f.
More informationPRELIMINARY GP 00 MATERIAL. MINIMUM PC BOARD THICKNESS: SINGLE SIDED = 1.45mm BELLY TO BELLY = 2.25mm PADS AND VIAS CHASSIS GROUND 1X2 CAGE ASSEMBLY
THIS RWING IS UNPULISHE. OPYRIGHT Y RELESE FOR PULITION LL RIGHTS RESERVE. 1 MTERIL: GE SSEMLY: NIKEL SILVER LLOY EMI SPRINGS: OPPER LLOY P GSKET: RF SORER LO IST P LTR ESRIPTION TE WN PV REVISE PER EO17
More informationIdentifying and Classifying 2D Shapes
Ientifying n Clssifying D Shpes Wht is your sign? The shpe n olour of trffi signs let motorists know importnt informtion suh s: when to stop onstrution res. Some si shpes use in trffi signs re illustrte
More informationNitrogendoped nanoporous carbon nanosheets derived from plant biomass: An. efficient catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction
Electronic Supplementry Mteril (ESI) for Energy & Environmentl Science. This journl is The Royl Society of Chemistry 214 Electronic Supplementry Informtion: Nitrogendoped nnoporous cron nnosheets derived
More information1.3 SCALARS AND VECTORS
Bridge Course Phy I PUC 24 1.3 SCLRS ND VECTORS Introdution: Physis is the study of nturl phenomen. The study of ny nturl phenomenon involves mesurements. For exmple, the distne etween the plnet erth nd
More informationThis chapter will show you. What you should already know. 1 Write down the value of each of the following. a 5 2
1 Direct vrition 2 Inverse vrition This chpter will show you how to solve prolems where two vriles re connected y reltionship tht vries in direct or inverse proportion Direct proportion Inverse proportion
More informationINFLUENCE OF EVAPORATION ON CONTACT ANGLES ON HYDROLYZED PET FOILS
Mrtin NAGY,. Jiří ŠKVARLA INFLUENCE OF EVAPORATION ON CONTACT ANGLES ON HYDROLYZED PET FOILS ABSTRACT: Tis ontriution presents results from mesuring ontt ngles on moertely yrolyze PET foils immerse in
More informationModeling of Catastrophic Failures in Power Systems
Modeling of tstrophi Filures in Power Systems hnn Singh nd lex Sprintson Deprtment of Eletril nd omputer Engineering Texs &M hnn Singh nd lex Sprintson Modeling of tstrophi Filures Motivtion Reent events
More information2 b. , a. area is S= 2π xds. Again, understand where these formulas came from (pages ).
AP Clculus BC Review Chpter 8 Prt nd Chpter 9 Things to Know nd Be Ale to Do Know everything from the first prt of Chpter 8 Given n integrnd figure out how to ntidifferentite it using ny of the following
More information320fold luminescence enhancement of [Ru(dpp) 3 ]Cl 2 dispersed on PMMA opal photonic crystals and highly improved oxygen sensing performance
OPEN (214) 3, e29; ß 214 CIOMP. All rights reserved 2477538/14 www.nture.om/ls ORIGINAL ARTICLE 32fold luminesene enhnement of [Ru(dpp) 3 ]Cl 2 dispersed on PMMA opl photoni rystls nd highly improved
More informationThe Thermodynamics of Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions
18 The Thermodynmics of Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions As discussed in Chpter 10, when slt is dissolved in wter or in other pproprite solvent, the molecules dissocite into ions. In queous solutions, strong
More informationChapter Gauss Quadrature Rule of Integration
Chpter 7. Guss Qudrture Rule o Integrtion Ater reding this hpter, you should e le to:. derive the Guss qudrture method or integrtion nd e le to use it to solve prolems, nd. use Guss qudrture method to
More information3/24/2009. Lecture 6 Gradient Echo Based Techniques and Applications. GRE versus SE. Gradient Recalled Echo (GRE) 3D GRE. Spoiling
The Antomy of Bsic MR Pulse Sequences Lecture 6 Grdient Echo Bsed Techniques nd Applictions Chen Lin, PhD Indin University School of Medicine & Clrin Helth Prtners Mgnetiztion Preprtion Section Chemicl
More informationTHERMAL EXPANSION COEFFICIENT OF WATER FOR VOLUMETRIC CALIBRATION
