Executive Committee and Officers ( )

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Executive Committee and Officers ( )"

Transcription

1

2 Gifted and Talented International V o l u m e 2 4, N u m b e r 2, D e c e m b e r, G i f t e d a n d T a l e n t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a2 l 4 ( 2), D e c e m b e r,

3 T h e W o r l d C o u n c i l f o r G i f t e d a n d T a l e n t e d C h i l d r e n Executive Committee and Officers ( ) P r e s i d e n t T a i s i r S u b h i Y a m i n ; G e n e r a l D i r e c t o r, T h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C e n t r e f o r I n n o v a t i o n c ai tn i oe n d u( I C I E ) ; U n i v e r s i t é P a r i s D e s c a r t e s, F r a n c e. V i c e P r e s i d e n t E d n a M c M i l l a n ; S t o n e y C r e e k, O n t a r i o, C a n a d a. S e c r e t a r y L e s l i e S. G r a v e s ; E d u c a t i o n a l c o n s u l t a n t, D u b l i n, I r e l a n d. T r e a s u r e r J u l i a L i n k R o b e r t s ; E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r o f t h e C a r o l M a r t i n t ogn a ta c a d e m y o f M a t h e m a t i c s a n d S c i e n c e ; W e s t e r n K e n t u c k y U n i v e r s i t y ; B o w l i n g G r e e n, K e n t u c k y, U S A. M e m b e r s N g a r m m a r s K a s e m s e t ; D i r e c t o r, T h a i l a n Td h e G i f t e d a n d T a l e n t e d F o u n d a t i o n ( T G T ) ; B a n g k o k, T h a i l a n d. L e o n i e K r o n b o r g ; U n i v e r s i t y L e c t u r e r i n G i fetd eud c a t i o n, M o n a s h U n i v e r s i t y ; C l a y t o n, V i c t o r i a, A u s t r a l i a. K l a u s K. U r b a n ; L e i b n i z U n i v e r s i t y, H a n n o v e r, F a c u l t y o f H u m a n i t i e s ; S t a d t h a g e n, G e r m a n y. E x e c u t i v e A d m i n i s t r a t o r C a t h r i n e F r o e s e K l a s s e n ; U n i v e r s i t y o f W i n n i p e, gw i n n i p e g, M a n i t o b a, C a n a d a. 2 G i f t e d a n d T a l e n t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a2 l 4 ( 2), D e c e m b e r,

4 F r o m t h e E d i t o r s D e s k T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s T a i s i r S u b h i Y a m i n A r t i c l e s A D y n a m i c E c o l o g i c a l F r a m e w o r k f o r D i f f e r e n t i a t i n g t h e P r i m a r y C u r r. i c u l u m S u s e n R. S m i t h G r a d e S k i p p i n g : A R e t r o s p e c t i v e C a s e S t u d y o n A c a d e m i c a n d S o c i a l I m p l i c a. t i o n s O r a K l e i n b o k ; a n d H a v a V i d e r g o r C u l t u r a l a n d S o c i a l C a p i t a l a n d T a l e n t D e vm e ln ot p: A S t u d y o f a H i g-ha b i l i t y A b o r i g i n a l S t u d e n t i n a R e m o tc e o m m u n i t y. K a r e n K o s t e n k o ; a n d P e t e r M e r r o t s y P e r f e c t i o n i s m o f A c a d e m i c a l l y G i f t e d P r i m a r y S c h o o l S t u d e n t s : T h e C a s e o f. J a p a n S l a v i c a M a k s ić ; a n d K u m i k o I w a s a k i S o c i a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f G i f t e d C h i l d r e n : A P r e l i m i n a r y S t u d y i n. F r a n c e J e a n L o u i s T a v a n i ; F r a n c k Z e n a s n i ; a n d M a r i a P e r e i r a- F r a d i n S i b l i n g R e l a t i o n s h i p s A m o n g E i l a t F a m i lw i et s h a