Executive Committee and Officers ( )

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Executive Committee and Officers ( )"

Transcription

1

2 Gifted and Talented International V o l u m e 2 4, N u m b e r 2, D e c e m b e r, G i f t e d a n d T a l e n t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a2 l 4 ( 2), D e c e m b e r,

3 T h e W o r l d C o u n c i l f o r G i f t e d a n d T a l e n t e d C h i l d r e n Executive Committee and Officers ( ) P r e s i d e n t T a i s i r S u b h i Y a m i n ; G e n e r a l D i r e c t o r, T h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C e n t r e f o r I n n o v a t i o n c ai tn i oe n d u( I C I E ) ; U n i v e r s i t é P a r i s D e s c a r t e s, F r a n c e. V i c e P r e s i d e n t E d n a M c M i l l a n ; S t o n e y C r e e k, O n t a r i o, C a n a d a. S e c r e t a r y L e s l i e S. G r a v e s ; E d u c a t i o n a l c o n s u l t a n t, D u b l i n, I r e l a n d. T r e a s u r e r J u l i a L i n k R o b e r t s ; E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r o f t h e C a r o l M a r t i n t ogn a ta c a d e m y o f M a t h e m a t i c s a n d S c i e n c e ; W e s t e r n K e n t u c k y U n i v e r s i t y ; B o w l i n g G r e e n, K e n t u c k y, U S A. M e m b e r s N g a r m m a r s K a s e m s e t ; D i r e c t o r, T h a i l a n Td h e G i f t e d a n d T a l e n t e d F o u n d a t i o n ( T G T ) ; B a n g k o k, T h a i l a n d. L e o n i e K r o n b o r g ; U n i v e r s i t y L e c t u r e r i n G i fetd eud c a t i o n, M o n a s h U n i v e r s i t y ; C l a y t o n, V i c t o r i a, A u s t r a l i a. K l a u s K. U r b a n ; L e i b n i z U n i v e r s i t y, H a n n o v e r, F a c u l t y o f H u m a n i t i e s ; S t a d t h a g e n, G e r m a n y. E x e c u t i v e A d m i n i s t r a t o r C a t h r i n e F r o e s e K l a s s e n ; U n i v e r s i t y o f W i n n i p e, gw i n n i p e g, M a n i t o b a, C a n a d a. 2 G i f t e d a n d T a l e n t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a2 l 4 ( 2), D e c e m b e r,

4 F r o m t h e E d i t o r s D e s k T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s T a i s i r S u b h i Y a m i n A r t i c l e s A D y n a m i c E c o l o g i c a l F r a m e w o r k f o r D i f f e r e n t i a t i n g t h e P r i m a r y C u r r. i c u l u m S u s e n R. S m i t h G r a d e S k i p p i n g : A R e t r o s p e c t i v e C a s e S t u d y o n A c a d e m i c a n d S o c i a l I m p l i c a. t i o n s O r a K l e i n b o k ; a n d H a v a V i d e r g o r C u l t u r a l a n d S o c i a l C a p i t a l a n d T a l e n t D e vm e ln ot p: A S t u d y o f a H i g-ha b i l i t y A b o r i g i n a l S t u d e n t i n a R e m o tc e o m m u n i t y. K a r e n K o s t e n k o ; a n d P e t e r M e r r o t s y P e r f e c t i o n i s m o f A c a d e m i c a l l y G i f t e d P r i m a r y S c h o o l S t u d e n t s : T h e C a s e o f. J a p a n S l a v i c a M a k s ić ; a n d K u m i k o I w a s a k i S o c i a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f G i f t e d C h i l d r e n : A P r e l i m i n a r y S t u d y i n. F r a n c e J e a n L o u i s T a v a n i ; F r a n c k Z e n a s n i ; a n d M a r i a P e r e i r a- F r a d i n S i b l i n g R e l a t i o n s h i p s A m o n g E i l a t F a m i lw i et s h a t L e a s t O n e G i f t e d C h i. l d H a n n a D a v i d ; M a l i G i l ; a n d I d i t R a v i v W h a t a r e E x t r a o r d i n a r y G i f t e d C h i l d r ie kn e L ( E q u a l t o o r A b o v e I Q )? A S t u d y o f 1 0 C a s e s. Y o l a n d a B e n i t o M a t e Y o u n g, G i f t e d, a n d F e m a l e : A L o o k a t A c a d e m i c a n d S o c i a l N e. e d s C o r i n e C a d l e M e r e d i t h T h e I m p o r t a n c e o f D e c i s i o n M a k i n g : A G i f t e d C a s e R e p. o r t N o k s N a u t a ; S i e u w k e R o n n e r ; a n d B e n n o G r o e n e v e l d G o v e r n m e n t a l R e f o r m a n d E d u c a t i o n f o r t h e G i f t e d i n J a p a n : A C u r r e n t A n. a l y s i s S t e p h e n J. B u g a j G i f t e d n e s s P e r c e p t i o n s a n d P r a c t i c e s o f T e a c h e r s i n L i t h. u a n i a M o n i t a L e a v i t t ; a n d J o h n G e a k e B o o k R e v i e w s (1 ) M e n t o r i n g i n a C a n a d i a n C o n t e x. t K e v i n L a m o u r e u x ; K e n W. M c C l u s k e y ; A l a n C. W i e b e ; a n d P h i l i p A. B a k e r ( 2 ) L e a r n i n g t o S o l v e P r o b l e m s : A n I n s t r u c t i o n a l D e s i g n G. u i d e D a v i d H. J o n a s s e n S u b m i s s i o n G u i d e l i n e s G i f t e d a n d T a l e n t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a2 l 4 ( 2), D e c e m b e r,

5 What are Extraordinary Gifted Children Like (Equal to or Above 189 IQ)? A Study of 10 Cases A b s t r a c t Y o l a n d a B e n i t o M a t e A f t e r a s h o r t i n t r o d u c t i o n a b o u t p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s o n e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n w i t h a n I Q o f o v e r 1 7 0, t h i s a r t i c l e r e f e r s t o t h e d e s c r i p t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t e n c h i l d r e n w i t h I Q o f o v e r A f t e r t h i s, t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d l e a r n i n g c h a r a c t e r i sc ts o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n a r e d e s c r i b e d a n d f i n a l l y e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h a b o u t a s p e c t s t h a t d e s c r i b e t h e p e r s o n a l, s o c i a l a n d s c h o l a r a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e s e h i g h l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n i s d i s c u s s e d. K e y w o r d s : E x t r a o r d i n a r y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n ( I Q o f o v e r ), d e v e, l o plm e an rt n i n g, d aap t a t i o n, e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h e. s I n t r o d u c t i o n T h e f o c u s o f t h i s a r t i c l e i s h i g h l y g idfetve ed l o p m e n t o f G i f t e d C h i l d r e n h a d a n I Q l e v e l c h i l d r e n w i t h a n e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y h i g h I Q l e v e l. o f I 1t 7 0 i s o r m o r e. r e m i n i s c e n t o f T e r m a n s s t u d y c a r r i e d o u t i n I n s i m i l a r v e i n, i n t h e s t a t e o f M a i n e, C a l i f o r n i a i n w i t h a s a m p l e o f w h e r e t h e r e i s t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f o n e c h i l d w i t h i n t e l l e c t ulay l g i f t e d c h i l d r e n. A l t h o u g h c l e a rtlhy i s l e v e l o f I Q a t m o s t, 1 5 w e r e i d e n t i f i e d. T e r m a n s s a m p l e h a d u n d e r g o n e a p r i o r T h e s e d a t a c o i n c i d e w i t h t h o s e o f e a r l i e r s e l e c t i o n, % o f t h i s g r o u p h a d a n a v e r a g e r e s e a r c h e r s w h o o b s e r v e d a n u n e x p e c t e d l y h i g h I Q s l i g h t l y a b o v e T h e I Q s o f 4 7 b o y s w e r fe r e q u e n c y a t t h e u pepr e n d o f t h e I Q d i s t r i b u t i o n b e t w e e n a n d 1 9 4, a n d t h r e e h u n d r e d g i r l s c u r v e ( D u n l a p, ; G a l l a g h e r a n d M o s s, ; h a d I Q s b e t w e e n a n d I t i s w e l l t Jo e n s e n, ; M c G u f f o g, F e i r i n g a n d L e w i s, c o n s i d e r t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8 5 % o f ; R o b i n s o n, ; S t o t t a n d B a l l, ; i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n h a v e a n I Q T e or mf a n, ). b e t w e e n a n d T h e g r o u p o f 3 8 c h i l d r e n s e l e c t e d b y S i l v e r m a n a n d K e a r n e y ( ) w a s t h e gl ea sr t T h e a r t i c l e i s b a s e d o n t h e s t u d y onf u m b e r o f c h i l d r e n s t u d i e d w i t h a n I Q o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e- n s p e c i f i c a l l y t h o s e w i t h a n I Q ocf o m p a r e, f o r e x a m p l e, H o l l i n g w o r t h ( ) w h o o v e r 1 8 9, a n d t h e f a m i l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s udceh t a i l e d h e r s t u d y b a s e d o n 1 2 c h i l d r e n i n h e r e x t r a o r d i n a r y di in v i d u a l s. A s a s t a r t i n g r e f e r e n cbe o o k C h i l d r e n a b o v e I Q ; o r t h e m o r e p o i n t, t h e m o s t r e c e n t d a t a p u b l i s h e d w i l l rb e c e n t s t u d y c a r r i e d o u t b y M c G u f f o g i n c o n s i d e r e d r e g a r d i n g e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y i n t e l l i gse hn e t d e s c r i b e d 1 0 c h i l de rn w i t h a n I Q o f o v e r c h i l d r e n. I n L i n d a K r e g e r S i l v e r m a n a n d ( i n S i l v e r m a n a n d K e a r n e y, ). C o r i a t K a t h i K e a r n e y r e s e a r c h e d 2 3 c h i l d r e n f r o m m a k e s r e f e r e n c e t o t h e t w o c a s e s h e o b s e r v e d C o l o r a d o a n d 1 5 f r o m M a i n e. A l t o g e t h e tr h e r e i n h i s ( ) b o o k G i f t e d C h i l d r e n. w e r e 1 7 g i r l s a n d 2 1 b o y s w h o s e a g e s r a n g e d T h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h i s b e t w e e n 3 a n d 1 3 y e a r s. T h e i r I Q s r a n g e d c u r r e n t s t u d y a n d t h e S i l v e r m a n & K e a r n e y b e t w e e n a n d A c c o r d i n g t o t h e a u t h o r s, s t u d y o f C e r t a i n l y m o r e x c e p t i o n a l l y g i v e n n o r m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n t h e i n c i d e n c e og f i f t e d s t u d e n t s w i t h a n I Q o f a n d a b o v e c h i l d r e n w i t h a n I Q o v e r i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y a1 t t e n d e d t h e c e n t r e i n C o l o r a d o o v e r a 9 y e a r i n ( D u n l a p, ) T. h i s s u g g e s t s n o p e r i o d t h a n a t t e n d e d t h e c e n t r e i n V a l l a d o l i d, m o r e t h a n 2 o r 3 s u c h c h i l d r e n w o u l d l i k e l y bse p a i n. I n f a c t, t h e s t u d y i n v o l v e d a t o t a l o f f o u n d i n t h e e n t i r e s t a t e o f C o l o r a d o. H o w e v e r 2, c h i l d r e n. A t o t a l o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n f r o m i n t h e l a s t 9 y e a r s, 4 %, i. e., 8 0 c h i l d r e n l i va ill n g o vi en r S p a i n i n w e r e o b s e r v e d t h e H u e r t a d e l C o l o r a d o a n d a t t e n d i n g t h e C e n t r e f o r t h e R e y C e n t r e o v e r a p e r i o d o f 1 1 y e a r s. O f t h e s e, G i f t e d a nd T a l e n t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l 2 4 ( 2 ), D e c e m b e r,

6 T h e W o r l d C o u n c i l f o r G i f t e d a n d T a l e n t e d C h i l d r e n 4 2 o r a l m o s t 7 % o f t h e s a m p l e o b s e r v e d, h a d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t a n d a n I Q o f a b o v e O f t h i s g r o u p, 2 0 h a d I Q es d u c a t i o n. f r o m , 1 3 f r o m a n d 9 f r o m A c c o r d i n g t o S i l vr em a n a n d K e a r n e y, t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e i r s a m p l e w a s e v a l u a t e d b y T h i s m e a n s t h a t t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f c a s e s t e s t s w h i c h o n l y p r o v i d e c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y l e v e l s, p e r p o p u l a t i o n d i f f e r s s o m e w h a t. T h e W I S C - R, W P P S I, K a u f m a n A B C, t h e M c C a r t h y p e r c e n t a g e o f e x c e p t i o n a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d r es n c a l e s o f C h i l d r e n ' s A b i l i ta in ed s t h e I V r e v i s i o n e n c o u n t e r e d a t t h e H u e r t a D e l R e y i s a l m o s t o f t h e S t a n f o r-b d i n e t t e s t. B e c a u s e o f u p p e r t e s t ( B a s e d o n 4 2 / = c f. 3 8 / = ; l i m i t s o r t e s t c e i l ion ng e s on f t h e s e m e a s u r e s a r e i. e., 6. 5 %- 2 % ) l a r g e r t h a n t h e C o l o r a d o s t u d y. k n o w n f o r t h e i r a c c u r a c y i n t e r m s o f T h e r e a s o n fo r s u c h d i f f e r e n c e s m a y b e d u e t o e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n. T h i s d i f f e r e n t t r e a t m e n t o r a t t e n t i o n g i v e n t o g i rf at ie sd e s a s e r i o u s i s s u e w h i c h m u s t b e t a k e n i n t o c h i l d r e n i n t h e t w o c o u n t r i e s. F o r e x a m p l e a, c c o u n t w h e n e s t i m a t i n g t h e c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y o f d e s p i t e t h e r e p e r h a p s b e i n g s t r i k i n g c a s e s oef x t r e m e l y h i g h l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n. T h e r e c a n b e a s u c h c h i l d r e n i n S p a i n, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t l a dc ik f fo ef r e n c e o f a s m u c h a s 5 0 I Q p o i n t s b e t w e e n k n o w l e d g e a n d i n a d e q u a t e i n f o r ma t i o n d u r i n g t e s t s s u c h a s t h e M S C A, K- A B C, W I S C - R, t h e e a r l i e r y e a r s m e a n t f e w e r w e r e n o t i c e d iw n P P S I a n d t h e o l d e r v e r s i o n o f t h e S t a n f-o r d c o m p a r i s o n t o C o l o r a d o. B i n e t- t h e S t a n f o r d - B i n e t ( L M ). A n e x a m p l e o f I t i s a l s o v e r y c u r i o u s a n d, p e r h a pts h i s i s p r o v i d e d b y S i l v e r m a n a n d K e a r n e y w o r r y i n g, h o w t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e r a t i( o 1 9o8f 9 ), i n w h i c h s e v e n c h i l d r e n f r o m M a i n e a n d b o y s t o g i r l s e n c o u n t e r e d a c c o r d i n g t o s e x, s i x f r o m C o l o r a d o w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e b e t w e e n t h e H u e r t a D e l R e y s t u d y, T e r m a ns S t a n f o r d- B i n e t. O n e c h i l d o b t a i n e d a n I Q o f o b s e r v a t i o n s, a n d t h o s e o f S i l v e r m a n a n d o n t h e K- A B C a n d o n t h e S t a n f o r d. O n l y K e a r n e y. I n o u r s a m p l e, t h e n u m b e r o f g i r l os n e c h i l d f r o m t h e I Q g r o u p o b t a i n e d a i d e n t i f i e d a s w e l l a s t h e p e r c e n t a g e w i t h h isgch o r e o f o v e r i n t h e W I-S R C, w h i l e na o t h e r s c o r e s i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r. I n f a c t, i n o f t th he e c h i l d r e n o n l y o b t a i n e d a s c o r e o f i n C o l o r a d o g r o u p, t h e t h r e e h i g h e s t s c o r e s o f t h e W I S C - R. o v e r w e r e o b t a i n e d b y g is r. l I n t h e M a i n e T h i s p h e n o m e n o n i s o b s e r v e d o n l y a t t h e g r o u p, o n e b o y o b t a i n e d t h e h i g h e s t s c o r e o f h i g h e s t e n d o f t h e p s y c h o m e t r i c d i s t r i b u t i o n o f 1 9 4, f o l l o w e d b y t h r e e g i r l s w i t h a n I Q o f 1 i9 n0 t. e l l i g e n c e. I f t h i s o c c u r r e d a t a l l t h e l e v e l s, t h e T h e s e d a t a a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o b t a i n e d b ty e s t s w o u l d b e v a l u e l e s s. F o r e x a m p l e, i m a gi f n e T e r m a n w h o f o u n d t h e t h r e e h i g h e s t s c o r e s o f a c h i l d o b t a i n s a n I Q o f i n o n e t e s t a n d 5 0 i n o v e r w e r e o b t a i n e d b y w o m e n ( T e r m a n, a n o t h e r. O n e o f t h e m w o u l d i n d i c a t e t h e c h i l d h a s ; H o l l i n g w o rh t, ). I n o u r s a m p l e, o f t h a e n o r m a l a b i l i t y f o r a c a d e m i c l e a r n i n g a n d t h e 2 0 c h i l d r e n w i t h a n I Q o f b e t w e e n a n d 1 7 9, o t h e r w o u l d i n d i c a t e t h e c h i l d i s s e v e r e l y 4 a r e g i r l s a n d 1 6 a r e b o y s. I n t h e g r o cu hp a l l e n g e d i n t e l l e c t u a l l y. b e t w e e n a n d 1 8 9, 6 a r e g i r l s a n d 7 a r e b o y s S i l v e r m a n a n d K e a r n e y ( ) c a l ca ut le d a n d i n t h e l a s t I Q g r o u p o f o v e r 1 9 0, t h e r e ta hr e I Q c o n v e n t i o n a l l y, i. e., d i v i d i n g t h e m e n t a l a g e o n l y b o y s. I t i s n e c e s s a r y a n d a d v ie s a bt lo o f t h e c h i l d b y t h e c h r o n o l o g i c a l a g e a n d r e m e m b e r a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t n o n e o f t h e c h i l d r me un l t i p l y i n g b y ( S i l v e r m a n a n d K e a r n e y, ). w h o w e o b s e r v e d w i t h a n I Q o f o v e r 1 7 0, h a d I n t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y, t h e I Q w a s c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g a s s o c i a t e d d i s o r d e r s. t h e m e t h o d r e c o m m e n d e d i n t h e t e c h n i c a l T h e c u r r e n t s t u d y f o c u s e d o n m a n u a l o f t h e Satn f o r d-b i n e t F o r m L-M. u s i n g t h e 1 0 c o n v e r s i o n t a b l e s t o t r a n s f o r m t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l c h i l d r e n w i t h I Q s o f b e t w e e n a n d A s I Q v a l u e s a s o b t a i n e d i n r e v i s e d I Q s. f a r a s i s k n o w n, n o o t h e r s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n S i n c e t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e S t a n-f o r d c o n d u c t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y o n c h i l d r e n i n t h i s B fi na er t I V (- B S I V ) i n , m a n y p s y c h o l o g i s t s u p p e r r a n g e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e. I t i s h o p e d i s ht ahva e t a b a n d o n e d t h e o l d S t a n f o r-db i n e t F o r m L- t h i s r e s e a r c h m a y i n i t i a t e a s e r i e s o f s t u dm i, e s e v e n t h o u g h s o m e e x p e r t s i n t h e f i e l d, e. g., w h i c h m a y b e o f b e n e f i t a s w e s e e k t o D a v i s a n d R i m m ( ), d o n o t r e c o m m e n d t h e u n d e r s t a n d t h i s s u b j e c t f u r t h e r. A b o v e a l l tsh -B e I V f o r u s e w i t h h i g h l y g i f t e d i n d i v i d u a l s. T h e y h o p e i s t h a t t h e i m p a c t o f s u c h s t u d i e s y mb ae s a i d : O n e p r o b l e m i s t h a t t h e u p p e r l i m i t o f t h e p o s i t i v e a n d b e r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i m p a c t v a r i ofuos u r t h e d i t i o n i s l o w e r ( a r o u n d I Q ) t h a n i n t h e p e r s o n a l, a c a d e m i c a n d s o c i a l f a c e t s o f t h e s e p r e v i o u s e d i t i o ns o t h a t a n e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n a n d t h e i r f a m i l i e s a s w e l l a s pt eh re s o n w o u l d n o t b e i d e n t i f i e d T o u r( ó n ; P e r a l t a p r o f e s s i o n a l s i m m e r s e d i n t h e f a s c i n a t i n g t a sak n d R e p á r a z, , p. 8 5 ). 90 G i f te d a n d T a l e n t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l 2 4 (2 ), D e c e m b e r,

