# REAL AND COMPLEX ANALYSIS

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1 REAL AND COMPLE ANALYSIS Third Edition Walter Rudin Professor of Mathematics University of Wisconsin, Madison Version 1.1 No rights reserved. Any part of this work can be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means. Suggestions and errors are invited and can be mailed to

2 CHAPTER ONE ABSTRACT INTEGRATION 1 Does there exist an infinite σ-algebra which has only countable many members? Solution: No. Suppose M be a σ-algebra on which has countably infinite members. For each x define B x = x M M M. Since M has countable members, so the intersection is over countable members or less, and so B x belongs M, since M is closed under countable intersection. Define N = {B x x }. So N M. Also we claim if A, B N, with A B, then A B =. Suppose A B, then some x A and same x B, but that would mean A = B = x M M M. Hence N is a collection of disjoint subsets of. Now if cardinality of N is finite say n N, then it would imply cardinality of M is 2 n, which is not the case. So cardinality of N should be at least ℵ 0. If cardinality of N = ℵ 0, then cardinality of M = 2 ℵ 0 = ℵ 1, which is not possible as M has countable many members. Also if cardinality of N ℵ 1, so is the cardinality of M, which again is not possible. So there does not exist an infinite σ-algebra having countable many members. 2 Prove an analogue of Theorem 1.8 for n functions. Solution: Analogous Theorem would be: Let u 1, u 2,..., u n be real-valued measurable functions on a measurable space, let Φ be a continuous map from R n into topological space Y, and define h(x) = Φ(u 1 (x), u 2 (x),..., u n (x)) for x. Then h : Y is measurable. Proof: Define f : R n such that f(x) = (u 1 (x), u 2 (x),..., u n (x)). So 1

3 h = Φ f. So using Theorem 1.7, we only need to show f is a measurable function. Consider a cube Q in R n. Q = I 1 I 2 I n, where I i are the intervals in R. So f 1 (Q) = u 1 1 (I 1 ) u 1 2 (I 2 ) u 1 n (I n ) Since each u i is measurable, so f 1 (Q) is measurable for all cubes Q R n. But every open set V in R n is a countable union of such cubes, i.e V = i=1q i, therefore f 1 (V ) = f 1 ( Q i ) = f 1 (Q i ) i=1 Since countable union of measurable sets is measurable, so f 1 (V ) is measurable. Hence f is measurable. i=1 3 Prove that if f is a real function on a measurable space such that {x : f(x) r} is a measurable for every rational r, then f is measurable. Solution: Let M denotes the σ-algebra of measurable sets in. Let Ω be the collections of all E [, ] such that f 1 (E) M. So for all rationals r, [r, ] Ω. Let α R; we will show (α, ] Ω; hence from Theorem 1.12(c) conclude that f is measurable. Since rationals are dense in R, therefore there exists a sequence of rationals {r i } such that r i > α and r i α. Also (α, ] = 1 [r i, ]. Each [r i, ] Ω and Ω is a σ-algebra (Theorem 1.12(a)) and hence closed under countable union; therefore (α, ] Ω. And so from Theorem 1.12(c), we conclude f is measurable. 4 Let {a n } and {b n } be sequences in [, ], prove the following assertions: (a) (b) lim sup x ( a n ) = lim inf a n. lim sup (a n + b n ) lim sup a n + lim sup b n provided none of the sums is of the form. (c) If a n b n for all n, then lim sup a n lim sup b n. 2

4 Show by an example that the strict inequality can hold in (b). Solution: (a) We have for all n N, sup { a i } = inf {a i} i n i n taking limit n, we have desired equality. (b) Again for all n N, we have {a i + b i } sup{a i } + sup{b i } sup i n i n Taking limit n, we have desired inequality. (c) Since a n b n for all n, so for all n we have inf {a i} inf {b i} i n i n Taking limit n, we have desired inequality. For strict inequality in (b), consider a n = ( 1) n and b n = ( 1) n+1. i n 5 (a) Suppose f : [, ] and g : [, ] are measurable. Prove that the sets {x : f(x) < g(x)}, {x : f(x) = g(x)} are measurable. Solution: Given f, g are measurable, therefore from 1.9(c) we conclude g f is also measurable. But then {x f(x) < g(x)} = (g f) 1 (0, ] is a measurable set by Theorem 1.12(c). Also {x f(x) = g(x)} = (g f) 1 (0) = (g f) 1 ( ( 1 n, 1 n ) = (g f) 1 ( 1 n, 1 n )) Since each (g f) 1 ( 1 n, 1 n) is measurable, so is their countable intersection. Hence {x f(x) = g(x)} is measurable. (b) Prove that the set of points at which a sequence of measurable real-valued functions converges (to a finite limit) is measurable. Solution: Let f i be the sequence of real-measurable functions. Let A denotes 3

