# Sets. Introduction to Set Theory ( 2.1) Basic notations for sets. Basic properties of sets CMSC 302. Vojislav Kecman

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1 Introduction to Set Theory ( 2.1) VCU, Department of Computer Science CMSC 302 Sets Vojislav Kecman A set is a new type of structure, representing an unordered collection (group, plurality) of zero or more distinct (different) objects. Set theory deals with operations between, relations among, and statements about sets. Sets are ubiquitous (universal) in computer software systems. All of mathematics can be defined in terms of some form of set theory (using predicate logic). 09/02/2016 1/44 09/02/2016 2/44 Basic notations for sets For sets, we ll use variables S, T, U, We can denote a set S in writing by listing all of its elements in curly braces: {a, b, c} is the set of whatever 3 objects are denoted by a, b, c. Set builder notation: For any proposition P(x) over any universe of discourse, {x P(x)} is the set of all x such that P(x). 09/02/2016 3/44 Basic properties of sets Sets are inherently unordered: No matter what objects a, b, and c denote, {a, b, c} = {a, c, b} = {b, a, c} = {b, c, a} = {c, a, b} = {c, b, a}. All elements are distinct (unequal); multiple listings make no difference! If a=b, then {a, b, c} = {a, c} = {b, c} = {a, a, b, a, b, c, c, c, c}. This set contains (at most) 2 elements! 09/02/2016 4/44 1

2 Definition of Set Equality Infinite Sets Two sets are declared to be equal if and only if they contain exactly the same elements. In particular, it does not matter how the set is defined or denoted. For example: The set {1, 2, 3, 4} = {x x is an integer where x>0 and x<5 } = {x x is a positive integer whose square is >0 and <25} 09/02/2016 5/44 Conceptually, sets may be infinite (i.e., not finite, without end, unending). Symbols for some special infinite sets: N = {0, 1, 2, } The Natural numbers. Z = {, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, } The Zntegers. R = The Real numbers, such as Blackboard Bold or double-struck font (N,Z,R) is also often used for these special number sets. Infinite sets come in different sizes! More on this after module #4 (functions). 09/02/2016 6/44 Venn Diagrams Basic Set Relations: Member of John Venn Def. x S ( x is in S ) is the proposition that object x is an lement or member of set S. e.g. 3 N, a {x x is a letter of the alphabet} Can define set equality in terms of relation: S,T: S=T ( x: x S x T) Two sets are equal iff they have all the same members. x S : (x S) x is not in S 09/02/2016 7/44 09/02/2016 8/44 2

3 The Empty Set Subset and Superset Relations Def. ( null, the empty set ) is the unique set that contains no elements whatsoever. = {} = {x False} No matter the domain of discourse, we have: Axiom. x: x. 09/02/2016 9/44 Def. S T ( S is a subset of T, also pronounced S is contained in T ) means that every element of S is also an element of T. S T x (x S x T) S, S S. Def. S T ( S is a superset of T, also pronounced S includes T ) means T S. Note S=T S T S T. S T means (S T ), i.e. x (x S x T) 09/02/ /44 Proper (Strict) Subsets & Supersets Def. S T ( S is a proper subset of T ) means that S T but T S. i.e. there exists at least one element of T not contained in S S T Venn Diagram equivalent of S T Example: {1, 2} {1, 2, 3} Example: Proper (Strict) Subsets & Supersets Consider a set {a, b, c,d,e}. Then sets {d, b, a}, {c, e}, {e} and are proper subsets but, {a, b, f}, {k} and {e, b, a,d,c} are not! 09/02/ /44 09/02/ /44 3