t L e a s t O n e G i f t e d C h i. l d H a n n a D a v i d ; M a l i G i l ; a n d I d i t R a v i v W h a t a r e E x t r a o r d i n a r y G i f t e d C h i l d r ie kn e L ( E q u a l t o o r A b o v e I Q )? A S t u d y o f 1 0 C a s e s. Y o l a n d a B e n i t o M a t e Y o u n g, G i f t e d, a n d F e m a l e : A L o o k a t A c a d e m i c a n d S o c i a l N e. e d s C o r i n e C a d l e M e r e d i t h T h e I m p o r t a n c e o f D e c i s i o n M a k i n g : A G i f t e d C a s e R e p. o r t N o k s N a u t a ; S i e u w k e R o n n e r ; a n d B e n n o G r o e n e v e l d G o v e r n m e n t a l R e f o r m a n d E d u c a t i o n f o r t h e G i f t e d i n J a p a n : A C u r r e n t A n. a l y s i s S t e p h e n J. B u g a j G i f t e d n e s s P e r c e p t i o n s a n d P r a c t i c e s o f T e a c h e r s i n L i t h. u a n i a M o n i t a L e a v i t t ; a n d J o h n G e a k e B o o k R e v i e w s (1 ) M e n t o r i n g i n a C a n a d i a n C o n t e x. t K e v i n L a m o u r e u x ; K e n W. M c C l u s k e y ; A l a n C. W i e b e ; a n d P h i l i p A. B a k e r ( 2 ) L e a r n i n g t o S o l v e P r o b l e m s : A n I n s t r u c t i o n a l D e s i g n G. u i d e D a v i d H. J o n a s s e n S u b m i s s i o n G u i d e l i n e s G i f t e d a n d T a l e n t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a2 l 4 ( 2), D e c e m b e r,

5 What are Extraordinary Gifted Children Like (Equal to or Above 189 IQ)? A Study of 10 Cases A b s t r a c t Y o l a n d a B e n i t o M a t e A f t e r a s h o r t i n t r o d u c t i o n a b o u t p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s o n e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n w i t h a n I Q o f o v e r 1 7 0, t h i s a r t i c l e r e f e r s t o t h e d e s c r i p t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t e n c h i l d r e n w i t h I Q o f o v e r A f t e r t h i s, t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d l e a r n i n g c h a r a c t e r i sc ts o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n a r e d e s c r i b e d a n d f i n a l l y e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h a b o u t a s p e c t s t h a t d e s c r i b e t h e p e r s o n a l, s o c i a l a n d s c h o l a r a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e s e h i g h l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n i s d i s c u s s e d. K e y w o r d s : E x t r a o r d i n a r y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n ( I Q o f o v e r ), d e v e, l o plm e an rt n i n g, d aap t a t i o n, e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h e. s I n t r o d u c t i o n T h e f o c u s o f t h i s a r t i c l e i s h i g h l y g idfetve ed l o p m e n t o f G i f t e d C h i l d r e n h a d a n I Q l e v e l c h i l d r e n w i t h a n e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y h i g h I Q l e v e l. o f I 1t 7 0 i s o r m o r e. r e m i n i s c e n t o f T e r m a n s s t u d y c a r r i e d o u t i n I n s i m i l a r v e i n, i n t h e s t a t e o f M a i n e, C a l i f o r n i a i n w i t h a s a m p l e o f w h e r e t h e r e i s t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f o n e c h i l d w i t h i n t e l l e c t ulay l g i f t e d c h i l d r e n. A l t h o u g h c l e a rtlhy i s l