7 W h e n u s e d w i t h g i f t e d i n d i v i d u a l s, t-hb e ISV t y p i c a l l y g e n e r a t e s l o w e r s c o r e s. T h e d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n t h e n e w a n d o l d t e s t s c o r e a v e r a g e s 1 3 p. o5 i n t s a t t h e l o w e n d o f t h e g i f t e d s p e c t r u m. C h i l d r e n a c h i e v i n g a n I Q s c o r e o f i n -t M h e v elr s i o n s c o r e d a n I Q o f i n t h-e B SI V v e r s i o n ( T h o r n d i k e, H a g e n a n d S a t t l e r, ). S o m e a d d i t i o n a l c o m p a r i s o n s f o l l o w b e l o w ( S e e : T a b l e 1 ) w i t h r e g a r d t o hte d i f f e r e n c e i n m e a s u r e m e n t b e t w e e n t h r e e o f t h e m a j o r i n s t r u m e n t s u s e d i n t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y t o e s t i m a t e c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y. T h e s c o r e s o f f e r e d h a v e b e e n o b t a i n e d u s i n g -R t h, e t hw e I S C S t a n f o r d- B i n e t ( F o r m L-M ) a n d t h e M c C a r t h y S c a l e s o f C h i l d r e n ' s A b iels i t( im C A S ). T a b l e 1 : P s y c h o m e t r i c I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t s. C h i l d A g e W I S C - R S T A N F O R D - B I N E T ( F o r m L - M ) M C A S A 3 y e a r s 6 m o n t h s I Q 1 9 2, M A 7 y e a r s 1 m o n t h O I Q B 3 y e a r s 9 m o n t h s V I Q 1 4 4, M I Q 1 4 0, T I Q I Q 1 8 9, M A 7 y e a r s 1 m o n t h O I Q C 4 y e a rs 8 m o n t h s V I Q 1 4 9, M I Q 1 2 7, T I Q I Q y e a r s 2 m o n t h s O I Q D 4 y e a r s 1 0 m o n t h s V I Q 1 3 9, M I Q 1 4 4, T I Q I Q 1 9 2, M A 9 y e a r s 0 m o n t h s O I Q E 6 y e a r s 5 m o n t h s V I Q 1 4 9, M I Q 1 3 1, T I Q I Q 1 9 1, M A 1 1 y e a r s 0 m o n t h s O I Q F 7 y e a r s 1 m o n t h V I Q 1 5 5, M I Q 1 3 6, T I Q I Q 1 9 9, M A 1 3 y e a r s 9 m o n t h s O I Q G 8 y e a r s 5 m o n t h s V I Q 1 5 2, M I Q 1 4 2, T I Q I Q 2 1 1, M A 1 7 y e a r s 1 1 m o n t h s H 8 y e a r s 7 m o n t h s V I Q 1 5 5, M I Q 1 2 4, T I Q I Q 2 0 2, M A 1 7 y e a r s 9 m o n t h s I 9 y e a r s 3 m o n t h s V I Q 1 5 2, M I Q 1 3 2, T I Q I Q 1 9 4, M A 1 8 y e a r s 6 m o n t h s J 1 0 y e a r s 1 m o n t h V I Q , M I Q 1 4 1, T I Q I Q 1 9 4, M A 2 0 y e a r s 6 m o n t h s S u c h d i s c r e p a n c i e s c a u s e d s o m e d i f f i c u l t i e s. F o r e x a m p l e, b e c a u s e p r o f e s s i o n a l s t e n d t o t r u s t t h e l o w e s t s c o r e s t h e y a s s u m e p a r e n t s a r e o n l y t r y i n g t o b o o s t t h e i r o w n e g o b y c l a i m i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n h a v e g r e a t e r a b i l i t i e s. G i v e n n o c u r r e n t i n s t r u m e n t a d e q u a t e l y e v a l u a t e s t h e t o t a l i t y o f t h e a b i l i t i e s o f e x c e p t i o n a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n, a l t e r n a t i v e m e t h o d s o f e v a l u a t i o n m u s t n s bi e d e rceo d. A l m o s t t h i r t y y e a r s a g o t h e N a t i o n a l I d e n t i f i c a t i o n R e p o r t ( R i ca hl evri t n, o a n d M c D o n n e l, ) o f f e r e d t h i s c o n s e n s u s o f o p i n i o n : I t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t n e w i n s t r u m e n t s a n d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n m e t h o d s m u s t b e d e v e l o p e d f o r g i f t e d s t u d e n t s i n s p e c i f ip co p u l a t i o n s, s u c h a s f o r e x a m p l e, e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s, t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d, s t u d e n t s w i t h a l i m i t e d a b i l i t y t o s p e a k E n g l i s h, e x c e p t i o n a l l y g i f t e d s t u d e n t s a n d t h e h a n d i c a p p e d ( p p. 7 7 a n d 7 8, e m p h a s i s a d d e d ). W h i l e t h i s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n h a s a l r e a d y b e i n g i m mp el ne t e d w i t h v i r t u a l l y a l l t h e s p e c i f i c g r o u p s l i s t e d t h e r e i s o n e n o t a b l e b y i t s a b s e n c e : t h e e x c e p t i o n a l l y g i f t e d. A s i t h a p p e n s, t h e o l d m e t h o d o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n d i s c u s s e d a b o v e i s c o n s i d e r e d m o r e a d e q u a t e w i t h r e s p e c t t o m e a s u r i n g t h e i r a b i l i t y l e v e l t ha n t h e m o r e r e c e n t m e t h o d s ( S i l v e r m a n a n d K e a r n e y, ). T h e S t a n-b f oi rn de t i s, a f t e r a l l, o n e o f t h e t e s t s w i t h t h e h i g h e s t c e i l i n g a n d r e c o g n i s e d a s t h e m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e b y t h e s p e c i a l i s t s ( M E C, ) f o r m e a s u r i n g h i g h a b i l i t y. E v e n s o, e x t r e m e a bo if l i1 t8 y0 o r o v e r i n c h i l d r e n o v e r 1 3 y e a r s o f a g e c a n n o t b e m e a s u r e d ( B e n i t o, ). T h i s h a s c a u s e d s o m e t o t h i n k t h a t c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y i n c h i l d r e n h a s g o n e d o w n o v e r t h e y e a r s. N o t h i n g i s f u r t h e r f r o m t h e t r u t h. S o m e i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l e x p r e s s t h e o p i ntihoa nt i t i s i r r e l e v a n t w h e t h e r a p e r s o n h a s a n I Q o f o r i n t h e e n d, t h e y s a y, i t i s a l l t h e s a m e. A u c o n t r a i r e, i t i s n o t t h e s a m e. T h i s a r g u m e n t u n d e r s c o r e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f, a n d t h e r e a s o n f o r, t h e p r e s e n t a r t i c l e. T h e r e e x i s t v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f, a n d a p p r o a c h t o, t h e w o r l d i n w h i c h t h e s e e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y g i f t e d p e o p l e r e s i d e. T h e i r e m o t i o n a l, c o g n i t i v e a n d e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d s a r e v e r y d i f f e r e n t a n d, f o r t h i s r e a s o n, a p p r o p r i a t e a n d a c c u r a t e e v a l u a t i o n i s e s s e( nb te in ai lt o, ). T y p i c a l l y c h i l d r e n w i t h I Q s o f h a v e b e e n t e r m e d V e r y h i g h l y gy ie t f, t e td h e. t e r m V e r y h i g h l y g i f t e d i s b e s t r e s e r v e d f o r g i f t e d c h i l d r e n w i t h a n I Q o f o v e r C o n s i d e r H o l l i n g w o r t h ( a n d ), f o r e x a m p l e, w h o r e p e a t e d l y e s cd r i b e s t h e s p e c i a l n e e d s o f c h i l d r e n w i t h I Q s a n d b e y o n d ( S i l v e r m a n a n d K e a r n e y, ). S i m i l a r t e r m i n o l o g y a n d t h e f a c t t h a t s u c h c h i l d r e n d o h a v e a s o c i o -e m o t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t m a r k e d l y d i f f e r e n t t o i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n w i t h l o w er r e s I, Q m e a s u h a s b e e n n o t e d i n r e s e a r c h a n d d o c t o r a l t h e s e s ( A l o n s o, ; A l o n s o a n d B e n i t o, ; B e n i t o, ). G i f t e d a nd T a l e n t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l 2 4 ( 2 ), D e c e m b e r,

8 T h e W o r l d C o u n c i l f o r G i f t e d a n d T a l e n t e d C h i l d r e n M e t h o d S a m p l e O f t h i s g r o u p, i n t w o o f t h e f a m i l i e s I n c o n t r a s t t o p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h r e g a r d i n g o t h e r s i b l i n g s w e r e t e s t e d, b o t h o f w h o m w e r e e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y i n t e l l i g e n t c h i l d r e n, a l l t h e c h i l d r e n h i g h l y g i f t e d. O n e o f t h e m w a s t h e e l d e r b r o t h e r i n t h e s a m p l e w e r e b o y s. o f t h e 1 0 y e a r s a n d 1 mn ot h o l d c h i l d. H e N u m b e r o f c h i l d r e n : 1 0 o b t a i n e d a n I Q o f o n t h e S t a n f -o Br id n e t a n d I Q r a n g e : f r o m t o o n t h e W I S C - R. T h e o t h e r c h i l d w a s t h e A g e o f t h e c h i l d r e n a t t h e t i m e o f s e c o n d b r o t h e r o f t h e 6 y e a r s a n d 5 m o n t h s o l d e v a l u a t i o n : 3 y e a r s a n d 6 m o n t h s t o 1 0 c h i l d. H e o b t a i n e d a n I Q o f o n t h e S t a n- f o r d y e a r s a n d 1 m o n t h B i n e t, o n t h e W I S C- R a n d a n O I Q o f o n A v e r a g e a g e o f t h e g r o u p a t t h e t i m e o f t h e M S C A. e v a l u a t i o n : 5 y e a r s a n d 1 0 m o n t h s S a m p l e t a k e n f r o m t o O r d e r o f b i r t h : F i r s tb o r n : 7 I t s h o u l d b e t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t t h a t i n t h e c a s e o f c h i l d I ( 9 y e a r s a n d 3 m o n t h s ) w i t h a n I Q o f d a t a p r o v i d e d b y t h e p a r e n t s w i t h O n l y c h i l d : 3 r e s p e c t t o h i s e a r l y d e v e l o p m e n t a n d f i r s t S e c o n d c h i l d : 2 T h i r d c h i l d : 1 l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s m a y n o t h a v e b e e n e n t i r e l y a c c u r a t e s i n c e t h i s c h i wl ad s l i v i n g w i t h h i s N u m b e r o f c h i l d r e n p e r f a m i l y : f r o m 1 t o 3 g r a n d p a r e n t s f o r t h e f i r s t t h r e e y e a r s. R e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s F a m i l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s T h i s s t u d y, a s w i t h t h a t o f S i l v e r m a n a n d K e a r n e y ( ), c o n f i r m s p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g s, i. e., e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y i n t e l l i g e n t c h i l d r e n u s u a l l y c o m e f rr o m o r u p mp ie d d l e S E S l e v e l f a m i l i e s a n d h a v e a p a r e n t w i t h a h i g h e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l ( H o l l i n g w o r t h, ; B a r b e, ; H i t c h f i e l d, ; R o e d e l l, J a c k s o n a n d R o b i n s o n, ; A l b e r t, ). I n t e r e s t i n g l y, i n t h e s a m p l e, t h e r e w e r e p a r e n t s i n t h r e e f a mnio l iuens i vweirt sh i t y e d u c a t i o n a n d o f a l o w e r S E S : F s f a m i l y: F a t h e r w o r k e d a s a t e c h n i c a l e n g i n e e r, a l t h o u g h w i t h o u t a n o f f i c i a l t i t l e. H i s s t u d i e s c o r r e s p o n d e d t o t h e f i r s t g r a d e o f t h e B a c c a l a u r( eha it ge h S c h o o l l e v e l ) a n d t h e t i t l e o b t a i n e d w a s a s a n a d m i n is t r a t i v e w o r k e r i n m a r k e t i n g a n d s a l e s. T h e m o t h e r w a s a h o u s e w i f e h a d a n d s t u d i e d t h e E l e m e n t a r y B a c c a l a u r e a t e a n d t h e f i r s t g r a d e o f V o c a t i o n a l. T r Ta hi e n i cn hg i l d w a s 7 y e a r s a n d I m o n t h o l d w i t h a n I Q o f H s f a m i l y: F a t h e r h a d s t u d i e d t h e B a c c aul ra e a t e a n d t h e m o t h e r h a d a M i d d l e G r a d e t i t l e. T h e m o t h e r w a s a h o u s e w i f e a n d t h e f a t h e r w a s a h i g h e x e c u t i v e i n b a n k i n g. T h e c h i l d w a s 8 y e a r s a n d 7 m o n t h s o l d a n d h a d a n I Q o f I s f a m i l y : F a t h e r h a d s t u d i e d V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g a n d t h e m o t h e r at ch ce a lba u r e a t e. T h e f a t h e r w o r k e d a s a d r a u g h t s m a n a n d t h e m o t h e r w a s a n o f f i c e w o r k e r. T h e c h i l d w a s 9 y e a r s a n d 3 m o n t h s o l d a n d h a d a n I Q o f R e m a i n i n g s e v e n f a m i l i e s(a t l e a s t o n e o f t h e p a r e n t s h a d h i g h e r l e v e l s o f e d) u: c a t i o n I n A s f a m i l y, t h e tfh ae r w a s a n e l e c t r o n i c s e x p e r t a n d t h e m o t h e r h a d a d e g r e e i n m a t h e m a t i c s. B o t h p a r e n t s w o r k e d a s t e a c h e r s i n M i d d l e S c h o o l. T h e b o y w a s 3 y e a r s a n d 6 m o n t h s o l d w i t h a n I Q o f G i f te d a n d T a l e n t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l 2 4 (2 ), D e c e m b e r,