5 the set of points at which f i converges to a finite limit. But then A = n=1 m=1 i,j m {x f i (x) f j (x) < 1 n } = n=1 m=1 i,j m ( (f i f j ) 1 1 n, 1 ) n Since for each i, j, f i f j is measurable, so (f i f j ) 1 ( 1 n, 1 n) is measurable too for all n. Also countable union and intersection of measurable sets is measurable, we conclude A is measurable. 6 Let be an uncountable set, let M be the collection of all sets E such that either E or E c is at most countable, and define µ(e) = 0 in the first case and µ(e) = 1 in the second. Prove that M is a σ-algebra in and that µ is a measure on M. Describe the corresponding measurable functions and their integrals. Solution: M is a σ-algebra in : M, since c = is countable. Similarly M. Next if A M, then either A or A c is countable, that is either (A c ) c is countable or A c is countable; showing A c M. So M is closed under complement. Finally, we show M is closed under countable union. Suppose A i M for i N, we will show A i also belongs to M. If all A i are countable, so is their countable union, so A i M. But when all A i are not countable means at least one say A j is uncountable. Then A c j is countable. Also ( A i ) c A c j, showing ( A i ) c is countable. So A i M. Hence M is closed under countable union. µ is a measure on M: Since µ takes values 0 and 1, therefore µ(a) [0, ] for all A M. Next we show µ is countable additive. Let A i for i N are disjoint measurable sets. Define A = A i. We will show µ(a) = µ(a i ). If all A i are countable, so is A; therefore µ(a i ) = 0 for all i and µ(a) = 0; and the equation µ(a) = µ(a i ) holds good. But when all A i are not countable means at least one say A j is uncountable. Since A j M, therefore A c j is countable. Also Since all A i are disjoint, so for i j, A i A c j. So µ(a i ) = 0 for i j. Also µ(a j ) = µ(a) = 1 since both are uncountable. Hence µ(a) = µ(a i ). Characterization of measurable functions and their integrals: Assume functions are real valued. First we isolate two class of measurable functions 4

6 denoted by F and F, defines as: F = {f f is measurable & f 1 ([, α]) is countable for all α R} F = {f f is measurable & f 1 ([α, ]) is countable for all α R} Next we characterize the reaming measurable functions. Since f / F or F, therefore f 1 ([α, ]) is uncountable for some α R. Therefore α f defined as sup{α f 1 ([α, ]) is countable} exists. So if β > α f, then f 1 ([β, ]) is countable. Also if β < α f, then f 1 ([, β]) = f 1 ((β, ]). Since f 1 ((β, ]) is uncountable and belongs to M, therefore f 1 ((β, ]) is countable. And so f 1 (α f ) is uncountable. Also f 1 (α f ) M, therefore f 1 (γ) is countable for all γ α f. Thus if f is a measurable function then either f F orf, or there exists α f R such that f 1 (α f ) is uncountable while f 1 (β) is countable for all β α f. Once we have characterization, integrals are easy to describe: if f F f dµ = if f F else α f 7 Suppose f n : [0, ] is measurable for n = 1, 2, 3,..., f 1 f 2 f 3 0, f n (x) f(x) as n, for every x, and f 1 L 1 (µ). Prove that then f n dµ = f dµ lim and show that this conclusion does not follow if the condition f 1 L 1 (µ) is omitted. Solution: Take g = f 1 in the Theorem 1.34 to conclude lim f n dµ = f dµ For showing f 1 L 1 (µ) is a necessary condition for the conclusion, take = R and f n = χ [n, ). So we have f(x) = 0 for all x, and therefore f dµ = 0. While f n dµ = for all n. 5