e v e l o f I Q a t m o s t, 1 5 w e r e i d e n t i f i e d. T e r m a n s s a m p l e h a d u n d e r g o n e a p r i o r T h e s e d a t a c o i n c i d e w i t h t h o s e o f e a r l i e r s e l e c t i o n, % o f t h i s g r o u p h a d a n a v e r a g e r e s e a r c h e r s w h o o b s e r v e d a n u n e x p e c t e d l y h i g h I Q s l i g h t l y a b o v e T h e I Q s o f 4 7 b o y s w e r fe r e q u e n c y a t t h e u pepr e n d o f t h e I Q d i s t r i b u t i o n b e t w e e n a n d 1 9 4, a n d t h r e e h u n d r e d g i r l s c u r v e ( D u n l a p, ; G a l l a g h e r a n d M o s s, ; h a d I Q s b e t w e e n a n d I t i s w e l l t Jo e n s e n, ; M c G u f f o g, F e i r i n g a n d L e w i s, c o n s i d e r t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8 5 % o f ; R o b i n s o n, ; S t o t t a n d B a l l, ; i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n h a v e a n I Q T e or mf a n, ). b e t w e e n a n d T h e g r o u p o f 3 8 c h i l d r e n s e l e c t e d b y S i l v e r m a n a n d K e a r n e y ( ) w a s t h e gl ea sr t T h e a r t i c l e i s b a s e d o n t h e s t u d y onf u m b e r o f c h i l d r e n s t u d i e d w i t h a n I Q o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e- n s p e c i f i c a l l y t h o s e w i t h a n I Q ocf o m p a r e, f o r e x a m p l e, H o l l i n g w o r t h ( ) w h o o v e r 1 8 9, a n d t h e f a m i l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s udceh t a i l e d h e r s t u d y b a s e d o n 1 2 c h i l d r e n i n h e r e x t r a o r d i n a r y di in v i d u a l s. A s a s t a r t i n g r e f e r e n cbe o o k C h i l d r e n a b o v e I Q ; o r t h e m o r e p o i n t, t h e m o s t r e c e n t d a t a p u b l i s h e d w i l l rb e c e n t s t u d y c a r r i e d o u t b y M c G u f f o g i n c o n s i d e r e d r e g a r d i n g e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y i n t e l l i gse hn e t d e s c r i b e d 1 0 c h i l de rn w i t h a n I Q o f o v e r c h i l d r e n. I n L i n d a K r e g e r S i l v e r m a n a n d ( i n S i l v e r m a n a n d K e a r n e y, ). C o r i a t K a t h i K e a r n e y r e s e a r c h e d 2 3 c h i l d r e n f r o m m a k e s r e f e r e n c e t o t h e t w o c a s e s h e o b s e r v e d C o l o r a d o a n d 1 5 f r o m M a i n e. A l t o g e t h e tr h e r e i n h i s ( ) b o o k G i f t e d C h i l d r e n. w e r e 1 7 g i r l s a n d 2 1 b o y s w h o s e a g e s r a n g e d T h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h i s b e t w e e n 3 a n d 1 3 y e a r s. T h e i r I Q s r a n g e d c u r r e n t s t u d y a n d t h e S i l v e r m a n & K e a r n e y b e t w e e n a n d A c c o r d i n g t o t h e a u t h o r s, s t u d y o f C e r t a i n l y m o r e x c e p t i o n a l l y g i v e n n o r m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n t h e i n c i d e n c e og f i f t e d s t u d e n t s w i t h a n I Q o f a n d a b o v e c h i l d r e n w i t h a n I Q o v e r i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y a1 t t e n d e d t h e c e n t r e i n C o l o r a d o o v e r a 9 y e a r i n ( D u n l a p, ) T. h i s s u g g e s t s n o p e r i o d t h a n a t t e n d e d t h e c e n t r e i n V a l l a d o l i d, m o r e t h a n 2 o r 3 s u c h c h i l d r e n w o u l d l i k e l y bse p