9 I n B s f a m i l y, b o t h p a r e n t s w e r e d o c t o r s i n C h e m i s t r y a n d w o r k e d a s r ehseeras r ci n a S c i e n t i f i c R e s e a r c h C e n t r e. T h e f a t h e r h a d s t u d i e d t h e p i a n o a n d t h e m o t h e r p l a y e d t h e g u i t a r w h e n s h e w a s 3 y e a r s o l d. T h e c h i l d w a s 3 y e a r s a n d 9 m o n t h s o l d w i t h a n I Q o f I n C s f a m i l y, t h e f a t h e r h a d s t u d i e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d t h e mh oa td h esr t u d i e d T e a c h e r T r a i n i n g. T h e f a t h e r w a s a f a r m e r a n d t h e m o t h e r w a s a t e a c h e r. T h e c h i l d w a s 4 y e a r s a n d 8 m o n t h s o l d w i t h a n I Q o f I n D s f a m i l y, t h e m o t h e r h a d a L a w d e g r e e a n d t h e f a t h e r a n E c o n o m i c s d e g r e e. T h e f a t h e r w o r k e d a s a n e c o n o m i s t an d t h e m o t h e r a s a U n i v e r s i t y l e c t u r e r. T h e c h i l d w a s 4 y e a r s a n d 1 0 m o n t h s o l d a n d h a d a n I Q o f T h e f a t h e r b e l o n g e d t o a v e r y n u m e r o u s f a m i l y i n w h i c h h e a n d o t h e r b r o t h e r s h a d b e e n c o n s i d e r e d h i g h l y g i f t e d. I n E s f a m i l y, b o t h p a r e n t s h a d s t u d i e d u nait v e r s i t y. T h e f a t h e r h a d a d e g r e e i n M e d i c i n e a n d t h e m o t h e r i n N u r s i n g. B o t h p a r e n t s w o r k e d : t h e f a t h e r a s a u n i v e r s i t y l e c t u r e r i n a T e a c h e r T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e a n d t h e m o t h e r a s a n u r s e. T h e c h i l d w a s 6 y e a r s a n d 5 m o n t h s o l d w i t h a n I Q o f T h i s w a st h e o t h e r f a m i l y i n w h i c h a n o t h e r o f t h e c h i l d r e n w a s t e s t e d a n d w h o w a s t h e s e c o n d o f t h e c h i l d r e n l e s s i n t e l l i g e n t t h a n -tb ho e r n f, i ra sl t h o u g h a l s o h i g h l y g i f t e d. I n G s f a m i l y, b o t h p a r e n t s h a d d e g r e e s i n T e a c h e r T r a i n i n g a n d b o t h w o r k e d a s j uh no io ol r s c t e a c h e r s. T h e c h i l d w a s 8 y e a r s a n d 5 m o n t h s o l d w i t h a n I Q o f I n J s f a m i l y, t h e f a t h e r w a s a d o c t o r i n M a t h e m a t i c s a n d t h e m o t h e r h a d a d e g r e e i n M e d i c i n e. T h e f a t h e r w o r k e d a s a u n i v e r s i t y l e c t u r e r a n d t h e m o t h e r a s a d o c t o r. T h i s w a s h e o n e o f t f a m i l i e s w h o s e c h i l d r e n w e r e t e s t e d a n d b o t h w e r e h i g h l y g i f t e d. T h e s e c o n d o f t h e s i b l i n g s w a s m o r e i n t e l l i g e n t t h a n t h e e l d e s t c h i l d. T h e c h i l d w a s 1 0 y e a r s a n d 1 m o n t h o l d w i t h a n I Q o f A s i n t h e s t u d y o f S i l v e r m a n a n d K e a r n e y, t h e p a r e n t s o n rd e sd p d i f f e r e n t l y u p o n k n o w i n g t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l e x c e p t i o n a l i t y o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n. W h i l e s o m e e v e n q u e s t i o n e d t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e t e s t s, a n o t h e r s r e j e c t e d i t o u t o f h a n d d e c l a r i n g t h e y d i d n t b e l i e v e i n s u c h t h i n g s, o t h e r s i n d i c a t e d t h e i r i n t e r e i n h ow t h e i r c h i l d r e n a c h i e v e d s u c h h i g h r e s u l t s b y a s k i n g, W h a t a r e t h e q u e s t i o n s l i k e? o r W h a t a r e t h e p r o b l e m s? I n y e t o t h e r c a s e s, t h e p a r e n t s c o n c e n t r a t e d m o r e o n w h a t t o d o a n d h o w t o e d u c a t e t h e i r c h i l d r e n k n o w i n g t h a t t h e i r a b i l i t i e s w e r e s o h i g h. G i v e n t h e s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s w e r e r a r e l y a w a r e o f t h e n e e d s a n d r i g h t s o f t h e s e p u p i l s, t h e p a r e n t s h a d t o i n f o r m t h e m o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l o p t i o n s. A l l p a r e n t s r e c o g n i z e d t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f m a k i n g t h e t e a c h i n g s u i t a b l e a n d t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s si pn e ct t h. i s T hre y p r o v i d e d b o o k s, i n f o r m a t i o n a n d a l l t y p e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t m i g h t s e r v e a s a g u i d e f o r t h e p e o p l e r e s p o n s i b l e i n t h e s c h o o l s. E v e n s o, a t t e m p t s b y p a r e n t s t o c o l l a b o r a t e w e r e n o t a l w a y s a c c e p t e d. I n n i n e o f t h e t e n c a s e s, t h e r e a s o n f on r i t ia an l i c o n s u l t a t i o n b y t h e p a r e n t s w a s a d e s i r e f o r k n o w l e d g e a b o u t t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c h i l d. T h e y h a d n o t e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e a r n i n g, m e m o r y, k n o w l e d g e, r e a s o n i n g a n d i n t e r e s t s, c o m p a r e d w i t h o t h e r c h i l d r e n. I n o n e c a s e, t h e p a r e n t s h a d f i r s t s o u g h t o u t a d v i c e f r o m a t e a c h e r a n d p s y c h o l o g i s t w h o w a s a f r i e n d o f t h e f a m i l y. O v e r a l l t h e i r o p i n i o n w a s t h ea it r t c h i l d r e n w e r e i n t e l l i g e n t. H o w e v e r, i t w a s h a r d f o r t h e m t o i m a g i n e t h e i r c h i l d r e n m i g h t b e h i g h l- y m ugc ih f tleed s s th a t t h e y m i g h t b e e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y g i f t e d. I n t h e c a s e o f t h e y o u n g e s t c h i l d, t h e p a r e n t s s h o w e d c o n s i d e r a b l e r e t i c e n c e w h e n i t c a m e t o d e c i d i n g a b o u t t e s t i n g t h e i r c h i l d. A n o t h e r c h i l d, t h e e l d e s t, c a m e c o i n c i d e n t l y h a v i n g b e e n b r o u g h t h i s e l d e r b r o t h e r h. e Tc h i l d i n s i s t e d o n c o m i n g b u t d i d n o t c o n s i d e r h i m s e l f i n t e l l i g e n t. D e v e l o p m e n t a n d L e a r n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s P e r s o n a l, A c a d e m i c a n d S o c i a l A d a p t a t i o n : D e v e l o p m e n t a n d L e a r n i n g P r e c o c i t y w i t h r e g a r d t o a t t e n t i o n a n d c o o r d i n a t i o n i s e v i d e n t f r o m t ht e omf o mbeinr t h i n a l l o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e s a m p l e : S u p p o r t i n g h i m s e l f w i t h h i s h a n d s, h e l i f t e d h i s h e a d a n d s a t u p w i t h h i s e y e s o p e n t h e v e r y d a y h e w a s b o r n. T h i s w a s n t a o-o n ef f t h i n g b e c a u s e f r o m t h e n o n w a r d s h e r e p e a t e d i t f r e q u e n t l y. G i f t e d a nd T a l e n t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l 2 4 ( 2 ), D e c e m b e r,

10 T h e W o r l d C o u n c i l f o r G i f t e d a n d T a l e n t e d C h i l d r e n T w e n t y d a y s af t e r b i r t h h e w e n t i n t o h o s p i t a l ( f o r a u r i n a r y i n f e c t i o n ) a n d w a s p u t i n a n i n c u b a t o r. W e s a w h i m t h r o u g h a g l a s s w i n d o w a n d h e w e n t m a d w h e n t h e y s h o w e d h i m t o u s t h r o u g h i t. H e w a s w a t c h i n g o u r m o v e m e n t s a n d m a k i n g g u t t u r a l s o u n d s t o a t t r a c t o u r aotn t e. n t i W h e n t h o s e w h o w e r e b o r n a t t h e s a m e t i m e s t i l l c o u l d n t h o l d t h e i r h e a d s s t e a d y, h e w a s g o i n g a l l o v e r t h e p l a c e f a c e d o w n i n t h e c h a i r w i t h h i s h e a d r a i s e d l o o k i n g a t e v e r y t h i n g. H e q u i c k l y c o o r d i n a t e d h i s h a n d s s o a s t o h a n d l e o b j e c t s o r p a s s ftr ho em m o n e h a n d t o a n o t h e r. A f t e r a b o u t a m o n t h ½ h e p a i d a t t e n t i o n f o r t w e n t y m i n u t e s t o s t o r i e s w h i c h h i s m o t h e r r e a d t o h i m a n d a t 1 8 m o n t h s h e l i s t e n e d a t t e n t i v e l y a n d u n i n t e r r u p t e d l y t o c o n c e r t s o n v i d e o f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 0 m i n u t e s. T h e r o a d s i g n s n d a t r a f f i c l i g h t s f a s c i n a t e d h i m f r o m 1 8 m o n t h s o n w a r d s. N u m b e r s a n d l e t t e r s h a v e a l w a y s b e e n a g a m e f o r h i m. F r o m v e r y y o u n g ( s i x m o n t h s ) h e w a s a b l e t o l e a r n t o c l a p a n d m o v e h i s h a n d s a n d t o d i s t i n g u i s h d i f f e r e n t s o n g s. T w o h o u r s a f t e r b i r t h I pd i c hk ie m u p i n m y a r m s a n d h e t h r e w a g l a n c e a t m e w h i c h l e f t m e a s t o n i s h e d. I f e l t a n i n t e n s e e m o t i o n ; I d o n t k n o w t o e x p l a i n i t : i t s b e y o n d w o r d s. A t s i x m o n t h s h e r e m a i n e d s e a t e d, t u r n i n g o v e r t h e p a g e s o f a b o o k o f a n i m a l s f o r a g e s. F r o m v e r y e a r l y h el i s t e n e d t o s t o r i e s e v e n t h o u g h t h e y w e r e v e r y l o n g. A t a y e a r ½ h e b e g a n t o a s k a b o u t t h e l e t t e r s a n d n u m b e r s a n d w h e n h e l e a r n t t h e m, h e c o n t i n u a l l y a s k e d y o u t o w r i t e t h e e n t i r e a l p h a b e t a n d t h e n u m b e r s f r o m 1 t o H e w a s a b l e t o r e m a i n s e a t e d, l o ok i n g, w h i l e h e d e m a n d e d t h a t y o u w r o t e t h e v o c a b u l a r y o r t h e n u m b e r s f o u r t i m e s i n a r o w. A l l t h e c h i l d r e n s l e p t f e w e r h o u r s t h a n t h o s e e x p e c t e d f o r t h e i r a g e. T h e y s h o w e d g r e a t v i t a l i t y, a g i l i t y a n d m a n u a l c o o r d i n a t i o n b u t n o t a s r e g a r d s t h e r e s t b o od f y. t hi en f a c t, o n l y f i v e o f t h e c h i l d r e n c o u l d w a l k w i t h o u t s u p p o r t b e f o r e t h e a g e o f o n e. T h e o t h e r s d i d i t a t a b o u t t h e a g e o f o n e. W i t h r e g a r d t o l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t, m o r e t h a n 5 0 y e a r s a g o, L e t a. H o l l i n g w o r t h p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s s h e t r ed a tw ei t h a n I Q o f o v e r b e g a n t o s p ei an k s e n t e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f 6 a n d 1 9 m o n t h s, w i t h a n a v e r a g e o f 1 4 m o n t h s ; t h e a v e r a g e c h i l d d o e s n o t b e g i n t o j o i n w o r d s, n o t e v e n i n p a i r s, u n t i l a b o u t 1 8 m o n tg hr s o s ( s, , p. 5.) I n t h e s a m p l e o n e o f t h e m t t eu r e d h i s f i r s t w o r d s a t s i x m o n t h s a n d h i s f i r s t s e n t e n c e a t o n e. A t t h e a g e o f 2 a l l o f t h e m w e r e a b l e t o m a i n t a i n a c o n v e r s a t i o n. G r o s s ( , p. 1 ), i n a l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y o f A u s t r a l i a n c h i l d r e n w i t h a n I Q o f o r m o r e, f o u n d t h e a v e r a g e a g e w h e n hi g h l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n e x p r e s s e d t h e i r f i r s t w o r d w a s a t 8. 5 m o n t h s a n d m a n y o f t h e m b e g a n t o s p e a k a t t h e a g e o f 4 a n d 5 m o n t h s. S u c h p r e c o c i t y i n v e r b a l d e v e l o p m e n t a n d m o v e m e n t a m o n g t h e g i f t e d p r o f o u n d l y a f f e c t s t h e i r e a r l y c o g n i t i v e a n -e d msootciioon a l d e v e l o p m e n t ( G r o s s, , p. 6 ). T h e i r v e r y e a r l y v e r b a l f l u e n c y m a k e s t h e m a b l e t o e x p r e s s t h e i r i d e a s, t o l o o k f o r i n f o r m a t i o n b y a s k i n g a n d t o i n t e r a c t v e r b a l l y w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s a n d o t h e r m e m b e r s o f t h e f a m i l y a t a n a g e a t w h i c h o t h e r c h i l d r e n a r e y ojn ul s t b e g i n n i n g t o e x p e r i m e n t w i t h o r a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n. T h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f v o c a b u l a r y c o r r e l a t e s w e l l w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e, a s T e r m a n ( ) p o i n t e d o u t. G u i l f o r d, S c h e u e r l e a n d S h o n b u r n ( ) a s w e l l a s L e w i s a n d L o u i s ( r1e9p9o 1 r) t e d t h a t l i n g u i s t i c c a p a c i t i e s a r e o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d a s i g n o f g i f t e d n e s s ( B e n i t o a n d M o r o, ). B o t h s t u d i e s e x a m i n e d p r e c o c i o u s c h i l d r e n. S u c h c h i l d r e n i n v a r i a b l y a s k a b o u t n e w w o r d s a n d q u i c k l y p u t t h e m t o u s e i n a c o r r e c t c o n t e x t. F r o m a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 y e a r s o l d t h e y d e v en l oi p n tae r e s t i n t h e s p e l l i n g o f t h e w o r d s. A n o t h e r o u t s t a n d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n i s t h e c o n t i n u a l n e e d o f l e a r n i n g. S i n c e t h e y b e g a n t o s p e a k, t h e y s h o w e d a g r e a t c u r i o s i t y f o r e v e r y t h i n g a r o u n d t h e m. T h e y a s k e d a b o u t n e w w o r d s a n d a s k e d e x p lo r a t o r y q u e s t i o n s : t h e c a u s e o f t h i n g s, t h e i r w o r k i n g, e t c. T h e i r q u e s t i o n s w e r e c o m p l e x a n d a l r e a d y f r o m a y o u n g a g e, t h e y w e r e i n t e r e s t e d i n s u c h m e t a p h y s i c a l s u b j e c t s a s t h e o r i g i n o f m a n a n d t h e u n i v e r s e. O n e c h i l d, a t 3 y e a r s o f a g e, a s k e d h o w cj oe us lu d s e x i s t i f h e d i d n t s e e h i m. W h e r e w a s h e a n d H o w d i d h e f e e l h i m? H i s q u e s t i o n s f r e q u e n t l y c o n c e r n e d d e a t h, t r u t h, t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e u n i v e r s e, t h e c o s m o s, e t c. : H e a s k s q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e m e a n i n g o f l i f e a n d j u s t i c e. H e i s c u r i o u s raybtoh uit n g e. v ea t 4, h e w a n t e d t o k n o w w h a t a c o u n t r y o r a n a t i o n w a s. A t 5, h e k n e w t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e c a p i t a l s o f t h e w o r l d, t h e t y p e s o f a n i m a l s t h e r e w e r e, e t c. I n g e n e r a l, e v e r y t h i n g i n t e r e s t s h i m. I f h e w a s r i d i n g i n a c a r, h e w a n t e d t o k n o w t h e r o a d s, s it gh ne t y p e s o f t r e e s t h a t h e s a w, t h e k i n d s o f 94 G i f te d a n d T a l e n t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l 2 4 (2 ), D e c e m b e r,