XX IMEKO World Congress Metrology for Green Growth September 9,, Busn, Republic of Kore THERMAL EXPANSION COEFFICIENT OF WATER FOR OLUMETRIC CALIBRATION Nieves Medin Hed of Mss Division, CEM, Spin, mnmedin@mityc.es
More informationThe Visible Light Activity of the TiO 2 and TiO 2 :V 4+ Photocatalyst
Nnomterils n Nnotehnology ARTICLE The Visile Light Ativity of the TiO 2 n TiO 2 :V 4+ Phototlyst Regulr Pper Nguyen Minh Thuy 1,*, Duong Quo Vn 1 n Le Thi Hong Hi 2 1 Deprtment of Physis, Hnoi Ntionl University
More informationEnhanced Photocatalytic CO 2 Reduction Activity of Anatase TiO 2 by Coexposed {001} and {101} Facets
Supplementry Informtion for the Journl of Americn Chemicl Society The Americn Chemicl Society 04 Enhnced Photoctlytic CO Reduction Activity of Antse TiO y Coexposed {00} nd {0} Fcets Jiguo Yu,*, Jingxing
More informationCIT 596 Theory of Computation 1. Graphs and Digraphs
CIT 596 Theory of Computtion 1 A grph G = (V (G), E(G)) onsists of two finite sets: V (G), the vertex set of the grph, often enote y just V, whih is nonempty set of elements lle verties, n E(G), the ege
More information4.0 ShortCircuit Effects David Chapman & Professor Toby Norris
4.0 ShortCircuit Effects Dvi Chpmn & Professor Toy Norris 4.1 Introuction Like ll electricl circuits, usrs nee to e protecte ginst the effects of shortcircuit currents. The open construction of usrs
More informationLesson 55  Inverse of Matrices & Determinants
// () Review Lesson  nverse of Mtries & Determinnts Mth Honors  Sntowski  t this stge of stuying mtries, we know how to, subtrt n multiply mtries i.e. if Then evlute: () + B (b)  () B () B (e) B n
More informationAutomata and Regular Languages
Chpter 9 Automt n Regulr Lnguges 9. Introution This hpter looks t mthemtil moels of omputtion n lnguges tht esrie them. The moellnguge reltionship hs multiple levels. We shll explore the simplest level,
More informationNon Right Angled Triangles
Non Right ngled Tringles Non Right ngled Tringles urriulum Redy www.mthletis.om Non Right ngled Tringles NON RIGHT NGLED TRINGLES sin i, os i nd tn i re lso useful in nonright ngled tringles. This unit
More informationSymmetrical Components 1
Symmetril Components. Introdution These notes should e red together with Setion. of your text. When performing stedystte nlysis of high voltge trnsmission systems, we mke use of the perphse equivlent
More informationMatrix & Vector Basic Linear Algebra & Calculus
Mtrix & Vector Bsic Liner lgebr & lculus Wht is mtrix? rectngulr rry of numbers (we will concentrte on rel numbers). nxm mtrix hs n rows n m columns M x4 M M M M M M M M M M M M 4 4 4 First row Secon row
More informationComposite Pattern Matching in Time Series
Composite Pttern Mthing in Time Series Asif Slekin, 1 M. Mustfizur Rhmn, 1 n Rihnul Islm 1 1 Deprtment of Computer Siene n Engineering, Bnglesh University of Engineering n Tehnology Dhk1000, Bnglesh slekin@gmil.om
More informationENERGY AND PACKING. Outline: MATERIALS AND PACKING. Crystal Structure
EERGY AD PACKIG Outline: Crstlline versus morphous strutures Crstl struture  Unit ell  Coordintion numer  Atomi pking ftor Crstl sstems on dense, rndom pking Dense, regulr pking tpil neighor ond energ
More informationEffects of Drought on the Performance of Two Hybrid Bluegrasses, Kentucky Bluegrass and Tall Fescue
TITLE: OBJECTIVE: AUTHOR: SPONSORS: Effets of Drought on the Performne of Two Hyrid Bluegrsses, Kentuky Bluegrss nd Tll Fesue Evlute the effets of drought on the visul qulity nd photosynthesis in two hyrid
More informationTests for the Ratio of Two Poisson Rates
Chpter 437 Tests for the Rtio of Two Poisson Rtes Introduction The Poisson probbility lw gives the probbility distribution of the number of events occurring in specified intervl of time or spce. The Poisson
More informationThe GATE frame. GATE Graphic Approach To Epidemiology. GATE study design (PECOT) GATE study application. GATE study appraisal (RAMMbo)