a i n. I n f a c t, t h e s t u d y i n v o l v e d a t o t a l o f f o u n d i n t h e e n t i r e s t a t e o f C o l o r a d o. H o w e v e r 2, c h i l d r e n. A t o t a l o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n f r o m i n t h e l a s t 9 y e a r s, 4 %, i. e., 8 0 c h i l d r e n l i va ill n g o vi en r S p a i n i n w e r e o b s e r v e d t h e H u e r t a d e l C o l o r a d o a n d a t t e n d i n g t h e C e n t r e f o r t h e R e y C e n t r e o v e r a p e r i o d o f 1 1 y e a r s. O f t h e s e, G i f t e d a nd T a l e n t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l 2 4 ( 2 ), D e c e m b e r,

6 T h e W o r l d C o u n c i l f o r G i f t e d a n d T a l e n t e d C h i l d r e n 4 2 o r a l m o s t 7 % o f t h e s a m p l e o b s e r v e d, h a d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t a n d a n I Q o f a b o v e O f t h i s g r o u p, 2 0 h a d I Q es d u c a t i o n. f r o m , 1 3 f r o m a n d 9 f r o m A c c o r d i n g t o S i l vr em a n a n d K e a r n e y, t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e i r s a m p l e w a s e v a l u a t e d b y T h i s m e a n s t h a t t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f c a s e s t e s t s w h i c h o n l y p r o v i d e c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y l e v e l s, p e r p o p u l a t i o n d i f f e r s s o m e w h a t. T h e W I S C - R, W P P S I, K a u f m a n A B C, t h e M c C a r t h y p e r c e n t a g e o f e x c e p t i o n a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d r es n c a l e s o f C h i l d r e n ' s A b i l i ta in ed s t h e I V r e v i s i o n e n c o u n t e r e d a t t h e H u e r t a D e l R e y i s a l m o s t o f t h e S t a n f o r-b d i n e t t e s t. B e c a u s e o f u p p e r t e s t ( B a s e d o n 4 2 / = c f. 3 8 / = ; l i m i t s o r t e s t c e i l ion ng e s on f t h e s e m e a s u r e s a r e i. e., 6. 5 %- 2 % ) l a r g e r t h a n t h e C o l o r a d o s t u d y. k n o w n f o r t h e i r a c c u r a c y i n t e r m s o f T h e r e a s o n fo r s u c h d i f f e r e n c e s m a y b e d u e t o e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n. T h i s d i f f e r e n t t r e a t m e n t o r a t t e n t i o n g i v e n t o g i rf at ie sd e s a s e r i o u s i s s u e w h i c h m u s t b e t a k e n i n t o c h i l d r e n i n t h e t w o c o u n t r i e s. F o r e x a m p l e a, c c o u n t w h e n e s t i m a t i n g t h e c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y o f d e s p i t e t h e r e p e r h a p s b e i n g s t r i k i n g c a s e s oef x t r e m e l y h i g h l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n. T h e r e c a n b e a s u c h c h i l d r e n i n S p a i n, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t l a dc ik f fo ef r e n c e o f a s m u c h a s 5 0 I Q p o i n t s b e t w e e n k n o w l e d g e a n d i n a d e q u a t e i n f o r ma t i o n d u r i n g t e s t s s u c h a s t h e M S C A, K- A B C, W I S C - R, t h e e a r l i e r y e a r s m e a n t f e w e r w e r e n o t i c e d iw n P P S I a n d t h e o l d e r v e r s i o n o f t h e S t a n f-o r d c o m p a r i s o n t o C o l o r a d o. B i n e t- t h e S t a n f o r d - B i n e t ( L M ). A n e x a m p l e o f I t i s a l s o v e r y c u r i o u s a n d, p e r h