11 c l o u d s i n t h e s k y. E v e r y t h i n g w a s a c a u s e o f c u r i o s i t y a n d s o m e s u b j e c t s w e r e s u f f i c i e n t r e a s o n f o r h i m t o g o a n d c o n s u l t a b o o k a n d e n c y c l o p e d i a s : w h a t a r e c o n s t e l l a t i o n s, m y t h o l o g y, m i n e r a l s, h i s t o r y, e. t c. f r o m v e r y y o u n g h i s v o c a b u l a r y h a s b e e n v e r y r i c h b u t, a b o v e a l l, s i n c e h e b e g a n t o r e a d ( b e f o r e 4 y e a r s o l d ) h e h a s b e e n v e r y c o n c e r n e d a b o u t u s i n g w o r d s c o r r e c t l y a n d t o l o o k f o r e x p r e s s i o n s a n d s y n o n y m s i n o r d e r t o e x p r e s s h i m s e l f v e r y c l e a r lay l. w a yh s e s t o o d o u t b e c a u s e h i s w a y o f s p e a k i n g d i d n o t c o r r e s p o n d t o w h a t a c h i l d o f h i s a g e i s s u p p o s e d t o s a y. F o r e x a m p l e, a f e w m o n t h s a g o, a g e d 6, h e b e g a n t o u s e p h r a s e s h e h a d r e a d i n s o m e b o o k s a n d w h i c h h e l i k e d o r w h i c h o c c u r r e d t o h i m b e c a u s e ta hp ep ye a r e d m o r e e x a c t ( a c c o r d i n g t o h i s o w n i d e a o f e x a c t i t u d e ). O n e d a y, i n a b o o k s h o p, h e w a s a s k e d i f h e h a d f a l l e n d o w n b e c a u s e h e h a d a n i n j u r y a n d h e a n s w e r e d : N o. I v e b u m p e d i n t o a n o t h e r h u m a n b e i n g o f m y o w n s p e c i e s. H e s a i d i t e n t i r e l y n ay t ub ru at l lt h e f a c e o f t h e s h o p a s s i s t a n t, h i s c o m m e n t a n d o t h e r s i n d i f f e r e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s h a v e g i v e n r i s e t o t h e f a c t t h a t n o w, a t 6 y e a r s a n d 5 m o n t h s, h e s p e a k s d i f f e r e n t l y d e p e n d i n g o n t h e p l a c e a n d t h e p e o p l e w h o h e m e e t s. O t h e r p a r e n t s c o m m e n t t h a t : B e f o r e h e w a s 2, h e b e g a n t o d i s t i n g u i s h d a y, n i g h t, a f t e r n o o n a n d m o r n i n g. L a t e r, h e b e c a m e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e h o u r s, t h e d a y s o f t h e w e e k, t h e s e a s o n s, t h e m o n t h s, t h e d a y s o f e v e r y m o n t h. A t 2 a n d a h a l f, h e e v e n a s k e d w h e t h e r t i m e e v e r f i n i s h e s. A t 2 y e a r s, h e c o u l d c o u n t u p t o o v e r i n S p a n i s h a n d a l m o s t u p t o i n F r e n c h a n d B a s q u e. H e k n e w t h e l e t t e r s, h e c o u l d r e a d, w r i t e a n d t h e h o u r s o f t h e c l o c k. H e c o u l d i d e n t i f y t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e g e o m e t r i c a l f i g u r e s, t h e r o a d s i g n s, s o m e c o u nit r i le os c, a t ih oe n a n d t h e i r f l a g s. H e h a s a l w a y s s h o w n i n t e r e s t i n e v e r y t h i n g a n d a s k e d a b o u t e v e r y t h i n g a r o u n d h i m : t h e n a m e s o f c i t i e s, t r e e s, f l o w e r s, c a r s, e t c.. O t h e r p a r e n t s a l s o r e p o r t e d h o w, a t 3 y e a r s a n d 6 m o n t h s, t h e i r c h i l d A nad s kb ed f: o r e I w a s i n M u m s s t o m a c h, w h e r e w a s I? A t t h e s a m e a g e, h e c o u n t e d u p t o i n E n g l i s h a n d G e r m a n. I n t h S p a n i s h h e c o u l d s a y a n y -f 5 i g u r e n u m b e r. H e c o u l d a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n : w h a t d a y d o e s M2a4r c h f a l l o n? A n d h e a n s w e r e d c o r r ec t l y, f o r e x a m p l e, o n S a t u r d a y. H e s h o w e d g r e a t i n t e r e s t i n t r a f f i c s i g n s, l e t t e r s, n u m b e r s, s y m b o l s i n g e n e r a l, w a y s o f m e a s u r i n g t i m e, t h e s u n, t h e m o o n a n d t h e s t a r s. O n t h e p i a n o h e w a s a b l e t o r e p r o d u c e q u i t e c o m p l e x m e l o d i e s w i t h a t r u l y s u r p r i s i n g c a p a c i t y f o r p h r a s i n g f o r ( 3 h i ys e aargs e a n d 9 m o n t h s ) a vh i n g o n l y r e c e n t l y h e a r d t h e m. H e c o u l d d i s t i n g u i s h t h e s o u n d o f a l m o s t a l l t h e i n s t r u m e n t s o f a n o r c h e s t r a. H e w a s a b l e t o r e a d s i m p l e p i e c e s w r i t t e n i n t h e k e y o f G w i t h i n t o n a t i o n, a l t h o u g h w i t h o u t m e l o d y. H e w a s a b l e t o p l a y s i m p l e p i e c e s o n t h e p i a n o a p p r o p r i a t e f o r c h i l d r e n o v e r 7 y e a r s o l d. W h e n h e w a s a s k e d a b o u t t h e n a m e o f t h e t h r e e s o n g s h e m o s t l i k e d, h e a n s w e r e d : T h e N e w W o r l d S y m p h o n y b y D v o r a k ( f i r s t m o v e m e n t ) ; V a r i a t i o n s o n a t h e m e b y H a y d n ( B r a h m s ) a n d T h e S u n Si as d w h i c h h e h a d l e a r n t a t s c h o o l. W h e n t h e c h i l d w a s a s k e d a b o u t t h e s e, h e h u m m e d t h e m a n d h i s m o t h e r w r o t e t h e n a m e. H e i d e n t i f i e d t h e m b y t h e a u t h o r a n d t h e i r o r d e r o n t h e r e c o r d. T h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e f l e c t t h o s e o b s e r v e d i n s o m e i m p o r t a n t h if si tg ou r ie c s. T a k e f o r e x a m p l e, F r a n c i s G a l t o n. H e r e i s a n e x a m p l e f r o m a l e t t e r w r i t t e n a l i t t l e b e f o r e h i s f i f t h b i r t h d a y : M y d e a r e s t A d e l a, I a m f o u r y e a r s o l d a n d I c a n r e a d a n y b o o k i n E n g l i s h. I c a n s a y a l l t h e n o u n s, a d j e c t i v e s a n d a c t i v e v e r b s i n al s a t wi en l l a s r e c i t i n g 5 0 l i n e s o f L a t i n p o e t r y. I c a n a d d a n y q u a n t i t y a n d m u l t i p l y b y 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 1 0, a n d 1 1. I c a n a l s o s a y t h e m o n e t a r y t a b l e, r e a d a l i t t l e F r e n c h a n d I k n o w t i( mc eo s l o m, , p. 5 1 ). T h e v o c a b u l a r y l e v e l a t t a i n e d b y cthhiel d r e n i n s o m e o f t h e t e s t s w a s a s f o l l o w s : G i f t e d a nd T a l e n t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l 2 4 ( 2 ), D e c e m b e r,

12 T a b l e 2 : E q u i v a l e n t a g e s i n v o c a b u l aer sy t s t. C h i l d A g e W E C H S L E R S C A L E ( V O C A B U L A R Y ) T h e W o r l d C o u n c i l f o r G i f t e d a n d T a l e n t e d C h i l d r e n S T A N F O R D - B I N E T ( F o r m L - M ) ( V O C A B U L A R Y ) T V T P ( P E A B O D Y ) A 3 y e a r s 6 m o n t h s, I Q y e a r s 8 y e a r s 1 0 m o n t h s B 3 y e a r s 9 m on t h s, I Q y e a r s 6 y e a r s 5 y e a r s 0 m o n t h s C 4 y e a r s 8 m o n t h s, I Q y e a r s 6 m o n t h s 8 y e a r s 7 y e a r s 1 m o n t h D 4 y e a r s 1 0 m o n t h s, I Q y e a r s 6 m o n t h s 8 y e a r s 8 y e a r s 0 m o n t h s E 6 y e a r s 5 m o n t h s, I Q y e a r s 6 m o n t h s 1 2 y e a r s 9 y e a r s 8 m o nt h s F 7 y e a r s 1 m o n t h, I Q y e a r s 2 m o n t h s 1 2 y e a r s 9 y e a r s 3 m o n t h s G 8 y e a r s 5 m o n t h s, I Q y e a r s 1 0 m o n t h s U p p e r A d u l t s I I H 8 y e a r s 7 m o n t h s, I Q y e a r s 1 0 m o n t h s M e d i u m A d u l t s 1 6 y e a r s 2 m o n t h s I 9 y e a r s 3 m o n t h s, I Q y e a r s 1 0 m o n t h s U p p e r A d u l t s I 1 9 y e a r s 2 m o n t h s J 1 0 y e a r s 1 m o n t h, I Q y e a r s 1 0 m o n t h s U p p e r A d u l t s I I 1 5 y e a r s 2 m o n t h s R e g a r d i n g t h e s u b j e c t o f r e a d i n g, p r e c o c i o u s r e a d e r s h a v e b e e n d e f i n e d a s t h o s e c h i l d r e n w h o h a v e m a d e s u b s t a n t i a l p r o g r e s s irne a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n b e f o r e s t a r t i n g t h e f i r s t y e a r a t s c h o o l ( J a c k s o n, D o n a l d s o n a n d C l e l a n d, ). M i l l s a n d J a c k s o n ( ) s u g g e s t e d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n c a n b e p r e d i c t e d f r o m t h e t e s t s c a r r i e d o u t 5 o r 6 y e a r s l y p. r e Tv hi eo y u a l s o p o i n t o u t t h a t v e r b a l a b i l i t y t u r n s o u t t o b e a n e q u a l l y g o o d p r e d i c t o r ( e. g., P e r l e t h, ). A c c o r d i n g J a c k s o n ( ), t h e a b i l i t y t o r e a d a t s u c h a p r e c o c i o u s a g e d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r h i g h l y g i f t e d p e r f o r m a n c e. I n t h i s c o n xt t e, R o b i n s o n ( ) p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n s h e s t u d i e d w e r e c o m p e t e n t r e a d e r s b e f o r e s t a r t i n g i n f a n t s s c h o o l a n d t y p i c a l l y p o s s e s s e d a h i g h I Q, w h i c h t e n d e d t o w a r d s a n a v e r a g e o f S h e a l s o f o u n d p r e c o c i o u s r e a d e r s t e n d e d t o m a i n t a i n a n a d v a on vt ea r g e t h e i r p e e r s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i r s k i l l s i n r- e adl it nh g o u g h l e s s d r a m a t i c a l - l y a n d g e n e r a l l y t h e y p e r f o r m w e l l a t s c h o o l. S h e m a i n t a i n e d t h a t i f t h e s e p u p i l s w e r e n o t a d e q u a t e l y t a u g h t t o r e a d v e r y e a r l y o n a n d w h e n t h e i r c o m p a n i o n s a r e b e g i n n i ntg o r e a d, n o t o n l y a b r a k e o n t h e g r o w t h o f t h e i r a b i l i t i e s c o u l d o c c u r, b u t a l s o a p r o f o u n d d i s c o u r a g e m e n t w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m c o u l d d e v e l o p. T h e p r e c o c i o u s l e a r n i n g o f r e a d i n g i n t h e s e p r e c o c i o u s c h i l d r e n i s n o t c a u s e d b y t h e i n s i s t e n c e o f t h e p a r e n t s. N o t a l l g i f t e d c h i l d r e n w h o a r e r e a d y t o r e a d a c t u a l l y r e a d. M a n y p a r e n t s r e s i s t r e s p o n d i n g t o q u e s t i o n s a n d a n i n t e r e s t i n r e a d i n g o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n, a f t e r a d v i c e f r o m t e a c h e r s w h o a r g u e t h a t t h i s c o u l d b e h a r m f u l i n t h e i r a c a d e m i c n g l ei an r ns iu b s e q u e n t y e a r s. G i f t e d c h i l d r e n w h o r e a d e a r l y l e a r n t o r e a d i n c i d e n t a l l y a n d u n g u i d e d a n d i t i s c u r i o s i t y w h i c h l e a d s t h e m t o l e a r n. O f t h e 1 0 c a s e s i n t h e s a m p l e, o n e b e g a n t o r e c o g n i z e l e t t e r s a t 1 y e a r, 2 m o n t h s, a n o t h e r a t 1 y e a r, 8 m o n t h s d a ns i x s t a r t e d t o r e c o g n i z e l e t t e r s a t t h e a g e o f 2. I n a n o t h e r c a s e, t h e d a t a i s n o t a v a i l a b l e a n d i n t h e t w o r e m a i n i n g, o n e b e g a n t o r e c o g n i z e l e t t e r s a t 3 y e a r s a n d 6 m o n t h s a n d t h e o t h e r a t 4. T h e y l e a r n t o r e a d f u n c t i o n a l l y, g a t h e r i n g k n o w l e d g e t oa f i n c el ro g o t y p e s a n d a n a g r a m s. T h e y p l y c o n t i n u o u s q u e s t i o n s, e. g W. h, a t d o e s i t s a y h e r e? T y p i c a l l y t h e y d o n o t a s k a b o u t s i n g l e l e t t e r s r a t h e r w h o l e w o r d s ( a l t h o u g h c u r i o u s l y o n e c h i l d l e a r n e d b y a s k i n g a b o u t t h e l e t t e r s a n d n o t t h e w o r d s ) : A t 3 y e a r s nad 1 0 m o n t h s h e l e a r n t t o r e a d b y h i m s e l f b y a s k i n g w h a t e a c h c a p i t a l l e t t e r w a s. B e f o r e r e a d i n g, h e u s e d t o s p e l l e v e r y t h i n g h e s a w w r i t t e n. N o b o d y t a u g h t h i m t o w r i t e, h e d i d i t v e r y b a d l y b u t h e l i k e d t o d o i t. F r o m 3 y e a r s o f a g e h i s f a v o r i t t o y s h a v e b e e n b o o k s, p a p e r a n d p e n c i l s. I n T e r m a n s ( ) s a m p l e, p r e c o c i t y w a s v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y e v i d e n t c o n c e r n i n g l e a r n i n g t o r e a d : 4 2 % o f t h e v e r y g i f t e d ( I Q o v e r ) l e a r n e d t o r e a d b e f o r e 5 y e a r s o l d, c o m p a r e d t o % o f t h e t o t a l f o r t h e g r o u p s t u d i e( dg i f t e d a n d h i g h l y g i f t e d o v e r ). F r o m t h e s t a t i s t i c a l p o i n t o f v i e w t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t. 96 G i f te d a n d T a l e n t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l 2 4 (2 ), D e c e m b e r,