7 8 Put f n = χ E if n is odd, f n = 1 χ E if n is even. What is the relevance of this example to Fatou s lemma? Solution: With the described sequence of f n, strict inequality occurs in Fatou s Lemma (1.28). We have ( ) lim inf f n dµ = 0 While lim inf assuming µ() µ(e). f n dµ = min(µ(e), µ() µ(e)) 0, 9 Suppose µ is a positive measure on, f : [0, ] is measurable, f dµ = c, where 0 < c <, and α is a constant. Prove that lim n log[1 + (f/n) α ] dµ = if 0 < α < 1, c if α = 1, 0 if 1 < α <. Hint: If α 1, prove that the integrands is dominated are dominated by αf. If α < 1, Fatou s lemma can be applied. Solution: As given in the hint, we consider two cases for α: Case when 0 < α < 1: Define φ n (x) = n log(1 + (f(x)/n) α ). Since φ n : [0, ], therefore Fatou s lemma is applicable. So Also (lim inf lim n log(1 + (f(x)/n)α ) = lim φ n) dµ lim inf Since α < 1 and f dµ <, therefore φ n dµ 1 αf(x) α 1+(f(x)/n) α n α+1 1 = n 2 lim n log(1 + (f(x)/n)α ) = a.e x αn1 α f(x)α 1 + (f(x)/n) α 6

8 And hence (lim inf φ n ) dµ =. Therefore lim φ n dµ lim inf φ n dµ = Case when α 1: We claim φ n (x) is dominated by αf(x). For a.e. x and α 1, we need to show n log(1 + (f(x)/n) α ) αf(x) for all n ( ( ) α ) f(x) i.e. log 1 + α f(x) n n Define g(λ) = log(1 + λ α ) αλ for λ 0. So if g(λ) 0 for α 1 and λ 0, then (1) follows by taking λ = f(x)/n. So we need show g(λ) 0 for α 1 and λ 0. Computing derivative of g, we have g (λ) = α(1 + λα λ α 1 ) 1 + λ α When 0 λ 1, we have 1 λ α 1 0; while when λ > 1, we have λ α λ α 1 > 0. Thus g (λ) 0. Also g(0) = 0, therefore g(λ) 0 for all λ 0 and α 1. And so for α 1 we have log(1 + (f(x)/n) α ) αf(x) for all n and a.e x. Since αf(x) L 1 (µ), DCT(Theorem 1.34) is applicable. Thus lim n log(1 + (f/n) α ) dµ = lim (n log(1 + (f/n)α )) dµ When α = 1, lim (n log(1 + (f/n) α )) = f(x) (calculating the same as calculated for the case α < 1). And when α > 1, we have lim (n log(1 + (f/n) α )) = 0. And hence lim n log(1 + (f/n) α ) dµ = if 0 < α < 1, c if α = 1, 0 if 1 < α <. (1) 10 Suppose µ() <, {f n } is a sequence of bounded complex measurable functions on, and f n f uniformly on. Prove that f n dµ = f dµ, lim n= 7

9 and show that the hypothesis µ() < cannot be omitted. Solution: Let ɛ > 0. Since f n f uniformly, therefore there exists n 0 N such that f n (x) f(x) < ɛ n n 0 Therefore f(x) < f n0 (x) + ɛ. Also f n (x) < f(x) + ɛ. Combining both equations, we get f n (x) < f n0 + 2ɛ n n 0 Define g(x) = max( f 1 (x),, f n0 1(x), f n0 (x) + 2ɛ), then f n (x) g(x) for all n. Also g is bounded. Since µ() <, therefore g L 1 (µ). Now apply DCT(Theorem 1.34) to get lim f n dµ = f dµ To show µ() < is a necessary condition, consider = R with usual measure µ, and f n (x) = 1. We have lim n f n dµ =, while f dµ = 0, since f = 0. f uniformly is also a necessary condi- REMARK : The condition f n tion. 11 Show that A = n=1 k=n in Theorem 1.41, and hence prove the theorem without any reference to integration. Solution: A is defined as the collections of all x which lie in infinitely many E k. Thus x A x k=n E k n N; and so A = n=1 k=n Now let ɛ > 0. Since k=1 µ(e k) <, therefore there exists n 0 N such E k E k 8