a pts h i s i s p r o v i d e d b y S i l v e r m a n a n d K e a r n e y w o r r y i n g, h o w t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e r a t i( o 1 9o8f 9 ), i n w h i c h s e v e n c h i l d r e n f r o m M a i n e a n d b o y s t o g i r l s e n c o u n t e r e d a c c o r d i n g t o s e x, s i x f r o m C o l o r a d o w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e b e t w e e n t h e H u e r t a D e l R e y s t u d y, T e r m a ns S t a n f o r d- B i n e t. O n e c h i l d o b t a i n e d a n I Q o f o b s e r v a t i o n s, a n d t h o s e o f S i l v e r m a n a n d o n t h e K- A B C a n d o n t h e S t a n f o r d. O n l y K e a r n e y. I n o u r s a m p l e, t h e n u m b e r o f g i r l os n e c h i l d f r o m t h e I Q g r o u p o b t a i n e d a i d e n t i f i e d a s w e l l a s t h e p e r c e n t a g e w i t h h isgch o r e o f o v e r i n t h e W I-S R C, w h i l e na o t h e r s c o r e s i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r. I n f a c t, i n o f t th he e c h i l d r e n o n l y o b t a i n e d a s c o r e o f i n C o l o r a d o g r o u p, t h e t h r e e h i g h e s t s c o r e s o f t h e W I S C - R. o v e r w e r e o b t a i n e d b y g is r. l I n t h e M a i n e T h i s p h e n o m e n o n i s o b s e r v e d o n l y a t t h e g r o u p, o n e b o y o b t a i n e d t h e h i g h e s t s c o r e o f h i g h e s t e n d o f t h e p s y c h o m e t r i c d i s t r i b u t i o n o f 1 9 4, f o l l o w e d b y t h r e e g i r l s w i t h a n I Q o f 1 i9 n0 t. e l l i g e n c e. I f t h i s o c c u r r e d a t a l l t h e l e v e l s, t h e T h e s e d a t a a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o b t a i n e d b ty e s t s w o u l d b e v a l u e l e s s. F o r e x a m p l e, i m a gi f n e T e r m a n w h o f o u n d t h e t h r e e h i g h e s t s c o r e s o f a c h i l d o b t a i n s a n I Q o f i n o n e t e s t a n d 5 0 i n o v e r w e r e o b t a i n e d b y w o m e n ( T e r m a n, a n o t h e r. O n e o f t h e m w o u l d i n d i c a t e t h e c h i l d h a s ; H o l l i n g w o rh t, ). I n o u r s a m p l e, o f t h a e n o r m a l a b i l i t y f o r a c a d e m i c l e a r n i n g a n d t h e 2 0 c h i l d r e n w i t h a n I Q o f b e t w e e n a n d 1 7 9, o t h e r w o u l d i n d i c a t e t h e c h i l d i s s e v e r e l y 4 a r e g i r l s a n d 1 6 a r e b o y s. I n t h e g r o cu hp a l l e n g e d i n t e l l e c t u a l l y. b e t w e e n a n d 1 8 9, 6 a r e g i r l s a n d 7 a r e b o y s S i l v e r m a n a n d K e a r n e y ( ) c a l ca ut le d a n d i n t h e l a s t I Q g r o u p o f o v e r 1 9 0, t h e r e ta hr e I Q c o n v e n t i o n a l l y, i. e., d i v i d i n g t h e m e n t a l a g e o n l y b o y s. I t i s n e c e s s a r y a n d a d v ie s a bt lo o f t h e c h i l d b y t h e c h r o n o l o g i c a l a g e a n d r e m e m b e r a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t n o n e o f t h e c h i l d r me un l t i p l y i n g b y ( S i l v e r m a n a n d K e a r n e y, ). w h o w e o b s e r v e d w i t h a n I Q o f o v e r 1 7 0, h a d I n t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y, t h e I Q w a s c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g a s s o c i a t e d d i s o r d e r s. t h e m e t h o d r e c o m m e n d e d