13 I n t h e g i r l s, t h e p e r c e n t a g e i s o f 2 5 % c o m p a r e d t o 1 8 % o f t h e t o t a l o f t h e g r o u p s t u d i e d ( a l l v e r y g i f t e d ). T h e p r o p o r t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s r be ea fd oi rn e g t h e a g e o f 4 i s t w o ½ t i m e s m o r e a m o n g t h e v e r y g i f t e d ( I Q o f o r m o r e ) t h a n t h e g r o u p o f g i f t e d i n g e n e r a l. I n r e s e a r c h a i m e d a t i d e n t i f y i n g t h e m o s t u s e f u l v a r i a b l e s r e g a r d i n g e a r l y a n d r e l i a b l e s c r e e n i n g o f g i f t e d p u p i l s, r e a d i n g a b o o k e a st i lty h e a g e o f 4 w a s t h e v a r i a b l e w i t h t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e. T h i s v a r i a b l e c a n b e s e e n i n % o f t h e c a s e s o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n i n t h e s t u d y. A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e o b s e r v e d i s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e a m o n g c h i l d r e n w i t h an I Q o f a n d c h i l d r e n w i t h a n I Q o f m o r e t h a n T h e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e m w a s f o u n d t o b e t h e l e a r n i n g o f t h e a l p h a b e t a t 2 ½ y e a r s o l d i n c h i l d r e n w h o s e I Q i s o v e r ( B e n i t o a n d M o r o, , p. 2 4 ). I n t h e s a m p l e, f o u r o f t h e c h i ls dtra er n t e d r e a d i n g a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 ½, a n o t h e r a t 3 y e a r s 1 0 m o n t h s, a n o t h e r t h r e e b e g a n a t 4 a n d t h e r e m a i n d e r a t 5 y e a r s o l d. A l l o f t h e m, w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e e l d e s t c h i l d i n t h e s a m p l e, s h o w e d a n i n t e n s e i n t e r e s t i n r e a d i n g a n d a h i g h r e a d. i ni g n sf pa ec et d, t h e t w o c h i l d r e n w h o r e a d l a t e s t, b e g a n t o r e a d v e r y q u i c k l y s h o r t l y a f t e r : A t a b o u t 5 y e a r s a n d 6 m o n t h s, i n c l a s s t h e y t o o k h i m t o t h e l i b r a r y s o t h a t h e w a s o c c u p i e d w h i l e t h e o t h e r c l a s s m a t e s l e a r n t t o r e a d. H e l e a r n t t o r e a d i n o n e w ei en k s e c o n d g r a d e o f p r e s c h o o l. A t 6 y e a r s o l d, o n s c h o o l d a y s, h e w o u l d r e a d a s h o r t s t o r y b e f o r e b r e a k f a s t. H e l i k e d t h e b o o k s f r o m t h e c o l l e c t i o n S t e a m B o a t. H e e v e n r e a d w h i l e h e w a t c h e d T V. T h e o n l y c h i l d i n t h e g r o u p w h o s h o w e d n o i n t e n s e i nt eir n e s r e a d i n g w a s a g e d 1 0 y e a r s a n d I m o n t h. E v e n s o, h e w a s a v e r y q u i c k r e a d e Ar t : 7 h e r e a d m o r e t h a n w o r d s p e r m i n u t e. T h e m o s t p r e c o c i o u s c h i l d l e a r n e d t o r e a d a t 2 y e a r s a n d 3 m o n t h s. A t t h e a g e o f 2 y e a r s a n d 1 0 m o n t h s, h e c o u l d r e a d 5 2 w o r d s epr m i n u t e. H e c o u l d w r i t e s o m e w o r d s d i c t a t e d t o h i m, m a i n l y i n c a p i t a l l e t t e r s a n d i n t h e r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n t e s t f o r l e v e l 1 o f p r i m a r y s c h o o l h e o b t a i n e d a s c o r e o f 8 o n a s c a l e o f 1 t o 1 0. H e l e a r n e d t o r e a d b y a s k i n g w h a t w a s w r i t t e n o n t hie n ntohte i csetsr e e t. I n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t e x t r a o r d i n a r y m a t h e m a t i c a l s k i l l s a r e o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d a s v e r y i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n t h e e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n ( S t a p f, , p ), t h e r e h a s b e e n l i t t l e r e s e a r c h r e g a r d i ne g e tx ht r a o r d i n a r y m a t h e m a t i c a l a b i l i t i e s o f t h e y o u n g e s t c h i l d r e n. T h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n c a r r i e d o u t w i t h p u p i l s o v e r 1 0 y e a rp s e r ol le d t. h,( L e h w a l d a n d B r o w d e r, ). M a r j o r a n a n d N e l s o n ( ) r e p o r t e d s o m e i n d i c a t o r s f o r t h e e a r l fy i ci ad te in ot n i o f c h i l d r e n w i t h a t a l e n t f o r m a t h e m a t i c s, s u c h a s a p r e f e r e n c e f o r l o g i c a l e l e m e n t s o f c o n n e c t i o n i n i t s l a n g u a g e, t h e i n t e r e s t i n a n d d e d i c a t i o n t o g e o m e t r i c a l d r a w i n g s o r s y s t e m s o f o r d e r a n d t h e g r e a t s a t i s f a c t i o n o b t a i n e d f r o m p u z z l e s a n d b lu di i n g t o y s. H o w e v e r, n o e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e e x i s t s t o s u p p o r t t h e s a i d i n d i c a t o r s P e( r l e t h, L e h w a l d a n d B r o w d e r, ). I n s o m e o f t h e s e c a s e s, e v e n i n b a b i e s, p a r e n t s o b s e r v e d a t e n d e n c y t o s t r u c t u r e t h e e n v i r o n m e n t. I n t h e i r g a m e s, f o r e x a m p l e, t h e y mfio grhm t s e r i e s a n d o r d e r t h i n g s l o g i c a l l y, p l a c i n g t h e i r t o y s i n r o w s, c i r c l e s, a c c o r d i n g t o s i z e a n d s h a p e : S i n c e h e b e g a n t o m o v e h i s a r m s, h e p l a c e d e v e r y t h i n g i n r o w s ( h i s d u m m y, r u b b e r d o l l, e t c. ). A s h e g o t o l d e r, a l l h i s g a m e s w e r e b a s e d o n lpl u thti is n g t oay s i n a r o w a n d o r d e r i n g t h e m b y t y p e s. T h e i n t e r e s t i n j i g s a w s h a s b e e n v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t. O f t h e t e n c h i l d r e n s t u d i e d, f i v e w o r k e d w i t h 2 0 p i e c e s a t 2 y e a r s o l d a n d f o u r a t 3 y e a r s. O n l y o n e s h o w e d n o s p e c i a l f o n d n e s s f - o r h e t hp er m e. f e r r e d w o r d g r i d s. S o m e o f t h e a c c o u n t s f r o m p a r e n t s w h o s e c h i l d r e n h a d l e a r n e d t o -pdio e c2e 0 j i g s a w s a t 2 y e a r s o l d i n c l u d e : H e s h o w e d g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n n u m b e r s. A s f o r j i g s a w s, h e d i d t h e m q u i c k l y a n d o n c e h e u n d e r s t o o d h o w t o d o t h e m, h e m o v e d o n t o a n o t h eo r n e. H e n e v e r d i d o n e t w i c e. T h e t o y s w h i c h h e p l a y e d w i t h w e r e a l w a y s j i g s a w s. H e h a d o t h e r t o y s : c a r s, d o l l s, b u i l d i n g t o y s, e t c, b u t h e h a r d l y p l a y e d w i t h t h e m, o n l y i f w e i n s i s t e d. H e d i d t h e m f a c e d o w n, c o v e r i n g t h e p i c t u r e. H e l i k e d j i g s a w s a ub t o S p a i n a n d t h a t s h o w h i s i n t e r e s t b e g a n i n g e o g r a p h y : t h e n a t i o n s, c o n t i n e n t s a n d t h e g l o b e o f t h e e a r t h. A t t h e a g e o f 3 h e d i d t h e m w i t h 5 0 o r 6 0 p i e c e s. A l l t e n c h i l d r e n s h o w e d a v e r y d e e p l e v e lo f a p t i t u d e f o r m a t h e m a t i c s. M o s t w e r e e x c e p t i o n a l a n d o n e h a d a p r o d i g i o u s a p t i t u d e : i. e. e q hu e a l e d t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f a n a d u l t i n m a t h e m a t i c a l r e a s o n i n g b e f o r e h e w a s 1 0 y e a r s o l d. G i f t e d a nd T a l e n t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l 2 4 ( 2 ), D e c e m b e r,

14 T a b l e 3 : E q u i v a l e n t a g e s i n c a l c u l u s a n d n u m e r i c a l r e a s o n i n g. T h e W o r l d C o u n c i l f o r G i f t e d a n d T a l e n t e d C h i l d r e n C h i l d A G E W E C H S L E R S T A N F O R D - B I N E T M S C A C a l c u l u s S C A L E A r i t h m e t i c ( F o r m L - M ) N u m e r i c a l R e a s o n i n g A 3 y e a r s 6 m o n t h s I Q y e a r s 7 y e a r s 6 m o n t h s B 3 y e a r s 9 m o n t h s I Q y e a r s 6 m o n t h s 6 y e a r s 7 y e a r s a p p r o x i m a t e l y C 4 y e a r s 8 m o n t h s I Q y e a r s 6 m o n t h s + 6 y e a r s 8 y e a r s a p p r o x i m a t e l y D 4 y e a r s 1 0 m o n t h s I Q y e a r s 6 m o n t h s 9 y e a r s + 8 y e a r s 6 m o n t h s E 6 y e a r s 5 m o n t h s I Q y e a r s 1 0 m o n t h s 9 y e a r s + 8 y e a r s 6 m o n t h s F 7 y e a r s 1 m o n t h I Q y e a r s 1 0 m o n t h s U p p e r A d u l t s I + 8 y e a r s 6 m o n t h s G 8 y e a r s 5 m o n t h s I Q y e a r s 1 0 m o n t h s U p p e r A d u l t s I I I H 8 y e a r s 7 m o n t h s I Q y e a r s 1 0 m o n t h s M e d i u m A d u l t s I 9 y e a r s 3 m o n t h s I Q y e a r s 1 0 m o n t h s U p p e r A d u l t s I J 1 0 y e a r s 1 m o n t h I Q y e a r s 1 0 m o n t h s U p p e r A d u l t s I I I I n f o u r c h i l d r e n, a n e x t r a o r d i n a r y c a p a c i t y f o r m a mt ai tc hs e c o u l d b e o b s e r v e d : A ( 3 y e a r s a n d 6 m o n t h s ), D ( 4 y e a r s a n d 1 0 m o n t h s ) F, ( 7 y e a r s a n d 1 m o n t h ) a n G d ( 8 y e a r s a n d 5 m o n t h s ). I n t h e l a t t e r c a s e, h e h a d a p r o d i g i o u s a b i l i t y : A t 1 3 o r 1 4 m o n t h s, h e l o v e d t o a r r a n g e g e o m e t r i c a l s h a p e s. A t 1 4 m ho e n t ch os u l d m a k e a p e r f e c t p y r a m i d. A t 1 8 m o n t h s, h e w a n t e d a b o o k w i t h n u m b e r s a n d h e a s k e d a b o u t t h e n u m b e r s o f a l l t h e h o u s e s. A t 2 y e a r s o l d, h e h a d m a s t e r e d a l l t h e n u m b e r s. A t 3, h e m a s t e r e d q u a n t i t i e s o f m i l l i o n s. B e f o r e h e w a s 4, h e c o u l d c o u n t b a c k w a r d s f r o m o n e t h o u s a n d a n d a t t h e s a m e a g e h e w a s a b l e t o r e s o l v e p r o b l e m s i n h i s h e a d w i t h 2 o r m o r e o p e r a t i o n s. A t 5, h e k n e w t h e s u r f a c e a r e a a n d p o p u l a t i o n o f m a n y S p a n i s h p r o v i n c e s. H e l e a r n t t h e m u l t i p l i c a t i o n t a b l e s w i t h a c a l c u l a t o r a t 5. B y h i m s e l f, h e s t a r t e d t o u n d e r s t a n d h o w t h e t a b l e s w o r k e d. A t 8 a n d a h a l f, t h e a g e t h a t w h i c h h e a t t e n d e d t h e C e n t r e, h e c o u l d r e s o l v e p r o b l e m s f r o m g r a8 d e o f s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l a n d v e r y q u i c k l y. W h e n h e w a s t e s t e d t h e e x a m i n e r s w e r e s u r p r i s e d b y t h e w a y h e l od o kae t t h e m a n d h i s n u m e r i c a l c a p a c i t y. I t w a s a m a z i n g h o w h e r e s o l v e d t h e p r o b l- e pm es r f o r m i n g t h e C a l c u l u s T e s t o f t h e T E A - 3 w i t h o u t u s i n g p a p e r t o d o t h e o p e r a t i o n s a n d d o i n g e v e r y t h i n g m e n t a l l y. H e w a s i n t h e 9 9 t h p e r c e n t i l e o n t h e s c a l e c o r r e s p o n d i no g t th e p r e- u n i v e r s i t y s c h o o l c o u r s e. B u t w h a t r e a l l y w a s s u r p r i s i n g w a s h o w h e s o l v e d t h e r e a s o n i n g p r o b l e m p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e U p p e r A d u l t L e v e l I I I o f t h e S t a n f o r d T e s t : I n m y g a r d e n t h e r e w a s a p l a n t w h i c h w a s 8 c e n t i m e t e r s h i g h. A t t h e e n d o f o n e y e a r I m e a s u r e d i t a n d i t w a s 1 2 c e n t i m e t e r s h i g h, a t 2 y e a r s i t r e a c h e d 1 8 c e n t i m e t e r s a n d a t t h e e n d o f t h e t h i r d y e a r i t w a s 2 7 c e n t i m e t e r s. W h a t h e i g h t d o y o u t h i n k i t w o u l d r e a c h a t t h e e n d o f t h e f o u r t h y e a r?. A f t e r 7 s e c o n d s h e g a v e t h e c o r r e c t a n s w e r h. e n W a s k e d h o w h e h a d d o n e i t, h e a n s w e r e d t h a t i t w a s e a s y o n c e h e r e a l i z e d t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n e a c h o f t h e n u m b e r s w a s 1. 5 : 8 x 1. 5 = x 1. 5 = x 1. 5 = x 1. 5 = A t t h e t i m e h e w a s b e g i n n i n g t h i r d g r a d e a n d c l ai sn s j u s t b e g i n n i n g t o l e a r n h o w t o d i v i d e. A s i n d i c a t e d o n p r e v i o u s o c c a s i o n s, t y p i c a l l y i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n f r o m t h e a g e o f 6 s h o w m e t a - c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s i n t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f m a t h e m a t i c a l p r o b l e m s ( B e n i t o, ). H o w e v e r, e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y f tg ei d c h i l d r e n e v e n a s y o u n g a s 4 y e a r s a n d 1 0 m o n t h s d e m o n s t r a t e t h e e m e r g e n c e o f t h i s s k i l l. F o r e x a m p l e, wd h ew n a s a s k e d, I f y o u b u y a b a l l t h a t c o s t s 2 0 E u r o s a n d y o u p a y w i t h h o w m u c h h a v e y o u l e f t? H e a n s w e r e d 8 0!. B e f o r e s e t t i n g t h e s t o p c h w, a t t h e c h i l d h a d a l r e a d y g i v e n t h e r i g h t a n s w e r, a l t h o u g h i n t h i s c a s e i t d i d n o t a p p e a r t o b e d u e t o a n a u t o m a t i c 98 G i f te d a n d T a l e n t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l 2 4 (2 ), D e c e m b e r,

15 t h o u g h t. H e k n e w o n s o m e o c c a s i o n s, a t l e a s t, w h a t r e a s o n i n g h e h a d f o l l o w e d t o r e s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m. I n t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e c o n c e p t s c o m p o n e no tf t h e C o g n i t i v e A p t i t u d e s T e s t, h e d i d n o t c o u n t t h e p o i n t s o n e b y o n e, b u t r a t h e r a t a g l a n c e. H e r a p i d l y a d d e d u p a n d t o o k a w a y n u m b e r s w i t h m o r e t h a n 3 f i g u r e s i n h i s h e a d a n d n o t w i t h t h e u s e o f p a p e r. W h e n a s k e d h o w h e d i d i t, h e r e si p o n d e d : t h i n k a b o u t t h e m, o n e p l u s o n e, a n d I a d d t h e m u p b u t w i t h o u t p a p e r. F o r e x a m p l e : 4 p l u s 6 e q u a l s 1 0. T h e y o u n g e s t o f t h e c h i l d r e n h a d a w a y o f t h i n k i n g a b o u t p r o b l e m s o l v i n g t h a t i s u s u a l i n s o m e g i f t e d c h i l d r e n u p t o 5 y e a r s o l d, i. e. a u t o m a t i c a l l y aunt d awniy t h ao p p a r e n t t h o u g h t. A f t e r r e a d i n g t h e p r o b l e m, t h e y g i v e t h e c o r r e c t a n s w e r. W h e n t h e y a r e v e r y y o u n g, i f t h e y s t a r t c o u n t i n g o n t h e i r f i n g e r s t h e y w o u l d m a k e a m i s t a k e. F o r e x a m p l e, w h e n a s k e d h o w m a n y c u b e s a r e o n t h e t a b l e a t a g l a n c e t h e y w o u l d y s 1a 1. O n t h e o t h e r h a n d, i f a s k e d t o c o u n t t h e c u b e s o n e b y o n e, t h e y w o u l d o f t e n c o m m i t a m i s t a k e. T h e y o u n g e s t o f 3 y e a r s t o o k o n l y 2 s e c o n d s t o r e s p o n d t o a p r o b l e m s u c h a s t h e f o l l o w i n g I: f y o u h a v e 9 E u r o s a n d y o u l o s e 2, h o w m a n y h a v e y o u l e f t?. A n o t h e r c h i l d H, ( 8 y e a r s a n d 7 m o n t h s ), a l t h o u g h g r e a t l y i n t e r e s t e d i n m a t h e m a t i c s h a d a r e a l p a s s i o n f o r c h e m i s t r y : A t a b o u t 6 y e a r s o l d, h e l e a r n t a t m i d n i g h t, w i t h h i s b r o t h e r, a n d i n a l i t t l e o v e r a n h o u r s o m e t h i n g a s a r i d a s t h e V a l e n c e c h e m i s t r y l et s a b b e c a u s e h e w a n t e d t o l e a r n h o w t o f o r m u l a t e. A t t h e s a m e a g e, o n e o f t h e t h i n g s w h i c h m o s t a m a z e d m e a b o u t m y s o n, a n d w h i c h a c t u a l l y f r i g h t e n e d m e, w a s t h e s p e e d a n d e a s e w i t h w h i c h l e l e a r n t t h e b a s i c r u l e s o f f o r m u l a t i o n. B e t w e e n a p p r o x i m a t e l y ah n o u r a n d a q u a r t e r a n d a n h o u r ½ h e w a s f o r m u l a t i n g a c i d s, t a u g h t b y h i s b r o t h e r. T h e g e n e r a l i d e a t h a t c r e a t i v i t y a n d i n t e l l i g e n c e a r e d i s t i n c t a b i l i t i e s i s f o u n d e d o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s o b t a i n e d b e t w e e n t h e t w o a b i l i t ei re es n t a t l edv ie fl fs o f g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e. C r e a t i v i t y c a n c o r r e l a t e g w, i tb h u t a t t h eh i g h e s t l e v e l s o f g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e, t h e c o r r e l a t i o n i s l o w e r. T h e u l t i m a t e r e a s o n i s t h a t, e v e n w h e n a h i g h l e v e l o f g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e i s n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n f o r i ghh c r e a t i v i t y, t h e f i r s t d o e s n o t g u a r a n t e e t h e s e c o n d. M a n y i n t e l l i g e n t i n d i v i d u a l s l a c k t r u l y c r e a t i v e c a p a c i t i e s ( B u s s a n d P o l e y, , p. 5 8 ). F i g u r e 1: I n t e l l i g e n c e a n d C r e a t i v i t y. C u r r e n t l y, i t i s w i d e l y a c c e p t e d t h a t a t l e a s t a n o r m a l n c ie n ti es l ln ie gc e s s a r y t o b e c r e a t i v e. A c c o r d i n g t o E r i k a L a n d a u, t h e r e i s n o s i g n i f i c a n t c r e a t i v i t y w i t h o u t a h i g h I Q o f a b o u t ( B e n i t o, ). T e r m a n ( ) o b s e r v e d h o w t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d p r e s e n t e d o t h e r e x c e p t i o n a l f e a t u r e s s u c h a s c r e a t i v i t y a n d a l etn t. I t m a y a l s o b e n o t e d t h a t G a r c i a Y a g ü e a n d o t h e r s ( , p ) c o n s i d e r e d t h e s e p a r a t i o n m a d e b e t w e e n i n t e l l e c t u a l g i f t s, c r e a t i v i t y a n d s p e c i a l t a l e n t s t o b e G i f t e d a nd T a l e n t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l 2 4 ( 2 ), D e c e m b e r,