GA Grphi Approh o piemiology he GA frme Grphi Apprisl ool for piemiology Grphi Arhiteturl ool for piemiology the shpe of every epiemiologil stuy GA stuy esign () GA stuy nlyses (G & G) G G GA stuy pprisl
More informationSinglelayer MoS 2 nanopores as nanopower generators
Letter oi:1.138/nture1893 Singlelyer MoS nnopores s nnopower genertors Jinong Feng 1, Mihel Grf 1, Ke Liu 1, Dmitry Ovhinnikov, Dumitru Dumeno, Mohmm Heirnin 3, Vishl Nnign 3, Nryn R. Aluru 3, Anrs Kis
More informationNew centroid index for ordering fuzzy numbers
Interntionl Sientifi Journl Journl of Mmtis http://mmtissientifijournlom New entroi inex for orering numers Tyee Hjjri Deprtment of Mmtis, Firoozkooh Brnh, Islmi z University, Firoozkooh, Irn Emil: tyeehjjri@yhooom
More informationThe International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam. Release on the Ionization Constant of H 2 O
IAPWS R7 The Interntionl Assocition for the Properties of Wter nd Stem Lucerne, Sitzerlnd August 7 Relese on the Ioniztion Constnt of H O 7 The Interntionl Assocition for the Properties of Wter nd Stem
More informationC (6) DOORS TYPICAL, ALL SAME SIZE ENCLOSURE, CUSTOM 6 DOOR REVISION HISTORY ZONE REV DESCRIPTION DATE APPROVED 0.01 RELEASE FOR QUOTE 11/16/12 PH
REVISION HISTORY ZONE REV ESRIPTION TE PPROVE 0.0 RELESE FOR QUOTE /6/2 PH 0.02 E ITONL ETL FOR PGO HOO, SE N OORS. RELESE FOR PROUTION 2/4/3 PH 0.03 INRESE OVERLL OF ENLOUSRE 2/8/3 PH 0.04 REVISE OOR
More informationChapter 9: Inferences based on Two samples: Confidence intervals and tests of hypotheses
Chpter 9: Inferences bsed on Two smples: Confidence intervls nd tests of hypotheses 9.1 The trget prmeter : difference between two popultion mens : difference between two popultion proportions : rtio of
More informationCALCULATED POWDER XRAY DIFFRACTION LINE PROFILES VIA ABSORPTION
16 17 CALCULATED POWDER XRAY DFFRACTON LNE PROFLES VA ABSORPTON Keji Liu nd Heifen Chen School of Mteril Science nd Engineering, Shnghi nstitute of Technology, Shnghi, Chin 2233 ABSTRACT We hve clculted
More information6.5 Improper integrals
Eerpt from "Clulus" 3 AoPS In. www.rtofprolemsolving.om 6.5. IMPROPER INTEGRALS 6.5 Improper integrls As we ve seen, we use the definite integrl R f to ompute the re of the region under the grph of y =
More informationHARMONIC BALANCE SOLUTION OF COUPLED NONLINEAR NONCONSERVATIVE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
GNIT J. nglesh Mth. So. ISSN  HRMONIC LNCE SOLUTION OF COUPLED NONLINER NONCONSERVTIVE DIFFERENTIL EQUTION M. Sifur Rhmn*, M. Mjeur Rhmn M. Sjeur Rhmn n M. Shmsul lm Dertment of Mthemtis Rjshhi University
More informationThe Impact of Planting Date on Management of the Rice Water Weevil in Louisiana Rice
The Open Entomology Journl, 211, 5, 19 1 Open Aess The Impt of Plnting Dte on Mngement of the Rie Wter Weevil in Louisin Rie M.J. Stout*,1, N.A. Hummel 1, M.J. Frey 2 nd W.C. Rie 3 1 Deprtment of Entomology,
More informationRates of chemical reactions
Rtes of chemicl rections Mesuring rtes of chemicl rections Experimentl mesuring progress of the rection Monitoring pressure in the rection involving gses 2 NO( g) 4 NO ( g) + O ( g) 2 5 2 2 n(1 α) 2αn
More informationAntioxidant Properties of Various Solvent Extracts of Lemon Verbena (Lippia Citriodora) Leaves
Aville online t http://www.ijr.om Interntionl journl of Avne Biologil n Biomeil Reserh Volume 2, Issue 4(2), 2014: 494500 Antioxint Properties of Vrious Solvent Extrts of Lemon Veren (Lippi Citrioor)
More informationMath 32B Discussion Session Week 8 Notes February 28 and March 2, f(b) f(a) = f (t)dt (1)
Green s Theorem Mth 3B isussion Session Week 8 Notes Februry 8 nd Mrh, 7 Very shortly fter you lerned how to integrte singlevrible funtions, you lerned the Fundmentl Theorem of lulus the wy most integrtion
More informationHow do we solve these things, especially when they get complicated? How do we know when a system has a solution, and when is it unique?