10 that k=n 0 µ(e k ) < ɛ. And µ(a) = µ( Make ɛ 0 to conclude µ(a) = 0. n=1 k=n E k ) µ( E k ) k=n 0 µ(e k ) k=n 0 < ɛ 12 Suppose f L 1 (µ). Prove that to each ɛ > 0 there exists a δ > 0 such that f dµ < ɛ whenever µ(e) < δ. E Solution: Let (, M, µ) be the measure space. Suppose the statement is not true. Therefore there exists a ɛ > 0 such that there exists no δ > 0 such that f dµ < ɛ whenever µ(e) < δ. That means for each δ > 0, E there exists a E δ M such that µ(e δ ) < δ, while E δ f dµ > ɛ. By taking δ = 1/2 n, where n N, we construct a sequence of measurable sets {E 1/2 n}, such that µ(e 1/2 n) < 1/2 n for all n and E 1/2 f dµ > ɛ. n Now define A k = n=k E 1/2 n and A = k=1 A k. We have A 1 A 2 A 3, and µ(a 1 ) = µ( n=1 E 1/2 n) n=1 µ(e 1/2 n) < n=1 1/2n <. Therefore from Theorem 1.19(e), we conclude µ(a k ) µ(a). Next define φ : M [0, ] such that φ(e) = f dµ. Clearly, by Theorem 1.29, φ is a measure on M. Therefore, again by Theorem 1.19(e), we E have φ(a k ) φ(a). Since A = k=1 n=k E 1/2n, therefore from previous Exercise, we get µ(a) = 0. Therefore φ(a) = f dµ = 0. While A φ(a k ) = φ( E 1/2 n) φ(e 1/2 k) = f dµ > ɛ n=k E 1/2 k Therefore φ(a k ) φ(a), a contradiction. Hence the result. 9

11 13 Show that proposition 1.24(c) is also true when c =. Solution: We have to show cf dµ = c f dµ, when c = and f 0 We consider two cases: when f dµ = 0 and f dµ > 0. When f dµ = 0, we have from Theorem 1.39(a), f = 0 a.e., therefore, cf = 0 a.e.. And hence cf dµ = 0 = c f dµ While when f dµ > 0, there exist a ɛ > 0 and a measurable set E, such that µ(e) > 0 and f(x) > ɛ whenever x E; because otherwise f(x) < ɛ a.e. for all ɛ > 0; making ɛ 0, we get f(x) = 0 a.e. and hence f dµ = 0, which is not the case. But then cf dµ cf dµ > ɛ c dµ = E E Also c f dµ = Hence the proposition is true for c = too. 10

12 CHAPTER TWO POSITIVE BOREL MEASURES 1 Let {f n } be s sequence of real nonnegative functions on R 1, consider the following four statements: (a) If f 1 and f 2 are upper semicontinuous, then f 1 + f 2 is upper semicontinuous. (b) If f 1 and f 2 are lower semicontinuous, then f 1 + f 2 is upper semicontinuous. (c) If each f n is upper semicontinuous, then 1 f n is upper semicontinuous. (c) If each f n is lower semicontinuous, then 1 f n is lower semicontinuous. Show that three of these are true and that one is false. What happens if the word nonnegative is omitted? Is the truth of the statements affected if R 1 is replaced by a general topological space? Solution: (a) For α R 1, we have {x (f 1 + f 2 )(x) < α} = r Q ({x f 1 (x) < r} {x f 2 (x) < α r}) And since f 1 and f 2 are upper semicontinuous; and countable union of open sets is open, therefore we conclude {x (f 1 + f 2 )(x) < α} is an open set for all α R. Hence f 1 + f 2 is upper semicontinuous. (b) Again for α R 1, we have {x (f 1 + f 2 )(x) > α} = r Q ({x f 1 (x) > r} {x f 2 (x) > α r}) 11

13 Therefore lower semicontinuity of f 1 and f 2 implies f 1 +f 2 is also lower semicontinuous. (c) It may not be true in general. We give a counterexample. Define f n = χ [ 1 n+1, 1 ]. So each f n is upper semicontinuous (2.8(b)). Also f = f n = χ (0,1], n which is not a upper semicontinuous function. (d) Define s k = k n=1 f n. We have for α R, {s k > α} = ({f 1 > r 1 } {f 2 > r 2 } {f k > α r k 1 }) r 1,r 2,,r k 1 Q Each f n being lower semicontinuous implies s k is lower semicontinuous for all k. But then 2.8(c) implies sup k s k is also lower semicontinuous. Since s k (x) is increasing for all x, we have sup k s k = lim k s k = n=1 f n. Hence n=1 f n is lower semicontinuous. If the word nonnegative is omitted: Clearly (a) and (b) remain unchanged. Also the counterexample of (c) is still valid as a counterexample. But in (d), now sup k s k may not be equal to lim k s k. We provide a concrete counterexample. Define { χ( 1,1) if n = 1, f n = χ [ 1 n+1, 1 n ] if n 2 Easy to check that each f n is lower semicontinuous and that 1 f n = χ ( 1,0] + χ (0.5,1) ; which obviously is not lower semicontinuous. If R 1 is replaced by general topological space: Domain of f n is incidental, all we used in proving (a)-(d) are the two facts that rationals are dense in the range of f n ; and supremum of lower semicontinuous functions is lower semicontinuus. So as long as f n are real-valued functions, results will remain the same. 2 Let f be an arbitrary complex function on R 1, and define φ(x, δ) = sup{ f(s) f(t) : s, t (x δ, x + δ)}, 12