16 T h e W o r l d C o u n c i l f o r G i f t e d a n d T a l e n t e d C h i l d r e n u n j u s t i f i a b l e. I n f a c t, i t s e e m s p r o b a b l e t h a t, w h e n w e m a n a g e, i n t h e f u t u r e y, w th o i c ih d eg ne tn ie fs a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a c e r t a i n c o g n i t i v e c a p a c i t y, t h e y w i l l b e t h e s a m e o n e s t h a t c o n d i t i o n o t h e r c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s ( P l o m i n a n d D e F r i e s, , p. 2 0 ). T h e 1 0 c h i l d r e n i n t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y g r o u p s h o w e d g r e a t c r e a t i v i t y w h i c h w a s c l e an r l y s h o w i n t h e i r d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s o f i n t e r e s t a n d t h e i r a p t i t u d e s. F o r e x a m p l e : I n t h e c a s e oa f ( 3 y e a r s 6 m o n t h s ) : S t a r t i n g f r o m a l l h i s k n o w l e d g e a n d t h e f e w f i l m s h e h a d s e e n, h e s p e n t a l l t h e d a y i m a g i n i n g w h a t a g a l a c t i c w a r r i o r w a s w h o s e l a s e r h ta rd o y t o d e s t h e m o t h e r s h i p A Z , b e c a u s e t h e s p a c e c o n d e n s e r a n d t h o u s a n d s o f s i m i l a r a d v e n t u r e s. A t o t h e r t i m e s h e w o u l d b e a n a r c h a e o l o g i s t w h o w a s s e a r c h i n g f o r t h e m u m m y o f e t c.. B ( 3 y e a r s a n d 9 m o n t h s ) : H e h a d n o i m a g i n a r y f r i e n d s b u t h e h i m s e l f a dd o p dt ie f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l i t i e s : s o m e d a y s h e g o t u p a s T a r z a n, o t h e r s h i s g r a n d m o t h e r, o t h e r s t h e l e t t e r / R /, e t c. H e i n v e n t e d n a m e s f o r t h e d o l l s a n d e v e n e v e r y d a y o b j e c t s. H e t o o k o n d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l i t i e s a n d o f t e n c h a n g e d t h e i d e n t i t y o f t h e o b j e c t s o p al ne d a pr eo u n d h i m. H ( 8 y e a r s a n d 7 m o n t h s ) : H e l i k e d t o m a k e c o m i c s t o r i e s b y d r a w i n g t h e m a n d t o i n v e n t r e a l t h i n g s : f o r e x a m p l e, a t 6 y e a r s a n d 5 m o n t h s, o n e d a y w i t h a r e m o t e c o n t r o l c a r, a r o p e, a k n i f e, s o m e b o o k s w h i c h h e l d d o w n t h e r e m o t e c o n t r on l d as o m e o t h e r t h i n g s, h e a r r a n g e d e v e r y t h i n g i n s u c h a w a y t h a t, w h e n a c e r t a i n p l a c e w a s p r e s s e d, i t w a s l i k e a t r a p a n d t h e c a r c r a s h e d i n t o y o u ( i t d i d n t a l w a y s w o r k b e c a u s e t h e k n i f e w a s a l i t t l e b l u n t a n d i t d i d n t a l w a y s c u t t h e r o p e. F ( 7 y e a r s ad n 1 m o n t h ) : H e l i k e d t o i n v e n t s t o r i e s v e r y m u c h. I n h i s d r a w i n g s h e t r i e d t o r e f l e c t t h e r e a l s i t u a t i o n o f t h e p e r s o n a g e s : t h e h a i r b l o w n b y t h e w i n d, c a n d l e s b e h i n d w i n d o w s, s w e a t o n t h e f a c e o f p e o p l e w o r k i n g, e t c.. G ( 8 y e a r s a n d 5 m o n t h s ) : H e d r e a m t o f b u i l d i n g h i s o w n h o u s e a n d c a r, e t c. H e k n e w t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e m a k e s o f c a r o n t h e m a r k e t, a s w e l l a s t h e i r t e c h n i c a l f e a t u r e s a n d p r i c e. H e w a s i n t e r e s t e d i n k n o w i n g t h e p r i c e s o f f l a t s a n d h o u s e s, d e s i g n i n g h i s o w n h o u s e a n d t h e l a y o u t, f u r n i s h iin t g, d r a w i n g u p t h e p l a n s, e t c.. A l l i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n a r e, i n g e n e r a l, c r e a t i v e i n t h e i r e a r l y y e a r s. A s p r e v i o i n d i c a t e d, t h e r e i s n o r e a l c r e a t i v i t y w i t h o u t a h i g h I Q o f a t l e a s t : b e l o w t h i s l e v e l, t h e c o r r e l a d e c r e a s e s. B u t on w h a t d o e s i t d e p e n d t h e f a c t t h a t i n t h e i r a d o l e s c e n c e, m a t u r i t y a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l l i f e t h e y b e c o m e h i g h l y c r e a t i v e p e o p l e? A n a n s w e r t o t h i s q u e s t i o n w i l l b e p r o v i d e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n. P e r s o n a l, a c a d e m i c a n d s o c i a l a d a p t a t i o n C o n t r a r y t o w h a t mgi h t b e s u p p o s e d, t h e p e r s o n a l, a c a d e m i c, s o c i a l a n d f a m i l y a d a p t a t i o n w i t h i n t h e c u r r e n t s a m p l e w a s g o o d, w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e t w o y o u n g e s t c h i l d r e n. T h e y h a d d i f f i c u l t i e s a d a p t i n g w h i c h c o u l d b e o b s e r v e d b o t h i n t h e s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t a s w e lh l e i r a s i n t r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e i r c l a s s m a t e s. C o m p l e t e l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e t e a c h i n g m e t h o d s w e r e e v i d e n t a t t h a t a g e. H o w e v e r, t h e y w e r e t o o y o u n g t o ( a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r p r o b l e m s? ), w o r k o u t a s o l u t i o n t o t h e i r p r o b l e m s a n d r e c e i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g. F o r e x a m p l e, A s p a r e n t s s a i d w h i l e t h e i r s o n w a s v a l u Te hd e : b i g p r o b l e m o f t h e c h i l d o f 3 y e a r s a n d 6 m o n t h s w a s t o a d a p t t o t h e s c h o o l b e c a u s e o u t s i d e o f i t h e r e l a t e d w i t h a n y b o d y w h o u n d e r s t o o d h i m a n d d e d i c a t e d t i m e t o h i s g a m e s a n d h i s b o o k s, b u t i n t h e c l a s s r o o m, h e w hhea n d o f n e c e s s i t y t o r e l a t e w i t h t h o s e o f h i s o w n a g e w h o d i d n t h a v e t h e s a m e l e v e l o f l a n g u a g e, c o n c e r n s o r e m o t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t, h e w a s a l o n e r a n d g o t b o r e d p a i n t i n g a l l d a y a n d p l a y i n g s t u p i d g a m e s a s h e s a i d. H e d i d n t f e e l a t e a s e, h e dk ie d n f it g hlt i n g w i t h t h e o t h e r c h i l d r e n f o r b a l l s a n d h e d i d n t p a r t i c i p a t e i n a n y a c t i v i t y i n w h i c h t h e w i n n e r w a s t h e s t r o n g e s t. T h e m e n t a l m a t u r i t y o f t h e c h i l d l e d h i m t o a c c e p t w i t h r e s i g n a t i o n t h a t h e h a d t o b e i n c l a s s i n t h e m o r n i n g a n d h e e v etn h act l a iim t e d w a s h i s w o r k, I d o i t t h e s a m e a s y o u, w h y d o n t t h e y p a y m e f o r i t?. T h e w o r s t o f a l l w a s t h a t h e d i d n t h a v e f r i e n d s a l t h o u g h h e w a n t e d t o m i x w i t h t h e o t h e r s. I n c l a s s h e d i d n t p a r t i c i p a t e b e c a u s e a s t h e c h i l d r e n d i d n t s i t s t i l l a n d n oty he ad t hai nm, h e p r e f e r r e d n o t t o s p e a k a t a l l s o a s n o t t o a d d t o t h e r a c k e t a n d u n d e r s t a n d e v e n l e s s. T h e t e a c h e r g i v e s t h e c l a s s o n l y t o m e b e c a u s e t h e o t h e r s d o n t p a y a t t e n t i o n. B u t I a l r e a d y k n o w a l l t h e t h i n g s s h e s a y s. T h e t e n d e n c y o f t o h e l ac uh gi h l d r e n t w h e n t h e y h e a r d h i m s a y s t r a n g e t h i n g s h a d g i v e n h i m a c e r t a i n c o m p l e x o f t h e y r e l a u g h i n g a t 100 G i f te d a n d T a l e n t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l 2 4 (2 ), D e c e m b e r,

17 m e. H e w a s h a p p y t o f i n d o u t t h a t i t w a s p o s s i b l e t o c h a n g e t o a n o t h e r c l a s s o f o l d e r c h i l d r e n w h e r e h e c o u l d l e a r n i n t e r e s t i n g t h i n g s a s h e es na i td o,( B ). W h e n v e r y y o u n g i t w o u l d b e t t e r t o b r i n g t h e s e c h i l d r e n t o g e t h e r a s a h o m o g e n e o u s g r o u p a t s p e c i f i c t i m e s i n o r d e r f o r t h e m t o s h a r e w i t h t h e r e s t o f t h e i r h i g h l y a b l e c o m p a n i o n s o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s, e. g., p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n., a n wd h ia lr e t o t h e r l e s s a b l e c l a s s m a t e s a r e l e a r n i n g t o r e a d a n d l e a r n o t h e r b a s i c s k i l l s. T h i s w o u l d h e l p n o t o n l y t h e i r c o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t b u t a l s o f u n d a m e n t a l l y t h e i r s o c i a l a n d e m o t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t. T h e r e s t o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y sghroowuep d g o o d s c h o o l a n d s o c i a l a d a p t a t i o n. T h e y m a i n t a i n e d a d e q u a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b o t h w i t h t h e i r c l a s s m a t e s a s w e l l a s w i t h o t h e r c h i l d r e n o f d i f f e r e n t a g e s. T h e i r p s y c h o l o g i c a l b a l a n c e w a s g o o d a n d t h e y w e r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d b y t h e i r n o t a b l e m a t u r i t y, e n e, r g yd e s i r e t o s h i n e, -sc eo ln f i d e n c e, s e n s e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a n d s o c i a b i l i t y. T h e y h a d a n a t u r a l i n f l u e n c e o n t h e i r s c h o o l m a t e s a n d f i v e o f t h e t e n w e r e v e r y c l e a r l y l e a d e r s. F o r e x a m p l e, J s m o t h e r ( 1 0 y e a r s a n d 1 m o n t h ) d e s c r i b e d h e r s o n i n t h e f o g l l wo aw y i : n M y c h i l d h a s s u c c e s s f u l l y c u l t i v a t e d f r i e n d s h i p s. H e i s w e l l a c c e p t e d a n d v e r y r a r e l y a r g u e s w i t h h i s f r i e n d s. H e h a s n o p r o b l e m s i n d e a l i n g w i t h p e o p l e. H e s v e r y d e t e r m i n e d. W h e n h e w a n t s t o t a l k t o s o m e b o d y ( a u t h o r i t i e s, s p o r t s p e r s o n, e t c. ) h e f i n d s t h e m a n d t a l k s t o t h e m w i t h o u t b e i n g s h y. H e s i n d e p e n d e n t a n d a t t i m e s s t u b b o r n. H e d o e s n t l i e a n d p r e f e r s t o b e r e p r i m a n d e d. F ( 7 y e a r s a n d 1 m o n t h ) w a s c h o s e n i n p- sr ce h o o l t o d i r e c t t h e o t h e r c h i l d r e n i n t h e e n d o f t e r m s h o w a n d t o r e c i t e a ep m o w i t h a n o t h e r c h i l d. H e w a s t h e n 4 y e a r s a n d 5 m o n t h s o l d. A t f o o t b a l l h e w a s a l w a y s c a p t a i n a n d f r e q u e n t l y p r o p o s e d g a m e s t o h i s f r i e n d s. I n A l o n s o a n d B e n i t o s r e s e a r c h i t w a s o b s e r v e d t h a t c h i l d r e n a g e d b e t w e e n 6 a n d 1 0 a r e t h e m o s t s t a b l e, m a t u r e a ned x t r o v e r t e d. I t w a s n o t e d t h a t t h e h i g h e r t h e I Q l e v e l, t h e h i g h e r a r e t h e l e v e l s o f a c a d e m i c a n d s o c i a l a d a p t a t i o n, a s c a n b e s e e n i n t h e f o lf li ogwui rn g e s ( A l o n s o a n d B e n i t o, , p p ; B e n i t o, , p p ) : F i g u r e 2: L e v e l s o f a c a d e m i c d a p t a t i o n f o r 8 y e a r s o l d c h i l d r e n o n -W R I. S C G i f t e d a nd T a l e n t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l 2 4 ( 2 ), D e c e m b e r,

18 T h e W o r l d C o u n c i l f o r G i f t e d a n d T a l e n t e d C h i l d r e n F i g u r e 3:. L e v e l s o f s o c i a l a d a p t a t i o n f o r 8 y e a r s o l d c h i l d r e n - R o. n W I S C 102 G i f te d a n d T a l e n t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l 2 4 (2 ), D e c e m b e r,

A L A BA M A L A W R E V IE W

A L A BA M A L A W R E V IE W A L A BA M A L A W R E V IE W Volume 52 Fall 2000 Number 1 B E F O R E D I S A B I L I T Y C I V I L R I G HT S : C I V I L W A R P E N S I O N S A N D TH E P O L I T I C S O F D I S A B I L I T Y I N

More information

F l a s h-b a s e d S S D s i n E n t e r p r i s e F l a s h-b a s e d S S D s ( S o-s ltiad t e D r i v e s ) a r e b e c o m i n g a n a t t r a c

F l a s h-b a s e d S S D s i n E n t e r p r i s e F l a s h-b a s e d S S D s ( S o-s ltiad t e D r i v e s ) a r e b e c o m i n g a n a t t r a c L i f e t i m e M a n a g e m e n t o f F l a-b s ah s e d S S D s U s i n g R e c o v e r-a y w a r e D y n a m i c T h r o t t l i n g S u n g j i n L e, e T a e j i n K i m, K y u n g h o, Kainmd J

More information

2. T H E , ( 7 ) 2 2 ij ij. p i s

2. T H E , ( 7 ) 2 2 ij ij. p i s M O D E L O W A N I E I N Y N I E R S K I E n r 4 7, I S S N 1 8 9 6-7 7 1 X A N A L Y S I S O F T E M P E R A T U R E D I S T R I B U T I O N I N C O M P O S I T E P L A T E S D U R I N G T H E R M A

More information

o Alphabet Recitation

o Alphabet Recitation Letter-Sound Inventory (Record Sheet #1) 5-11 o Alphabet Recitation o Alphabet Recitation a b c d e f 9 h a b c d e f 9 h j k m n 0 p q k m n 0 p q r s t u v w x y z r s t u v w x y z 0 Upper Case Letter

More information

INSTRUCTIONS: Exam III. November 10, 1999 Lab Section

INSTRUCTIONS: Exam III. November 10, 1999 Lab Section CHEM 1215 Exam III John III. Gelder November 10, 1999 Name TA's Name Lab Section INSTRUCTIONS: 1. This examination consists of a total of 7 different pages. The last page includes a periodic table and

More information

Table of C on t en t s Global Campus 21 in N umbe r s R e g ional Capac it y D e v e lopme nt in E-L e ar ning Structure a n d C o m p o n en ts R ea

Table of C on t en t s Global Campus 21 in N umbe r s R e g ional Capac it y D e v e lopme nt in E-L e ar ning Structure a n d C o m p o n en ts R ea G Blended L ea r ni ng P r o g r a m R eg i o na l C a p a c i t y D ev elo p m ent i n E -L ea r ni ng H R K C r o s s o r d e r u c a t i o n a n d v e l o p m e n t C o p e r a t i o n 3 0 6 0 7 0 5

More information

Atoms and the Periodic Table

Atoms and the Periodic Table Atoms and the Periodic Table Parts of the Atom Proton Found in the nucleus Number of protons defines the element Charge +1, mass 1 Parts of the Atom Neutron Found in the nucleus Stabilizes the nucleus

More information

Circle the letters only. NO ANSWERS in the Columns!

Circle the letters only. NO ANSWERS in the Columns! Chemistry 1304.001 Name (please print) Exam 5 (100 points) April 18, 2018 On my honor, I have neither given nor received unauthorized aid on this exam. Signed Date Circle the letters only. NO ANSWERS in

More information

30 Zn(s) 45 Rh. Pd(s) Ag(s) Cd(s) In(s) Sn(s) white. 77 Ir. Pt(s) Au. Hg(l) Tl. 109 Mt. 111 Uuu. 112 Uub. 110 Uun. 65 Tb. 62 Sm. 64 Gd. 63 Eu.

30 Zn(s) 45 Rh. Pd(s) Ag(s) Cd(s) In(s) Sn(s) white. 77 Ir. Pt(s) Au. Hg(l) Tl. 109 Mt. 111 Uuu. 112 Uub. 110 Uun. 65 Tb. 62 Sm. 64 Gd. 63 Eu. Enthalpy changes: experimentally it is much easier to measure heat flow at const pressure - this is enthalpy q p = )H : also nearly all chemical reactions are done at constant pressure. Enthalpy (heat)

More information

Made the FIRST periodic table

Made the FIRST periodic table Made the FIRST periodic table 1869 Mendeleev organized the periodic table based on the similar properties and relativities of certain elements Later, Henri Moseley organized the elements by increasing

More information

The Periodic Table of Elements

The Periodic Table of Elements The Periodic Table of Elements 8 Uuo Uus Uuh (9) Uup (88) Uuq (89) Uut (8) Uub (8) Rg () 0 Ds (9) 09 Mt (8) 08 Hs (9) 0 h () 0 Sg () 0 Db () 0 Rf () 0 Lr () 88 Ra () 8 Fr () 8 Rn () 8 At (0) 8 Po (09)

More information

What is the periodic table?