i n t h e t e c h n i c a l T h e c u r r e n t s t u d y f o c u s e d o n m a n u a l o f t h e Satn f o r d-b i n e t F o r m L-M. u s i n g t h e 1 0 c o n v e r s i o n t a b l e s t o t r a n s f o r m t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l c h i l d r e n w i t h I Q s o f b e t w e e n a n d A s I Q v a l u e s a s o b t a i n e d i n r e v i s e d I Q s. f a r a s i s k n o w n, n o o t h e r s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n S i n c e t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e S t a n-f o r d c o n d u c t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y o n c h i l d r e n i n t h i s B fi na er t I V (- B S I V ) i n , m a n y p s y c h o l o g i s t s u p p e r r a n g e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e. I t i s h o p e d i s ht ahva e t a b a n d o n e d t h e o l d S t a n f o r-db i n e t F o r m L- t h i s r e s e a r c h m a y i n i t i a t e a s e r i e s o f s t u dm i, e s e v e n t h o u g h s o m e e x p e r t s i n t h e f i e l d, e. g., w h i c h m a y b e o f b e n e f i t a s w e s e e k t o D a v i s a n d R i m m ( ), d o n o t r e c o m m e n d t h e u n d e r s t a n d t h i s s u b j e c t f u r t h e r. A b o v e a l l tsh -B e I V f o r u s e w i t h h i g h l y g i f t e d i n d i v i d u a l s. T h e y h o p e i s t h a t t h e i m p a c t o f s u c h s t u d i e s y mb ae s a i d : O n e p r o b l e m i s t h a t t h e u p p e r l i m i t o f t h e p o s i t i v e a n d b e r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i m p a c t v a r i ofuos u r t h e d i t i o n i s l o w e r ( a r o u n d I Q ) t h a n i n t h e p e r s o n a l, a c a d e m i c a n d s o c i a l f a c e t s o f t h e s e p r e v i o u s e d i t i o ns o t h a t a n e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n a n d t h e i r f a m i l i e s a s w e l l a s pt eh re s o n w o u l d n o t b e i d e n t i f i e d T o u r( ó n ; P e r a l t a p r o f e s s i o n a l s i m m e r s e d i n t h e f a s c i n a t i n g t a sak n d R e p á r a z, , p. 8 5 ). 90 G i f te d a n d T a l e n t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l 2 4 (2 ), D e c e m b e r,

7 W h e n u s e d w i t h g i f t e d i n d i v i d u a l s, t-hb e ISV t y p i c a l l y g e n e r a t e s l o w e r s c o r e s. T h e d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n t h e n e w a n d o l d t e s t s c o r e a v e r a g e s 1 3 p. o5 i n t s a t t h e l o w e n d o f t h e g i f t e d s p e c t r u m. C h i l d r e n a c h i e v i n g a n I Q s c o r e o f i n -t M h e v elr s i o n s c o r e d a n I Q o f i n t h-e B SI V v e r s i o n ( T h o r n d i k e, H a g e n a n d S a t t l e r, ). S o m e a d d i t i o n a l c o m p a r i s o n s f o l l o w b e l o w ( S e e : T a b l e 1 ) w i t h r e g a r d t o hte d i f f e r e n c e i n m e a s u r e m e n t b e t w e e n t h r e e o f t h e m a j o r i n s t r u m e n t s u s e d i n t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y t o e s t i m a t e c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y. T h e s c o r e s o f f e r e d h a v e b e e n o b t a i n e d u s i n g -R t h, e t hw e I S C S t a n f o r d- B i n e t ( F o r m L-M ) a n d t h e M c C a r t h y S c a l e s o f C h i l d r e n ' s A b iels i t( im C A S ). T a b l e 1 : P