14 φ(x) = inf{φ(x, δ) : δ > 0}. Prove that φ is upper semicontinuous, that f is continuous at a fixed point x is and only if φ(x) = 0, and hence that the set of points of continuity of an arbitrary complex function is G δ. Formulate and prove an analogous statement for general topological spaces in place of R 1. Solution: φ is upper semicontinuous: First note that φ(x, δ 1 ) φ(x, δ 2 ) whenever δ 1 < δ 2. Therefore φ(x) = inf{φ(x, δ) δ > 0} = lim δ 0 φ(x, δ) For α R 1, consider {x φ(x) < α} = V α (say). We need to show V α is open for all α R 1, for proving φ is upper semicontinuous. If V α =, then clearly it is an open set. If V α, then let some x 0 V α. Therefore φ(x 0 ) < α. But φ(x 0 ) = lim δ 0 φ(x 0, δ). Therefore, there exist a δ 0 > 0, such that φ(x 0, δ 0 ) < α. Now consider the open ball B around x 0 of radius δ 0 /2, i.e B = (x 0 δ 0 /2, x 0 + δ 0 /2). If y B, then φ(y) φ(y, δ 0 /2) = sup{ f(s) f(t) s, t (y δ 0 /2, y + δ 0 /2)} sup{ f(s) f(t) s, t (x 0 δ 0, x 0 + δ 0 )} = φ(x 0, δ 0 ) < α Therefore y V α for all y B, implying V α is open in R 1. Hence φ is upper semicontinuous. f is continuous at x iff φ(x) = 0: First Suppose f is continuous at x. Therefore, for ɛ > 0, there exists δ 0 > 0, such that f(x) f(y) < ɛ/2 whenever x y < δ 0. But then sup{ f(s) f(t) s, t (x δ 0, x + δ 0 ) < ɛ}, i.e. φ(x, δ 0 ) < ɛ. And therefore φ(x) φ(x, δ 0 ) < ɛ. Make ɛ 0 to conclude φ(x) = 0. Conversely, suppose φ(x) = 0. Therefore lim δ 0 φ(x, δ) = 0. Therefore for ɛ > 0, there exists δ 0, such that φ(x, δ 0 ) < ɛ. But that means sup{ f(s) f(y) s, y (x δ 0, x + δ 0 )} < ɛ. Take s = x, to get f(x) f(y) < ɛ, whenever y (x δ 0, x + δ 0 ), that is f is continuous at x. 13

15 Set of points of continuity is G δ : Since f is continuous at x if and only if φ(x) = 0, therefore the set of points of continuity of f is {x φ(x) = 0}. But {x φ(x) = 0} = n=1 { x φ(x) < 1 } n Also since φ is upper semicontinuous, therefore each {x φ(x) < 1 } is an n open set. Hence {x φ(x) = 0} is a G δ. Formulation for general topological spaces: 3 Let be a metric space, with metric ρ. For any nonempty E, define ρ E (x) = inf{ρ(x, y) : y E}. Show that ρ E is a uniformly continuous function on. If A and B are disjoint nonempty closed subsets of, examine the relevance of the function f(x) = to Urysohn s lemma. Solution: For x, y, we have ρ E (x) ρ A (x) + ρ B (x) ρ E (x) ρ(x, e) for all e E ρ(x, y) + ρ(y, e) for all e E ρ E (x) ρ(x, y) ρ(y, e) for all e E Therefore, ρ E (x) ρ(x, y) ρ E (y) or ρ E (x) ρ E (y) ρ(x, y) Changing x with y, we get ρ E (x) ρ E (y) ρ(x, y). So for ɛ > 0, we chose δ = ɛ, and have ρ E (x) ρ E (y) ρ(x, y) < δ = ɛ, whenever ρ(x, y) < δ. Hence ρ E is uniformly continuous. For A, B disjoint nonempty closed sets of, and f(x) = ρ E (x) ρ A (x) + ρ B (x) 14