What is the periodic table? The periodic table of the elements represents one of the greatest discoveries in the history of science that certain elements, the basic chemical substances from which all matter is made, resemble each

More information

Ch. 9 NOTES ~ Chemical Bonding NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics.

Ch. 9 NOTES ~ Chemical Bonding NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics. Ch. 9 NOTES ~ Chemical Bonding NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics. I. Review: Comparison of ionic and molecular compounds Molecular compounds Ionic

More information

Circle the letters only. NO ANSWERS in the Columns! (3 points each)

Circle the letters only. NO ANSWERS in the Columns! (3 points each) Chemistry 1304.001 Name (please print) Exam 4 (100 points) April 12, 2017 On my honor, I have neither given nor received unauthorized aid on this exam. Signed Date Circle the letters only. NO ANSWERS in

More information

CHEM 130 Exp. 8: Molecular Models

CHEM 130 Exp. 8: Molecular Models CHEM 130 Exp. 8: Molecular Models In this lab, we will learn and practice predicting molecular structures from molecular formulas. The Periodic Table of the Elements IA 1 H IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA 3 5

More information

4.01 Elements, Symbols and Periodic Table

4.01 Elements, Symbols and Periodic Table .0 Elements, Symbols and Periodic Table Dr. Fred O. Garces Chemistry 00 Miramar College.0 Elements, symbols and the Periodic Table Aug The Elements: Building block of Matter The periodic table of the chemical

More information

7. Relax and do well.

7. Relax and do well. CHEM 1215 Exam II John II. Gelder October 13, 1999 Name TA's Name Lab Section INSTRUCTIONS: 1. This examination consists of a total of 5 different pages. The last page includes a periodic table and a solubility

More information

PROOF/ÉPREUVE ISO INTERNATIONAL STANDARD. Space environment (natural and artificial) Galactic cosmic ray model

PROOF/ÉPREUVE ISO INTERNATIONAL STANDARD. Space environment (natural and artificial) Galactic cosmic ray model INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 15390 First edition 2004-##-## Space environment (natural and artificial) Galactic cosmic ray model Environnement spatial (naturel et artificiel) Modèle de rayonnement cosmique

More information

Chapter 12 The Atom & Periodic Table- part 2

Chapter 12 The Atom & Periodic Table- part 2 Chapter 12 The Atom & Periodic Table- part 2 Electrons found outside the nucleus; negatively charged Protons found in the nucleus; positive charge equal in magnitude to the electron s negative charge Neutrons

More information

Agenda Rationale for ETG S eek ing I d eas ETG fram ew ork and res u lts 2

Agenda Rationale for ETG S eek ing I d eas ETG fram ew ork and res u lts 2 Internal Innovation @ C is c o 2 0 0 6 C i s c o S y s t e m s, I n c. A l l r i g h t s r e s e r v e d. C i s c o C o n f i d e n t i a l 1 Agenda Rationale for ETG S eek ing I d eas ETG fram ew ork

More information

8. Relax and do well.

8. Relax and do well. CHEM 1314.03 Exam I John I. Gelder September 25, 1997 Name TA's Name Lab Section Please sign your name below to give permission to post, by the last 4 digits of your student I.D. number, your course scores

More information

Fall 2011 CHEM Test 4, Form A

Fall 2011 CHEM Test 4, Form A Fall 2011 CHEM 1110.40413 Test 4, Form A Part I. Multiple Choice: Clearly circle the best answer. (60 pts) Name: 1. The common constituent in all acid solutions is A) H 2 SO 4 B) H 2 C) H + D) OH 2. Which

More information

8. Relax and do well.

8. Relax and do well. CHEM 1225 Exam I John I. Gelder February 4, 1999 Name KEY TA's Name Lab Section Please sign your name below to give permission to post your course scores on homework, laboratories and exams. If you do

More information

H A N S -O L A V E N G E R,

H A N S -O L A V E N G E R, O n -l i n e P r o c e e d i n gs o f t h e 7 t h M e d i t e r r a n e a n M o r p h o l o g y M e e t i n g 1 M o r p h o l o g y a n d D i a c h r o n y O n -l i n e P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e

More information

VIIIA H PREDICTING CHARGE

VIIIA H PREDICTING CHARGE 58 IA PREDICTING CHARGE VIIIA H IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA You can reliably determine the charge using our method for Groups IA, IIA, IIIB, Aluminum, and the Group VA, VIA, and VIIA NONMETALS Li Be B C N

More information

[ ]:543.4(075.8) 35.20: ,..,..,.., : /... ;. 2-. ISBN , - [ ]:543.4(075.8) 35.20:34.

[ ]:543.4(075.8) 35.20: ,..,..,.., : /... ;. 2-. ISBN , - [ ]:543.4(075.8) 35.20:34. .. - 2-2009 [661.87.+661.88]:543.4(075.8) 35.20:34.2373-60..,..,..,..,.. -60 : /... ;. 2-. : -, 2008. 134. ISBN 5-98298-299-7 -., -,,. - «,, -, -», - 550800,, 240600 «-», -. [661.87.+661.88]:543.4(075.8)

More information

single-layer transition metal dichalcogenides MC2

single-layer transition metal dichalcogenides MC2 single-layer transition metal dichalcogenides MC2 Period 1 1 H 18 He 2 Group 1 2 Li Be Group 13 14 15 16 17 18 B C N O F Ne 3 4 Na K Mg Ca Group 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Al Ga

More information

Chemistry Standard level Paper 1

Chemistry Standard level Paper 1 Chemistry Standard level Paper 1 Thursday 12 May 2016 (morning) 45 minutes Instructions to candidates Do not open this examination paper until instructed to do so. Answer all the questions. For each question,

More information

Modified from: Larry Scheffler Lincoln High School IB Chemistry 1-2.1

Modified from: Larry Scheffler Lincoln High School IB Chemistry 1-2.1 Modified from: Larry Scheffler Lincoln High School IB Chemistry 1-2.1 The development of the periodic table brought a system of order to what was otherwise an collection of thousands of pieces of information.

More information

Lewis dot structures for molecules

Lewis dot structures for molecules 1 Lewis dot structures for molecules In the dot structure of a molecule, - SHARED valence electrons are shown with dashes - one per pair. - UNSHARED valence electrons ("lone pairs") are represented by

More information

Chapter 30 Design and Analysis of

Chapter 30 Design and Analysis of Chapter 30 Design and Analysis of 2 k DOEs Introduction This chapter describes design alternatives and analysis techniques for conducting a DOE. Tables M1 to M5 in Appendix E can be used to create test

More information

SCIENCE 1206 UNIT 2 CHEMISTRY. September 2017 November 2017

SCIENCE 1206 UNIT 2 CHEMISTRY. September 2017 November 2017 SCIENCE 1206 UNIT 2 CHEMISTRY September 2017 November 2017 UNIT OUTLINE 1. Review of Grade 9 Terms & the Periodic Table Bohr diagrams Evidence for chemical reactions Chemical Tests 2. Naming & writing

More information

9/20/2017. Elements are Pure Substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical change (contain Only One Type of Atom)

9/20/2017. Elements are Pure Substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical change (contain Only One Type of Atom) CAPTER 6: TE PERIODIC TABLE Elements are Pure Substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical change (contain Only One Type of Atom) The Periodic Table (Mendeleev) In 1872, Dmitri

More information

Chemistry 126 Final Examination, Prof. Hanson, May, Section B or D (circle one) Seat Coordinate Name

Chemistry 126 Final Examination, Prof. Hanson, May, Section B or D (circle one) Seat Coordinate Name Chemistry 126 Final Examination, Prof. Hanson, May, 2004 Section B or D (circle one) Seat Coordinate Name DO NOT OPEN THIS EXAM UNTIL INSTRUCTED TO DO SO Each asterisk () is 5 points. There are 40 s, for

More information

Chemistry 112 Name Exam I Form A Section January 29,

Chemistry 112 Name Exam I Form A Section January 29, Chemistry 112 Name Exam I Form A Section January 29, 2013 email IMPORTANT: On the scantron (answer sheet), you MUST clearly fill your name, your student number, section number, and test form (white cover

More information

EXAMPLES. He VIA VIIA Li Be B C N O F Ne

EXAMPLES. He VIA VIIA Li Be B C N O F Ne 59 IA EXAMPLES VIIIA H IIA IIIA IVA VA He VIA VIIA Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg IIIB IVB VB Al Si P VIB VIIB VIIIB IB IIB S Cl Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru

More information

A little history. When and How? Sir William Ramsey. ü 12/5/13. ü 1. Who put together the first useable Periodic Table?

A little history. When and How? Sir William Ramsey. ü 12/5/13. ü 1. Who put together the first useable Periodic Table? ü // A little history Johahann Dobereiner (80-89) o Triads John Newlands (8-898) o Law of Octaves Who put together the first useable ic Table? Mendeleev you remember him right? When and How? You know it

More information

8. Relax and do well.

8. Relax and do well. EM 1515.001 Exam III John III. Gelder November 7, 2001 Name TA's Name Lab Section INSTRUTIONS: 1. This examination consists of a total of 9 different pages. The last three pages include a periodic table,

More information

46 D b r 4, 20 : p t n f r n b P l h tr p, pl t z r f r n. nd n th t n t d f t n th tr ht r t b f l n t, nd th ff r n b ttl t th r p rf l pp n nt n th

46 D b r 4, 20 : p t n f r n b P l h tr p, pl t z r f r n. nd n th t n t d f t n th tr ht r t b f l n t, nd th ff r n b ttl t th r p rf l pp n nt n th n r t d n 20 0 : T P bl D n, l d t z d http:.h th tr t. r pd l 46 D b r 4, 20 : p t n f r n b P l h tr p, pl t z r f r n. nd n th t n t d f t n th tr ht r t b f l n t, nd th ff r n b ttl t th r p rf l

More information

NAME: SECOND EXAMINATION

NAME: SECOND EXAMINATION 1 Chemistry 64 Winter 1994 NAME: SECOND EXAMINATION THIS EXAMINATION IS WORTH 100 POINTS AND CONTAINS 4 (FOUR) QUESTIONS THEY ARE NOT EQUALLY WEIGHTED! YOU SHOULD ATTEMPT ALL QUESTIONS AND ALLOCATE YOUR

More information

Halogens HALOGENS. Parts 2A and 2B. Chem : Feb. 19, 20 and March 3. Compare the properties and reactivity of the halogens and halides

Halogens HALOGENS. Parts 2A and 2B. Chem : Feb. 19, 20 and March 3. Compare the properties and reactivity of the halogens and halides Chem. 125-126: Feb. 19, 20 and March 3 Experiment 3 Session 2 (Three hour lab) Complete Experiment 3 Parts 2B and 3 Complete team report Complete discussion presentation Parts 2A and 2B Compare the properties

More information

Grade 11 Science Practice Test

Grade 11 Science Practice Test Grade 11 Science Practice Test Nebraska Department of Education 2012 Directions: On the following pages of your test booklet are multiple-choice questions for Session 1 of the Grade 11 Nebraska State Accountability

More information

Chapter 3: Stoichiometry

Chapter 3: Stoichiometry Chapter 3: Stoichiometry Chem 6A Michael J. Sailor, UC San Diego 1 Announcements: Thursday (Sep 29) quiz: Bring student ID or we cannot accept your quiz! No notes, no calculators Covers chapters 1 and

More information

Chemistry 1 Second Lecture Exam Fall Abbasi Khajo Kruft Levine Mathias Mathias/Ortiz Metlitsky Rahi Sanchez-Delgado Vasserman

Chemistry 1 Second Lecture Exam Fall Abbasi Khajo Kruft Levine Mathias Mathias/Ortiz Metlitsky Rahi Sanchez-Delgado Vasserman Page 1 of 9 Chemistry 1 Second Lecture Exam Fall 2011 Name Circle the name of your recitation/lab instructor(s) Abbasi Khajo Kruft Levine Mathias Mathias/Ortiz Metlitsky Rahi Sanchez-Delgado Vasserman

More information

Housing Market Monitor

Housing Market Monitor M O O D Y È S A N A L Y T I C S H o u s i n g M a r k e t M o n i t o r I N C O R P O R A T I N G D A T A A S O F N O V E M B E R İ Ī Ĭ Ĭ E x e c u t i v e S u m m a r y E x e c u t i v e S u m m a r y

More information

o C *$ go ! b», S AT? g (i * ^ fc fa fa U - S 8 += C fl o.2h 2 fl 'fl O ' 0> fl l-h cvo *, &! 5 a o3 a; O g 02 QJ 01 fls g! r«'-fl O fl s- ccco

o C *$ go ! b», S AT? g (i * ^ fc fa fa U - S 8 += C fl o.2h 2 fl 'fl O ' 0> fl l-h cvo *, &! 5 a o3 a; O g 02 QJ 01 fls g! r«'-fl O fl s- ccco > p >>>> ft^. 2 Tble f Generl rdnes. t^-t - +«0 -P k*ph? -- i t t i S i-h l -H i-h -d. *- e Stf H2 t s - ^ d - 'Ct? "fi p= + V t r & ^ C d Si d n. M. s - W ^ m» H ft ^.2. S'Sll-pl e Cl h /~v S s, -P s'l

More information

Spin Cut-off Parameter of Nuclear Level Density and Effective Moment of Inertia

Spin Cut-off Parameter of Nuclear Level Density and Effective Moment of Inertia Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 43 (005) pp. 709 718 c International Academic Publishers Vol. 43, No. 4, April 15, 005 Spin Cut-off Parameter of Nuclear Level Density and Effective Moment of Inertia

More information

'NOTAS"CRITICAS PARA UNA TEDRIA DE M BUROCRACIA ESTATAL * Oscar Oszlak

'NOTASCRITICAS PARA UNA TEDRIA DE M BUROCRACIA ESTATAL * Oscar Oszlak OVí "^Ox^ OqAÍ"^ Dcument SD-11 \ 'NOTAS"CRTCAS PARA UNA TEDRA DE M BUROCRACA ESTATAL * Oscr Oszlk * El presente dcument que se reprduce pr us exclusv de ls prtcpntes de curss de Prrms de Cpctcón, se h

More information

... but using electron configurations to describe how aluminum bromide forms is a bit cumbersome! Can we simplify the picture a bit?

... but using electron configurations to describe how aluminum bromide forms is a bit cumbersome! Can we simplify the picture a bit? 193... but using electron configurations to describe how aluminum bromide forms is a bit cumbersome! Can we simplify the picture a bit? LEWIS NOTATION / ELECTRON-DOT NOTATION - Lewis notation represents

More information

Example: Helium has an atomic number of 2. Every helium atom has two protons in its nucleus.

Example: Helium has an atomic number of 2. Every helium atom has two protons in its nucleus. 59 Atomic terms - ATOMIC NUMBER: The number of protons in the atomic nucleus. Each ELEMENT has the SAME NUMBER OF PROTONS in every nucleus. In neutral atoms, the number of ELECTRONS is also equal to the

More information

Chemistry 51 Exam #3. Name KEY November 20, 2001

Chemistry 51 Exam #3. Name KEY November 20, 2001 Chemistry 51 Exam #3 Name KEY November 20, 2001 This exam has nine (9) questions. Please check before beginning to make sure no questions are missing. All scratch work must be done on the attached blank

More information

Atomic Emission Spectra. and. Flame Tests. Burlingame High School Chemistry

Atomic Emission Spectra. and. Flame Tests. Burlingame High School Chemistry Atomic Structure Atomic Emission Spectra and Flame Tests Flame Tests Sodium potassium lithium When electrons are excited they bump up to a higher energy level. As they bounce back down they release energy

More information

NAME: 3rd (final) EXAM

NAME: 3rd (final) EXAM 1 Chem 64 Winter 2003 AME: 3rd (final) EXAM THIS EXAM IS WORTH 100 POITS AD COTAIS 9 QUESTIOS THEY ARE OT EQUALLY WEIGHTED! YOU SHOULD ATTEMPT ALL QUESTIOS AD ALLOCATE YOUR TIME ACCORDIGLY IF YOU DO'T

More information

Knowledge Fusion: An Approach to Time Series Model Selection Followed by Pattern Recognition

Knowledge Fusion: An Approach to Time Series Model Selection Followed by Pattern Recognition LA-3095-MS Knwledge Fusin: An Appch t Tie Seies Mdel Selectin Fllwed by Ptten Recgnitin Ls Als N A T I O N A L L A B O R A T O R Y Ls Als Ntinl Lbty is peted by the Univesity f Clifni f the United Sttes

More information

User s Guide. ExiPrep Dx Bacteria Genomic DNA Kit K-4414

User s Guide. ExiPrep Dx Bacteria Genomic DNA Kit K-4414 User s Guide ExiPrep Dx Bacteria Genomic DNA Kit K-4414 ExiPrep Dx Bacteria Genomic DNA kit Kit for the extraction of bacterial DNA from various clinical samples using ExiPrep 16 Dx User s Guide Version

More information

Atomic Structure & Interatomic Bonding

Atomic Structure & Interatomic Bonding Atomic Structure & Interatomic Bonding Chapter Outline Review of Atomic Structure Atomic Bonding Atomic Structure Atoms are the smallest structural units of all solids, liquids & gases. Atom: The smallest

More information

Reporting Category 1: Matter and Energy

Reporting Category 1: Matter and Energy Name: Science Teacher: Reporting Category 1: Matter and Energy Atoms 8.5A Fill in the missing information to summarize what you know about atomic structure. Name of Subatomic Particle Location within the

More information

Experiment Three. Lab two: Parts 2B and 3. Halogens used in Parts 2 and 3. Lab one: Parts 1 and 2A. Halogens (Family VIIA) used in Parts 2 and 3

