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1 Lecture 9

2

3 What is Temperature and Heat? High temperature He is hot

4 Some important definitions * Two objects are in Thermal contact with each other if energy can be exchanged between them. Thermal equilibrium is a situation in which two objects would not exchange energy by heat if they were placed in thermal contact.

5 Thermal Equilibrium When two objects with different initial temperatures reach thermal equilibrium, they re final temperatures will be the same. The law of thermal equilibrium is The amount of thermal energy the colder object gains is equal to the amount of thermal energy the hotter object loses.

6 THERMOMETERS Thermometers are devices that are used to define and measure temperatures Some physical properties that change with temperature are (1) the volume of a liquid, (2) the length of a solid, (3) the pressure of a gas at constant volume, (4) the volume of a gas at constant pressure, (5) the electric resistance of a conductor, (6) the colour of an object.

7 THERMOMETERS A common thermometer in everyday use consists of a mass of liquid usually mercury or alcohol that expands into a glass capillary tube when heated. In this case the physical property is the change in volume of a liquid. This temperature scale used to be called the centigrade scale because there are 100 gradations between the ice and steam points of water

8 THERMOMETERS THE CONSTANT-VOLUME GAS THERMOMETER A constant-volume gas thermometer measures the pressure of the gas contained in the flask immersed in the bath. The volume of gas in the flask is kept constant by raising or lowering reservoir B to keep the mercury level in column A constant.

9 A typical graph of pressure versus temperature taken with a constant-volume gas thermometer. The two dots represent known reference temperatures (the ice and steam points of water). If you extend the curves toward negative temperatures, you find, in every case, that the pressure is zero when the temperature is C. This temperature is often referred to as absolute zero.

10 The three common thermal scales. ** The SI unit of absolute temperature is the kelvin

11 Example:

12 Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in length (or volume)in response to a change in temperature. This effect is limited in size, and only occurs within limited temperature ranges. linear Expansion Volume Expansion L DL V DV

13 Types of thermal expansion linear Expansion L = α L i T where α is the linear thermal expansion coefficient. Volume Expansion V = β V i T where β is the volume thermal expansion coefficient. The coefficient of linear expansion α is related to the coefficient of volume Expansion β by: β = 3 α

14 Coefficients of Thermal Expansion at 20 o C Substance Aluminum Brass Copper Glass(ordinary) Glass (Pyrex) Iron/Steel Lead Linear Coefficient 24 x x x x x x x 10-6 Volumetric Coefficient 72 x x x x x x x 10-6

15 Look at these pictures..

16 Example: Expansion of a Railroad Track A segment of a steel railroad has a length of m when temperature is 0.0 ºC. What is its length when the temperature is 40.0ºC?

17 Example: Expansion of a Railroad Track

18 Energies- Thermal and Internal Internal Energy is the sum of the Potential Energy (due to energy stored in bonds and intermolecular forces between particles) and Kinetic energy of the molecules in a system. Internal Energy is difficult to measure. Thermal energy ( or heat) ( Q ) is transferred due to a temperature difference. Unit of Heat: joul or The calorie (cal) where Note that the Calorie, used in describing the energy content of foods, is actually a kilocalorie.)

19 Thermal Capacity ( C ) Thermal Capacity ( Heat Capacity) (C) is the energy required to raise the temperature of a substance by 1K. Measured in J K -1 Water has a very high capacity. C = ΔQ/ΔT It takes a lot of thermal energy for water s temperature to change This is why the ocean isn t a thousand degrees It s also why it takes some time for a pot of water to begin to boil Sand has a low capacity Which is why beach sand gets really hot in the summer

20 Specific Heat Capacity ( c ) Specific Heat (c) is the energy required per unit mass to raise the temperature of a substance by 1K. c = C / m = ΔQ/mΔT Measured in J kg -1 K -1 (in SI ) or cal / g. C ( in CGS ) specific heat could measured by calorimeters. Why the cheese of pizza is hotter than the bread?

21 Example:

22 Heat energy transfer mechanisms 3 mechanisms Conduction Heat ( not the molecules) transfer through material ( solid). Convection Heat transfer by movement of hot material ( fluid ) Radiation Heat transfer by electromagnetic waves.

23 1- Thermal Conduction When you heat a metal strip at one end, the heat travels to the other end. As you heat the metal, the particles vibrate, these vibrations make the adjacent particles vibrate, and so on and so on, the vibrations are passed along the metal and so is the heat.

24 2- Convection of heat Hot air rises (and takes its heat with it!) -Cumulus clouds -Radiators A warm substance transfers energy from one location to another.

25 Convection, explanation When the radiator heats the air, it becomes less dense and rises Cool air moves in to replace the air that rose This generates the air flow So radiators don t need a fan to stir the air and to distribute heat throughout a room. The rising air cools until its density matches that of the surrounding air.

26 Determine the energy transfer mechanism

27 Determine the energy transfer mechanism Explains why breezes come from the ocean in the day and from the land at night

28 Thermal Convection

29 3-Radiation Thermal Energy Travels as electromagnetic waves ( Light, microwaves, radio waves, x-rays ) Every object above absolute zero is emitting electromagnetic waves ( radiation) regardless of temperature. Things also absorb radiation. Good emitters are also good absorbers. When an object is in equilibrium with its surroundings, it radiates and absorbs energy at the same rate, and its temperature remains constant. When an object is hotter than its surroundings, it radiates more energy than it absorbs, and its temperature decreases. Whereas an object that is cooler than its surroundings,absorbs more energy than it radiates, and its temperature increases.

30 Heating Curve Temp ( o C ) Liquid Gas phase change Gas Solid - liquid phase change Liquid Solid Time (min) *State changes don t occur instantly

31 Latent Heat When a phase ( solid, liquid, and gas ) change occurs, a lot of energy was absorbed by the substance without its temperature changing.this is due to the latent heat. latent heat is the amount of heat needed to change the state of matter from one phase to other without a change in temperature. Latent Heat of Fusion is the amount of heat needed to change the state of matter from solid to liquid without a change in temperature. Latent Heat of Vaporization is the amount of heat needed to change the state of matter from liquid to gas without a change in temperature.

32 Latent Heat

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