4 Sets Are Objects, Too! The objects that are elements of a set may themselves be sets. E.g. let S = {x x {1,2,3}} then S = {, {1}, {2}, {3}, {1,2}, {1,3}, {2,3}, {1,2,3} } Note that 1 {1} {{1}}!!!! Cardinality and Finiteness Def. S (read the cardinality of S ) is a measure of how many different elements S has. E.g., =0, {1,2,3} = 3, {a,b} = 2, {{1,2,3},{4,5}} = If S N, then we say S is finite. Otherwise, we say S is infinite. What are some infinite sets we ve seen? N, Z, R 09/02/ /44 09/02/ /44 The Power Set Operation Def. The power set P(S) of a set S is the set of all subsets of S. P(S) : {x x S}. E.g. P({a,b}) = {, {a}, {b}, {a,b}}. Sometimes P(S) is written 2 S. Remark. For finite S, P(S) = 2 S. It turns out S: P(S) > S, e.g. P(N) > N. There are different sizes of infinite sets! 09/02/ /44 Ordered n-tuples These are like sets, except that duplicates matter, and the order makes a difference. Def.For n N, an ordered n-tuple or a sequence or list of length n is written (a 1, a 2,, a n ). Its first element is a 1, etc. Note that (1, 2) (2, 1) (2, 1, 1). Empty sequence, singlets, pairs, triples, quadruples, quintuples,, n-tuples. Contrast with sets {} 09/02/ /44 4

5 Cartesian Products Def.For sets A, B, their Cartesian product A B : {(a, b) a A b B }. E.g. {a,b} {1,2} = {(a,1),(a,2),(b,1),(b,2)} Remarks (AxB is a set of ORDERED n-tuples) For finite A, B, A B = A B. The Cartesian product is not commutative: i.e., AB: A B=B A. Extends to A 1 A 2 A n... René Descartes ( ) 09/02/ /44 Review: Set Notations So Far Variable objects x, y, z; sets S, T, U. Literal set {a, b, c} and set-builder {x P(x)}. relational operator, and the empty set. Set relations =,,,,,, etc. Venn diagrams. Cardinality S and infinite sets N, Z, R. Power sets P(S). 09/02/ /44 Start 2.2: The Union Operator Def.For sets A, B, their nion A B is the SET containing all elements that are either in A, or ( ) in B (or, of course, in both). Formally, A,B: A B = {x x A x B}. Remark. A B is a superset of both A and B (in fact, it is the smallest such superset): A, B: (A B A) (A B B) 09/02/ /44 Union Examples {a,b,c} {2,3} = {a,b,c,2,3} {2,3,5} {3,5,7} = {2,3,5,3,5,7} ={2,3,5,7} Think The United States of America includes every person who worked in any U.S. state last year. (This is how the IRS sees it...) 09/02/ /44 5

6 The Intersection Operator Def.For sets A, B, their intersection A B is the set containing all elements that are simultaneously in A and ( ) in B. Formally, A,B: A B={x x A x B}. Remark. A B is a subset of both A and B (in fact it is the largest such subset): A, B: (A B A) (A B B) 09/02/ /44 Intersection Examples {a,b,c} {2,3} = {2,4,6} {3,4,5} = {4} Think The intersection of W Franklin St. and Jefferson St. is just that part of the road surface that lies on both streets. 09/02/ /44 Disjointedness Def.Two sets A, B are called disjoint (i.e., unjoined) iff their intersection is empty. (A B= ) Example: the set of even integers is disjoint with the set of odd integers. Help, I ve been disjointed! 09/02/ /44 Inclusion-Exclusion Principle How many elements are in A B? A B = A B A B Example: How many students are on our class list? Consider set E I M, I = {s s turned in an information sheet} M = {s s sent the TAs their address} Some students did both! E = I M = I M I M Subtract out items in intersection, to compensate for double-counting them! 09/02/ /44 6

7 Set Difference Def.For sets A, B, the difference of A and B, written A B, is the set of all elements that are in A but not B. Formally: A B : x x A x B x x A x B Also called: The complement of B with respect to A. Set Difference Examples {1,2,3,4,5,6} {2,3,5,7,9,11} = {1,4,6} Z N {, 1, 0, 1, 2, } {0, 1, } = {x x is an integer but not a nat. #} = {x x is a negative integer} = {, 3, 2, 1} 09/02/ /44 09/02/ /44 Set Difference - Venn Diagram Set Complements A B is what s left after B takes a bite out of A Set A B Set A Set B Chomp! Def.The universe of discourse can itself be considered a set, call it U. When the context clearly defines U, we say that for any set A U, the complement of A, written A, is the complement of A w.r.t. U, i.e., it is U A. E.g., If U=N, { 3,5} {0,1,2,4,6,7,...} 09/02/ /44 09/02/ /44 7