XII. LINEAR ALGEBRA: SOLVING SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS Tody we re going to tlk out solving systems of liner equtions. These re prolems tht give couple of equtions with couple of unknowns, like: 6= x + x 7=
More information2.1 ANGLES AND THEIR MEASURE. y I
.1 ANGLES AND THEIR MEASURE Given two interseting lines or line segments, the mount of rottion out the point of intersetion (the vertex) required to ring one into orrespondene with the other is lled the
More informationInterpreting Integrals and the Fundamental Theorem
Interpreting Integrls nd the Fundmentl Theorem Tody, we go further in interpreting the mening of the definite integrl. Using Units to Aid Interprettion We lredy know tht if f(t) is the rte of chnge of
More informationQUADRATIC EQUATION. Contents
QUADRATIC EQUATION Contents Topi Pge No. Theory 004 Exerise  0509 Exerise  093 Exerise  3 45 Exerise  4 6 Answer Key 78 Syllus Qudrti equtions with rel oeffiients, reltions etween roots nd oeffiients,
More informationm A 1 1 A ! and AC 6
REVIEW SET A Using sle of m represents units, sketh vetor to represent: NONCALCULATOR n eroplne tking off t n ngle of 8 ± to runw with speed of 6 ms displement of m in northesterl diretion. Simplif:
More informationImproper Integrals. The First Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, as we ve discussed in class, goes as follows:
Improper Integrls The First Fundmentl Theorem of Clculus, s we ve discussed in clss, goes s follows: If f is continuous on the intervl [, ] nd F is function for which F t = ft, then ftdt = F F. An integrl
More informationSolutions to Problem Set #1
CSE 233 Spring, 2016 Solutions to Prolem Set #1 1. The movie tse onsists of the following two reltions movie: title, iretor, tor sheule: theter, title The first reltion provies titles, iretors, n tors
More informationMATH STUDENT BOOK. 10th Grade Unit 5
MATH STUDENT BOOK 10th Grde Unit 5 Unit 5 Similr Polygons MATH 1005 Similr Polygons INTRODUCTION 3 1. PRINCIPLES OF ALGEBRA 5 RATIOS AND PROPORTIONS 5 PROPERTIES OF PROPORTIONS 11 SELF TEST 1 16 2. SIMILARITY
More informationStudy Guide and Intervention
 Stud Guide nd Intervention with the Sme Sign The quotient of two integers with the sme sign is positive. Emple. 7 The dividend nd the divisor hve the sme sign. b. () The dividend nd divisor hve the sme
More information2 D 4X ( 9.81) SHOWN WITH CAM LEVER AND SPACER IN LOADED POSTION APPLICABLE COMPONENTS (FOR REFERENCE ONLY) NOMINAL TERMINAL SIZE
THIS RWING IS UNPULISHE. OPYRIGHT Y RELESE FOR PULITION LL RIGHTS RESERVE. P LTR ESRIPTION TE WN PV G REVISE PER EO0 JUL L M G REVISE PER EO00 MY L M G REVISE PER EO0 0OT L M. PRINT FOR PRT NUMER (SEE
More informationMcMaster University, 1280 Main St West, Hamilton, ON, Canada, L8S 4K1. *Author for correspondence
3925 The Journl of Experimentl Biology 216, 39253936 213. Pulishe y The Compny of Biologists Lt oi:1.1242/je.84228 RESERCH RTICLE Uptke, hnling n exretion of N + n Cl from the iet in vivo in freshwter
More informationFundamentals of Analytical Chemistry
Homework Fundmentls of nlyticl hemistry hpter 9 0, 1, 5, 7, 9 cids, Bses, nd hpter 9(b) Definitions cid Releses H ions in wter (rrhenius) Proton donor (Bronsted( Lowry) Electronpir cceptor (Lewis) hrcteristic
More informationThe EmissionAbsorption of Energy analyzed by QuantumRelativity. Abstract
The missionabsorption of nergy nlyzed by QuntumReltivity Alfred Bennun* & Néstor Ledesm** Abstrt The uslity horizon llows progressive quntifition, from n initil nk prtile, whih yields its energy s blk
More information2. VECTORS AND MATRICES IN 3 DIMENSIONS
2 VECTORS AND MATRICES IN 3 DIMENSIONS 21 Extending the Theory of 2dimensionl Vectors x A point in 3dimensionl spce cn e represented y column vector of the form y z zxis yxis z x y xxis Most of the
More informationContinuous Random Variables Class 5, Jeremy Orloff and Jonathan Bloom
Lerning Gols Continuous Rndom Vriles Clss 5, 8.05 Jeremy Orloff nd Jonthn Bloom. Know the definition of continuous rndom vrile. 2. Know the definition of the proility density function (pdf) nd cumultive
More informationLINEAR ALGEBRA APPLIED
5.5 Applictions of Inner Product Spces 5.5 Applictions of Inner Product Spces 7 Find the cross product of two vectors in R. Find the liner or qudrtic lest squres pproimtion of function. Find the nthorder
More information