Experiment Three. Lab two: Parts 2B and 3. Halogens used in Parts 2 and 3. Lab one: Parts 1 and 2A. Halogens (Family VIIA) used in Parts 2 and 3 Experiment Three Lab one: Parts 1 and 2A Lab two: Parts 2B and 3 1 1A 1 H 1s 1 2 IIA 3 Li 2s 1 1 1 Na 3s 1 1 9 K 4s 1 3 7 Rb 5s 1 5 5 Cs 6s 1 8 7 Fr 7s 1 4 Be 2s 2 1 2 Mg 3s 2 3 IIIB 4 IVB 5 VB 6 VIB 7

More information

APPH 4200 Physics of Fluids

APPH 4200 Physics of Fluids APPH 42 Physics of Fluids Problem Solving and Vorticity (Ch. 5) 1.!! Quick Review 2.! Vorticity 3.! Kelvin s Theorem 4.! Examples 1 How to solve fluid problems? (Like those in textbook) Ç"Tt=l I $T1P#(

More information

6.3 Classifying Elements with the Periodic Table

6.3 Classifying Elements with the Periodic Table 6.3 Classifying Elements with the Periodic Table The Periodic Table was developed by scientists to organize elements in such a way as to make sense of the growing information about their properties. The

More information

E4 Acids, Bases, and Salts

E4 Acids, Bases, and Salts E4 Acids, Bases, and Salts Session One of two session lab Complete Parts 1 and 2 in lab. If time allows, start or complete Part 3. Reminder: Pre-lab report, page 112, due at start of lab. Acids and Bases

More information

4 8 N v btr 20, 20 th r l f ff nt f l t. r t pl n f r th n tr t n f h h v lr d b n r d t, rd n t h h th t b t f l rd n t f th rld ll b n tr t d n R th

4 8 N v btr 20, 20 th r l f ff nt f l t. r t pl n f r th n tr t n f h h v lr d b n r d t, rd n t h h th t b t f l rd n t f th rld ll b n tr t d n R th n r t d n 20 2 :24 T P bl D n, l d t z d http:.h th tr t. r pd l 4 8 N v btr 20, 20 th r l f ff nt f l t. r t pl n f r th n tr t n f h h v lr d b n r d t, rd n t h h th t b t f l rd n t f th rld ll b n

More information

The 18 Electron Rule. References: Gray: chapter 5 OGN: chapter 18

The 18 Electron Rule. References: Gray: chapter 5 OGN: chapter 18 The 18 Electron Rule References: Gray: chapter 5 OGN: chapter 18 Element Groups Alkali metals nert or Noble gases Alkali earths alogens e Li Na Be Mg Transition metals B Al Si N P O S F l Ne Ar K Rb s

More information

(FIRST) IONIZATION ENERGY

(FIRST) IONIZATION ENERGY 181 (FIRST) IONIZATION ENERGY - The amount of energy required to remove a single electron from the outer shell of an atom. - Relates to reactivity for metals. The easier it is to remove an electron, the

More information

Thermochemistry. Chapter 6. Chemistry E1a

Thermochemistry. Chapter 6. Chemistry E1a Thermochemistry Chapter 6 Chemistry E1a Energy: What is it? How is it transformed? What is energy? What are the SI units for energy? Give examples of some energy What types of energy are we going to be

More information

Chemistry Standard level Paper 1

Chemistry Standard level Paper 1 M17/4/EMI/SPM/ENG/TZ1/XX hemistry Standard level Paper 1 Thursday 11 May 2017 (afternoon) 45 minutes Instructions to candidates Do not open this examination paper until instructed to do so. Answer all

More information

E4 Acids, Bases, and Salts

E4 Acids, Bases, and Salts E4 Acids, Bases, and Salts Session One of two session lab Complete Parts 1 and 2 in lab. If time allows, start or complete Part 3. Acids and Bases Q. Are acid-base properties of substances predictable

More information

Periodic Table. Modern periodic table

Periodic Table. Modern periodic table 41 Periodic Table - Mendeleev (1869): --- When atoms are arranged in order of their atomic weight, some of their chemical and physical properties repeat at regular intervals (periods) --- Some of the physical

More information

Atomic terms. Example: Helium has an atomic number of 2. Every helium atom has two protons in its nucleus.

Atomic terms. Example: Helium has an atomic number of 2. Every helium atom has two protons in its nucleus. Atomic terms - ATOMIC NUMBER: The number of protons in the atomic nucleus. Each ELEMENT has the SAME NUMBER OF PROTONS in every nucleus. In neutral atoms, the number of ELECTRONS is also equal to the atomic

More information

- Some properties of elements can be related to their positions on the periodic table.

- Some properties of elements can be related to their positions on the periodic table. 179 PERIODIC TRENDS - Some properties of elements can be related to their positions on the periodic table. ATOMIC RADIUS - The distance between the nucleus of the atoms and the outermost shell of the electron

More information

CHEM 108 (Fall-2003) Exam Final (100 pts)

CHEM 108 (Fall-2003) Exam Final (100 pts) CHEM 108 (Fall-2003) Exam Final (100 pts) Name: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------, SSN -------------------------------- LAST NAME, First (Circle the alphabet

More information

E5 Lewis Acids and Bases: lab 2. Session two lab Parts 2B, 3, and 4. Session one lab Parts 1and 2A. Aquo Complex Ions

E5 Lewis Acids and Bases: lab 2. Session two lab Parts 2B, 3, and 4. Session one lab Parts 1and 2A. Aquo Complex Ions E5 Lewis Acids and Bases: lab 2 Session one lab Parts 1and 2A Session two lab Parts 2B, 3, and 4 Part 2B. Complexation, Structure and Periodicity Compare the reactivity of aquo complex ions containing

More information

Electrons. Unit H Chapter 6

Electrons. Unit H Chapter 6 Electrons Unit H Chapter 6 1 Electrons were discovered by 1. Dalton 2. Lavoisier 3. Proust 4. Mendeleev 6. Rutherford 7. Bohr 8. Schrodinger 9. Dirac 5. Thomson 2 Electrons were discovered by 1. Dalton

More information

4.06 Periodic Table and Periodic Trends

4.06 Periodic Table and Periodic Trends 4.06 Periodic Table and Periodic Trends Dr. Fred Omega Garces Chemistry 100, Miramar College 1 4.06 Periodic Table and Periodic Trend The Periodic Table and the Elements What is the periodic table? What

More information

H NT Z N RT L 0 4 n f lt r h v d lt n r n, h p l," "Fl d nd fl d " ( n l d n l tr l t nt r t t n t nt t nt n fr n nl, th t l n r tr t nt. r d n f d rd n t th nd r nt r d t n th t th n r lth h v b n f

More information

Fr anchi s ee appl i cat i on for m

Fr anchi s ee appl i cat i on for m Other Fr anchi s ee appl i cat i on for m Kindly fill in all the applicable information in the spaces provided and submit to us before the stipulated deadline. The information you provide will be held

More information

VIIIA He IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA. Li Be B C N O F Ne. Na Mg VIB VIIB VIIIB IB IIB S. K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br

VIIIA He IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA. Li Be B C N O F Ne. Na Mg VIB VIIB VIIIB IB IIB S. K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br 188 THE FIRST TWO PERIODIC TRENDS IN A NUTSHELL LARGER IONIZATION ENERGY SMALLER RADIUS IA H IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA VIIIA He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg IIIB IVB VB Al Si P VIB VIIB VIIIB IB IIB S Cl Ar

More information

o S D N a n d l ot, o 5 G a n d l ot, o C P S a n d l ot i n M a n ufa c t ur in g ;

o S D N a n d l ot, o 5 G a n d l ot, o C P S a n d l ot i n M a n ufa c t ur in g ; T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s M e s s a g e f r o m t h e C o m m i t t e e................................................... i v............ W F - l o T 2 0 1 5 O r g a n i z i n g C o m m i t t e e..............................................

More information

E4 Acids, Bases, and Salts

E4 Acids, Bases, and Salts E4 Acids, Bases, and Salts Session One of two session lab Complete Parts 1 and 2 in lab. If time allows, start or complete Part 3. Reminder: Prelab report, page 112, due at start of lab. Acids and Bases

More information

`G 12 */" T A5&2/, ]&>b ; A%/=W, 62 S 35&.1?& S + ( A; 2 ]/0 ; 5 ; L) ( >>S.

`G 12 */ T A5&2/, ]&>b ; A%/=W, 62 S 35&.1?& S + ( A; 2 ]/0 ; 5 ; L) ( >>S. 01(( +,-. ()*) $%&' "#! : : % $& - "#$ :, (!" -&. #0 12 + 34 2567 () *+ '!" #$%& ; 2 "1? + @)&2 A5&2 () 25& 89:2 *2 72, B97I J$K

More information

necessita d'interrogare il cielo

necessita d'interrogare il cielo gigi nei necessia d'inegae i cie cic pe sax span s inuie a dispiegaa fma dea uce < affeandi ves i cen dea uce isnane " sienzi dei padi sie veic dei' anima 5 J i f H 5 f AL J) i ) L '3 J J "' U J J ö'

More information

Chem 6 Sample exam 2 (150 points total) NAME:

Chem 6 Sample exam 2 (150 points total) NAME: hem 6 Sample exam 2 (150 points total) @ This is a closed book exam to which the onor Principle applies. @ The last page contains equations and physical constants; you can detach it for easy reference.

More information

2.' -4-5 I fo. - /30 + ;3, x + G: ~ / ~ ) ~ ov. Fd'r evt.'i') cutckf' ()y\e.._o OYLt dtt:vl. t'"'i ~ _) y =.5_21/2-+. 8"'- 2.

2.' -4-5 I fo. - /30 + ;3, x + G: ~ / ~ ) ~ ov. Fd'r evt.'i') cutckf' ()y\e.._o OYLt dtt:vl. t''i ~ _) y =.5_21/2-+. 8'- 2. Statistics 100 Sample FINAL Instructions: I. WORK ALL PROBLEMS. Please, give details and explanations and SHOW ALL YOUR WORK so that partial credits can be given. 2. You may use four pages of notes, tables

More information

1.02 Elements, Symbols and Periodic Table

1.02 Elements, Symbols and Periodic Table .0 Elements, Symbols and Periodic Table Dr. Fred O. Garces Chemistry Miramar College.0 Elements, Symbols and the Periodic Table January 0 The Elements: Building block of Matter The periodic table of the

More information

Th e E u r o p e a n M ig r a t io n N e t w o r k ( E M N )

Th e E u r o p e a n M ig r a t io n N e t w o r k ( E M N ) Th e E u r o p e a n M ig r a t io n N e t w o r k ( E M N ) H E.R E T h em at ic W o r k sh o p an d Fin al C o n fer en ce 1 0-1 2 Ju n e, R agu sa, It aly D avid R eisen zein IO M V ien n a Foto: Monika

More information

Nrer/ \f l xeaoe Rx RxyrZH IABXAP.qAATTAJI xvbbqaat KOMnAHT1. rvfiqgrrox 3Axl4 Pn br H esep fiyraap: qa/oq YnaaH6aarap xor

Nrer/ \f l xeaoe Rx RxyrZH IABXAP.qAATTAJI xvbbqaat KOMnAHT1. rvfiqgrrox 3Axl4 Pn br H esep fiyraap: qa/oq YnaaH6aarap xor 4 e/ f l ee R RyZH BXP.J vbb KOMnH1 vfig 3l4 Pn b H vlun @*,/capn/t eep fiyaap: a/ YnaaH6aaap eneaneee 6ana tyail CaHafiu cafigun 2015 Hu 35 nyaap l'p 6ana4caH "Xe4ee a aylzh abap gaan" XKailH gypeu"uzn

More information

35H MPa Hydraulic Cylinder 3.5 MPa Hydraulic Cylinder 35H-3

35H MPa Hydraulic Cylinder 3.5 MPa Hydraulic Cylinder 35H-3 - - - - ff ff - - - - - - B B BB f f f f f f f 6 96 f f f f f f f 6 f LF LZ f 6 MM f 9 P D RR DD M6 M6 M6 M. M. M. M. M. SL. E 6 6 9 ZB Z EE RC/ RC/ RC/ RC/ RC/ ZM 6 F FP 6 K KK M. M. M. M. M M M M f f

More information

- Some properties of elements can be related to their positions on the periodic table.

- Some properties of elements can be related to their positions on the periodic table. 179 PERIODIC TRENDS - Some properties of elements can be related to their positions on the periodic table. ATOMIC RADIUS - The distance between the nucleus of the atoms and the outermost shell of the electron

More information

M Line Card Redundancy with Y-Cab l es Seamless Line Card Failover Solu t ion f or Line Card H ardw or Sof t w are Failu res are Leverages hardware Y-

M Line Card Redundancy with Y-Cab l es Seamless Line Card Failover Solu t ion f or Line Card H ardw or Sof t w are Failu res are Leverages hardware Y- Line Card Redundancy with Y-Cab l es Technical Overview 1 M Line Card Redundancy with Y-Cab l es Seamless Line Card Failover Solu t ion f or Line Card H ardw or Sof t w are Failu res are Leverages hardware

More information

8. Relax and do well.

8. Relax and do well. CHEM 1515 Name Exam III TA's Name John III. Gelder April 7, 1993 Lab Section INSTRUCTIONS: 1. This examination consists of a total of 8 different pages. The last 2 pages include important mathematical

More information

- Some properties of elements can be related to their positions on the periodic table.

- Some properties of elements can be related to their positions on the periodic table. 186 PERIODIC TRENDS - Some properties of elements can be related to their positions on the periodic table. ATOMIC RADIUS - The distance between the nucleus of the atoms and the outermost shell of the electron

More information

VERITAS L1 trigger Constant Fraction Discriminator. Vladimir Vassiliev Jeremy Smith David Kieda

VERITAS L1 trigger Constant Fraction Discriminator. Vladimir Vassiliev Jeremy Smith David Kieda VERITAS L trigger Constant Fraction Discriminator Vladimir Vassiliev Jeremy Smith David Kieda Content Night Sky Background Noise Traditional Threshold Discriminator Constant Fraction Discriminator CFD:

More information

UNIVERSITY LE CAMPUS. Moderators Dr D. Reddy Dr B. Moodley. Dr L. Pillay Dr G. Birungii. This paper inclusive). answer booklet.

UNIVERSITY LE CAMPUS. Moderators Dr D. Reddy Dr B. Moodley. Dr L. Pillay Dr G. Birungii. This paper inclusive). answer booklet. SCHOOL OF CHEMISTRY & PHYSICS UNIVERSITY OF KWAZULU-NATAL, WESTVILL LE CAMPUS APCH231 : CHEMICAL ANALYSIS NOVEMBER 2013 MAIN EXAMINATIONN DURATION: 3 HOURS TOTAL MARKS: 100 Moderators Dr D. Reddy Dr B.

More information

Brutto- Preisliste (zum Katalog ab 2013, gültig ab dem )

Brutto- Preisliste (zum Katalog ab 2013, gültig ab dem ) Brutto- Preisliste 2013 (zum Katalog ab 2013, gültig ab dem 01.11.2013) B 11.6571.02 00318441 5,87 B 11.6571.02 K 00318541 11,07 B 11.6571.02 SI 00318451 7,92 B 11.6671.02 00318561 5,87 B 11.6671.02 K

More information

L...,,...lllM" l)-""" Si_...,...

L...,,...lllM l)- Si_...,... > 1 122005 14:8 S BF 0tt n FC DRE RE FOR C YER 2004 80?8 P01/ Rc t > uc s cttm tsus H D11) Rqc(tdk ;) wm1111t 4 (d m D m jud: US

More information

CHEMISTRY 102 Fall 2014 HOUR EXAM I Page 1

CHEMISTRY 102 Fall 2014 HOUR EXAM I Page 1 OUR EXAM I Page 1 1. Draw the Lewis structure for ICl5. ow many of the following four statements (I-IV) is/are true regarding ICl5? I. The central atom in ICl5 has one lone pair of electrons. II. Some

More information

Erlkönig. t t.! t t. t t t tj "tt. tj t tj ttt!t t. e t Jt e t t t e t Jt

Erlkönig. t t.! t t. t t t tj tt. tj t tj ttt!t t. e t Jt e t t t e t Jt Gsng Po 1 Agio " " lkö (Compl by Rhol Bckr, s Moifi by Mrk S. Zimmr)!! J "! J # " c c " Luwig vn Bhovn WoO 131 (177) I Wr Who!! " J J! 5 ri ris hro' h spä h, I urch J J Nch rk un W Es n wil A J J is f

More information

Chemistry 112 Name Exam I Form A Section February 3,

Chemistry 112 Name Exam I Form A Section February 3, Chemistry 112 Name Exam I Form A Section February 3, 2015 email IMPORTANT: On the scantron (answer sheet), you MUST clearly fill your name, your student number, section number, and test form (white cover

More information

Bonding in Coordination Compounds. Crystal Field Theory. Bonding in Transition Metal Complexes

Bonding in Coordination Compounds. Crystal Field Theory. Bonding in Transition Metal Complexes Bonding in Transition Metal Complexes 1) Crystal Field Theory (ligand field theory) Crystal Field Theory Treat igands as negative charges (they repel the e- in the d orbitals deals only with d orbitals

More information

Bronsted: Acids are proton donors. Session one Pre-lab (p.151) due 1st hour discussion of E4 Lab (Parts 1and 2A)

Bronsted: Acids are proton donors. Session one Pre-lab (p.151) due 1st hour discussion of E4 Lab (Parts 1and 2A) E5 Lewis Acids and Bases (Session 1) November 5-11 Acids Bronsted: Acids are proton donors. Session one Pre-lab (p.151) due 1st hour discussion of E4 Lab (Parts 1and 2A) Problem Compounds containing cations

More information