16 we have f(a) = 0 for all a A; and f(b) = 1 for all b B. So for given K compact and V open set containing K, take A = V c and B = K, to get the desired function K f V in Urysohn s lemma (2.12). 4 Examine the proof of the Reisz theorem and prove the following two statements: (a) If E 1 V 1 and E 2 V 2, where V 1 and V 2 are disjoint open sets, then µ(e 1 E 2 ) = µ(e 1 ) + µ(e 2 ), even if E 1 and E 2 are not in M. (b) If E M F, then E = N K 1 K 2, where K i is a disjoint countable collection of compact sets and µ(n) = 0. Solution: (a) 15

17 CHAPTER FOUR ELEMENTARY HILBERT SPACE THEORY 1 If M is a closed subspace of H, prove that M = (M ). Is there a similar true statement for subspaces M which are not necessarily closed? SOLUTION: We first show M (M ). Since x M x M x (M ). Hence M (M ). Next we will show (M ) M. Since M is a closed subspace of H, therefore H = M M (Theorem 4.11). So if x (M ), then x = y + z for some y M and z M. Consider z = x y. Since x (M ) and y M (M ) ; combining with the fact that (M ) is a subspace, we get x y = z (M ). But that would mean z M. Also we started with z M. Together it implies z = 0. Therefore x = y M. And so (M ) M. So for closed subspace M, we have M = (M ). Next suppose M is a subspace which may not be closed. So we have M = ( M ). We further simplify the expression by showing M = M. If x M, then it would imply x M, therefore M M. For reverse inclusion, consider x M, we will show x M. Let m M, therefore there exists a sequence {m i } in M such that m i m. Since x M, therefore x, m i = 0 for all i. Continuity of inner product (Theorem 4.6) would imply x, m = 0 too. Therefore x, m = 0 for all m M. So x M. Hence for any subspace M, we have M = (M ). 16

18 2 Let {x n n = 1, 2, 3, } be a linearly independent set of vectors in H. Show that the following construction yields an orthonormal set {u n } such that {x 1,, x N } and {u 1,, u N } have the same span for all N. Put u 1 = x 1 / x 1. Having u 1,, u n 1 define n 1 v n = x n x n, u i u i, u n = v n / v n. i=1 SOLUTION: We need to show {u 1,, u n } is orthonormal and the span of {u 1,, u n } is equal to the span of {x 1,, x n } for all n N. We show it by induction on n. For n = 1, we have {u 1 } othonormal set and also span(u 1 ) = span(x 1 ). Therefore the result is true for n = 1. Suppose the result is true for n = N 1, that is {u 1,, u N 1 } is an orthonormal set and span(u 1,, u N 1 ) = span(x 1,, x N 1 ). We need to show {u 1,, u N } is an orthonormal set and span(u 1,, u N ) = span(x 1,, x N ). To show {u 1,, u N } is orthonormal, it will suffice to show u N, u i = 0 for i = 1 to N 1, as {u 1,, u N 1 } is already orthonormal. Also u N, u i = 1 v N v N, u i = 1 N 1 v N x N x N, u j u j, u i j=1 = x N, u i x N, u i u i, u i = 0 Hence {u 1,, u N } is orthonormal. Next we have x span(x 1,, x N 1, x N ) x span(u 1,, u N 1, x N ) x span(u 1,, u N 1, v N ) x span(u 1,, u N 1, u N ) 17