8 More on Set Complements An equivalent definition, when U is clear: A { x x A} U A A Set Identities Identity: A = A = A U Domination: A U = U, A = Idempotent: A A = A = A A Double complement: ( A) A Commutative: A B = B A, A B = B A Associative: A (B C)=(A B) C, A (B C)=(A B) C 09/02/ /44 09/02/ /44 DeMorgan s Law for Sets Exactly analogous to (and provable from) DeMorgan s Law for propositions. A B A B A B A B 09/02/ /44 Proving Set Identities To prove statements about sets, of the form E 1 = E 2 (where the Es are set expressions), here are three useful techniques: 1. Prove E 1 E 2 and E 2 E 1 separately. 2. Use set builder notation & logical equivalences. 3. Use a membership table. 09/02/ /44 8

9 Method 1: Mutual subsets Example: Show A (B C)=(A B) (A C). Part 1: Show A (B C) (A B) (A C). Assume x A (B C), & show x (A B) (A C). We know that x A, and either x B or x C. Case 1: x B. Then x A B, so x (A B) (A C). Case 2: x C. Then x A C, so x (A B) (A C). Therefore, x (A B) (A C). Therefore, A (B C) (A B) (A C). Method 2: Use set builder notation & logical equivalences Show A B A B See Ex.11, page 125 in edition 6 of our textbook Part 2: Show (A B) (A C) A (B C). 09/02/ /44 09/02/ /44 Method 3: Membership Tables Just like truth tables for propositional logic. Columns for different set expressions. Rows for all combinations of memberships in constituent sets. Use 1 to indicate membership in the derived set, 0 for non-membership. (trick is, use MAX for, and min for ) Prove equivalence with identical columns. Membership Table Example Prove (A B) B = A B. Hint: think about an element x which does or doesn t belong to A and/or B A B : x x A x B A B A B (A B) B A B /02/ /44 09/02/ /44 9

10 Membership Table Exercise Prove (A B) C = (A C) (B C). ABCA B (A B) C A C B C (A C) (B C) Generalized Unions & Intersections Since union & intersection are commutative and associative, we can extend them from operating on ordered pairs of sets (A,B) to operating on sequences of sets (A 1,,A n ), or even on unordered sets of sets, X={A P(A)}. 09/02/ /44 09/02/ /44 Generalized Union Binary union operator: A B n-ary union: A A 2 A n : (( ((A 1 A 2 ) ) A n ) (grouping & order is irrelevant) Big U notation: n A i i 1 or for infinite sets of sets: A X A Generalized Intersection Binary intersection operator: A B n-ary intersection: A 1 A 2 A n (( ((A 1 A 2 ) ) A n ) (grouping & order is irrelevant) Big Arch notation: or for infinite sets of sets: n A i i 1 A X A 09/02/ /44 09/02/ /44 10

11 Representations A frequent theme of this course will be methods of representing one discrete structure using another discrete structure of a different type. E.g., one can represent natural numbers as Sets: 0:, 1: {0}, 2: {0,1}, 3: {0,1,2}, Bit strings: 0: 0, 1: 1, 2: 10, 3: 11, 4: 100, Representing Sets with Bit Strings For an enumerable u.d. U with ordering x 1, x 2,, represent a finite set S U as the finite bit string B=b 1 b 2 b n where i: x i S (i<n b i =1). E.g. U=N, S={2,3,5,7,11}, B= /02/ /44 09/02/ /44 Review: Set Operations 2.2 Union Intersection Set difference Set complements Set identities Set equality proof techniques: Mutual subsets. Derivation using logical equivalences. Set representations References Rosen Discrete Mathematics and its Applications, 6e Mc GrawHill, /02/ /44 09/02/ /44 11

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