19 So the result is true of n = N. Hence the result is true for all n N 3 Show that L p (T ) is separable if 1 p <, but that L (T ) is not separable. SOLUTION: L p (T ) for 1 p < : Let P (T ) denotes the subspace of trigonometric polynomials in L p (T ). Easy to check P (T ) is separable using the fact that Q + iq is countable and dense in C. Also one can show that P (T ) is dense in C(T ) with respect to p norm using the argument given in 4.24 (or using Fejèr theorem). Also C(T ) is dense in L p (T ) (Theorem 3.14). So P (T ) is separable and dense in L p (T ), implying L p (T ) is separable too. L (T ): Since L (T ) can be identified as L ([0, 2π]), we will show L ([0, 2π]) is not separable. Consider S = {f L ([0, 2π]) f = χ [0,r] for 0 < r < 2π} So S is an uncountable subset of L ([0, 2π]). Also if f, g S with f g, then f g = 1. Suppose L ([0, 2π]) is separable. Therefore there exists a countable dense set, say M in L ([0, 2π]). But then m M B 0.4 (m) must contain L ([0, 2π]), where B 0.4 (m) denotes an open ball of radius 0.4 around m. Since each B 0.4 (m) contains at most one element of S, therefore m M B 0.4 (m) contains at most countable elements of S. S being uncountable, so S is not a subset of m M B 0.4 (m), a contradiction. Therefore L ([0, 2π]) is not separable. 4 Show that H is separable if and only if H contains a maximal orthonormal system which is at most countable. SOLUTION: First suppose H is separable, then by Exercise 2, H has at most countable maximal orthonormal set. Conversely, suppose H is a Hilbert space with countable maximal orthonormal set E. Therefore E = {u 1, u 2, } for some u i H. Define S = { finite α i u i α i Q + iq & u i E} 18

20 Clearly S has countable elements. So if we show S = H, we are done. Let x H, therefore x = i=1 α iu i, with i=1 α i 2 = x 2. Let some ɛ > 0, therefore there exists n N such that i=n+1 α i 2 < ɛ 2 /4. Define x = n i=1 α iu i. Therefore x x 2 = i=n+1 α i 2 < ɛ 2 /4. Also define y = n i=1 β iu i where β i Q+iQ such that x y 2 = n i=1 α i β i 2 < ɛ 2 /4; such construction is possible since Q + iq is dense in C. So y S, and x y = x x + x y x x + x y < ɛ/2 + ɛ/2 = ɛ. Therefore S is dense in H. Same proof will work is H has finite maximal orthonormal system. Hence H is separable. REMARKS: Another way of showing that in a Hilbert space separability implies that space has at most countable orthonormal system, is through contradiction. Suppose E be the uncountable maximal orthonormal system. If u 1, u 2 E, then u 1 u 2 2 = u u 2 2 = 2. Therefore the collection {B(u, 0.5) u E} is uncountable. Also each element of this collection is disjoint; showing that H cannot have a countable dense subset, hence not separable, a contradiction. 5 If M = {x Lx = 0}, where L is a continuous linear functional on H, prove that M is vector space of dimension 1 (unless M = H). SOLUTION: If M = H, then L = 0, therefore we assume L H. Its easy to check that M is a closed subspace of H. Also using Theorem 4.12 (Riesz representation theorem), we have L(x) = x, x 0 for some x 0 H with x 0 0, since we have assumed L 0. So we have M = {x H x, x 0 = 0} M = x 0 M = (x 0 ) M = Span{x 0 } (Using Exercise 1) Therefore M is vector space of dimension 1. 6 Let {u n }(n = 1, 2, 3... ) be an orthonormal set in H. Show that this gives an example of closed and bounded set which is not compact. Let Q be the 19

21 set of all x H of the form ( x = c n u n where c n 1 ). n 1 Prove that Q is compact. (Q is called the Hilbert cube.) More generally, let {δ n } be a sequence of positive numbers, and let S be the set of all x H of the form x = c n u n (where c n δ n ). Prove that S is compact if and only if 1 δ2 n <. Prove that H is not locally compact. SOLUTION: 1 7 Suppose {a n } is a sequence of positive numbers such that a n b n < whenever b n 0 and b 2 n <. Prove that a 2 n <. SOLUTION: One way is follow the suggestion, but we will give an alternate method using Banach-Steinhaus theorem (Theorem 5.8). For n N, define Λ n : l 2 (R) R such that Λ n (x) = n i=1 a ix i, where x = (x 1, x 2, ). Λ n is linear for all n, is easy to check. For x l 2 (R), we have n Λ n (x) = a i x i i=1 n a i x i i=1 a i x i < i=1 since b i 2 < and hypothesis says whenever b i 2 < implies a i b i <. Therefore Λ n (x) is bounded for all n. And this is true for all x l 2 (R) too. Also Baire s Category theorem (see Section 5.7) implies l 2 (R) is of second category, since l 2 (R) is complete. Invoking Banach-Steinhaus theorem 20

22 on collection {Λ n }, we get Λ n < M for some M > 0. Also we have n i=1 Λ n = sup a ix i x 0 ( i=1 x i 2 ) 1/2 n i=1 a2 i ( n (By taking x = (a 1,, a n, 0, 0, )) i=1 a2 i )1/2 n = ( a 2 i ) 1/2 i=1 So we have n a 2 i Λ n 2 < M 2 i=1 Taking n, we get i=1 a2 i < M 2 < n N 8 If H 1 and H 2 are two Hilbert spaces, prove that one of them is isomorphic to a subspace of the other. (Note that every closed subspace of a Hilbert space is a Hilbert space.) SOLUTION: 9 If A [0, 2π] and A is measurable, prove that lim A cos nx dx = lim sin nx dx = 0. A SOLUTION: We know that {u n n Z} is maximal orthomormal set for L 2 (T), where u n (x) = e inx. Now consider χ A, characteristic function of A. Since u n, χ A 2 = χ A 2 = m(a) < n= Therefore lim n u n, χ A = 0. So we have un + u n un u n lim, χ A = lim, χ A = 0 2 2i 21

23 which is nothing but lim A cos nx dx = lim sin nx dx = 0. A 10 Let n 1 < n 2 < n 3 be positive integers, and let E be the set of all x [0, 2π] at which {sin n k x} converges. Prove that m(e) = 0. SOLUTION: 11 Find a nonempty closed set in L 2 (T) that contains no element of smallest norm. SOLUTION: Let E = { ( n) un n N}. E is closed since for a, b E, we have a b > 2, hence no limit point. Also inf a E a = 1 but is not achieved by any element of E. 12 The constants c k in Sec were shown to be such that k 1 c k is bounded. Estimate the relevant integral more precisely and show that 0 < lim k k 1/2 c k <. SOLUTION: 13 Suppose f is a continuous function on R 1, with period 1. Prove that lim N 1 N N f(nα) = n=1 for every irrational real number α. 1 0 f(t) dt SOLUTION: Note that this problem is famous Wiel Equidistribution theorem. As the Hint goes, we first check the equality for {e 2πikx } where k Z. 22

24 When k = 0, we have f(x) = 1. So we have 1 N N n=1 f(nα) = 1 for all N. Therefore lim N 1 N N f(nα) = 1 = n=1 1 0 f(t) dt When k 0, we have e 2πikα 1, since α is an irrational. So we have 1 N f(nα) = 1 e 2πikα (1 e 2πiNkα ) 0 as N N N (1 e 2πikα ) n=1 Also 1 f(t) dt = 0 since k 0. Hence the identity holds for the collection 0 {e 2πikx } k Z. If the identity holds for f and g then it also holds for af + bg, where a, b C; and hence the identity holds for all trigonometric polynomials. Let ɛ > 0, and f be a continuous function of period 1. Theorem 4.25 implies that there will exists a trigonometric polynomial p such that f p < ɛ/3. Also for large N, we have 1 N 1 p(nα) p(t) dt N < ɛ/3 And therefore 1 N f(nα) N Hence lim N 14 1 N n=1 N f(nα) = n=1 SOLUTION: 1 0 n= f(t) dt 1 N f(nα) p(nα) N n=1 1 N 1 + p(nα) p(t) dt N + n=1 1 0 p(t) f(t) dt ɛ/3 + ɛ/3 + ɛ/3 = ɛ f(t) dt for all continuous functions of period

25 CHAPTER NINE FOURIER TRANSFORMS 1 Suppose f L 1, f > 0. Prove that ˆf(y) < ˆf(0) for every y 0. Solution: We have ˆf(y) = 1 f(x)e ixy dx 2π 1 f(x) dx 2π = 1 f(x) dx = ˆf(0) 2π For strict inequality, suppose ˆf(y) = ˆf(0) for some y 0. So 1 f(x)e ixy dx = 1 f(x) dx 2π 2π that is comparing real part, we get f(x)(e ixy 1) dx = 0 f(x)(cos(xy) 1) dx = 0 Therefore, cos(xy) = 1 ae, which is only possible if y = 0, a contradiction. Hence the strict inequality. 1 Compute the Fourier transform of the characteristic function of an interval. For n = 1, 2, 3, let g n be the characteristic function of [ n, n], let h be the 24

26 characteristic function of [ 1, 1], and compute g n h explicitly. (The graph is piecewise linear.) Show that g n h is the Fourier transform of a function f n L 1 ; except for a multiplicative constant, f n (x) = sin(x) sin(nx) x 2 Show that f n 1 and conclude that the mapping f ˆf maps L 1 into a proper subset of C 0. Show, however, that the range of this mapping is dense in C 0. Solution: 25

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