s y c h o m e t r i c I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t s. C h i l d A g e W I S C - R S T A N F O R D - B I N E T ( F o r m L - M ) M C A S A 3 y e a r s 6 m o n t h s I Q 1 9 2, M A 7 y e a r s 1 m o n t h O I Q B 3 y e a r s 9 m o n t h s V I Q 1 4 4, M I Q 1 4 0, T I Q I Q 1 8 9, M A 7 y e a r s 1 m o n t h O I Q C 4 y e a rs 8 m o n t h s V I Q 1 4 9, M I Q 1 2 7, T I Q I Q y e a r s 2 m o n t h s O I Q D 4 y e a r s 1 0 m o n t h s V I Q 1 3 9, M I Q 1 4 4, T I Q I Q 1 9 2, M A 9 y e a r s 0 m o n t h s O I Q E 6 y e a r s 5 m o n t h s V I Q 1 4 9, M I Q 1 3 1, T I Q I Q 1 9 1, M A 1 1 y e a r s 0 m o n t h s O I Q F 7 y e a r s 1 m o n t h V I Q 1 5 5, M I Q 1 3 6, T I Q I Q 1 9 9, M A 1 3 y e a r s 9 m o n t h s O I Q G 8 y e a r s 5 m o n t h s V I Q 1 5 2, M I Q 1 4 2, T I Q I Q 2 1 1, M A 1 7 y e a r s 1 1 m o n t h s H 8 y e a r s 7 m o n t h s V I Q 1 5 5, M I Q 1 2 4, T I Q I Q 2 0 2, M A 1 7 y e a r s 9 m o n t h s I 9 y e a r s 3 m o n t h s V I Q 1 5 2, M I Q 1 3 2, T I Q I Q 1 9 4, M A 1 8 y e a r s 6 m o n t h s J 1 0 y e a r s 1 m o n t h V I Q , M I Q 1 4 1, T I Q I Q 1 9 4, M A 2 0 y e a r s 6 m o n t h s S u c h d i s c r e p a n c i e s c a u s e d s o m e d i f f i c u l t i e s. F o r e x a m p l e, b e c a u s e p r o f e s s i o n a l s t e n d t o t r u s t t h e l o w e s t s c o r e s t h e y a s s u m e p a r e n t s a r e o n l y t r y i n g t o b o o s t t h e i r o w n e g o b y c l a i m i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n h a v e g r e a t e r a b i l i t i e s. G i v e n n o c u r r e n t i n s t r u m e n t a d e q u a t e l y e v a l u a t e s t h e t o t a l i t y o f t h e a b i l i t i e s o f e x c e p t i o n a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n, a l t e r n a t i v e m e t h o d s o f e v a l u a t i o n m u s t n s bi e d e rceo d. A l m o s t t h i r t y y e a r s a g o t h e N a t i o n a l I d e n t i f i c a t i o n R e p o r t ( R i ca hl evri t n, o a n d M c D o n n e l, ) o f f e r e d t h i s c o n s e n s u s o f o p i n i o n : I t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t n e w i n s t r u m e n t s a n d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n m e t h o d s m u s t b e d e v e l o p e d f o r g i f t e d s t u d e n t s i n s p e c i f ip co p u l a t i o n s, s u c h a s f o r e x a m p l e, e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s, t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d, s t u d e n t s w i t h a l i m i t e d a b i l i t y t o s p e a k E n g l i s h, e x c e p t i o n a l l y g i f t e d s t u d e n t s a n d t h e h a n d i c a p p e d ( p p. 7 7 a n d 7 8, e m p h a s i s a d d e d ). W h i l e t h i s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n h a s a l r e a d y b e i n g i m mp el ne t e d w i t h v i r t u a l l y a l l t h e s p e c i f i c g r o u p s l i s t e d t h e r e i s o n e n o t a b l e b y i t s a b s e n c e : t h e e x c e p t i o n a l l y g i f t e d. A s i t h a p p e n s, t h e o l d m e t h o d o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n d i s c u s s e d a b o v e i s c o n s i d e r e d m o r e a d e q u a t e w i t h r e s p e c t t o m e a s u r i n g t h e i r a b i l i t y l e v e l t ha n t h e m o r e r e c e n t m e t h o d s ( S i l v e r m a n a n d K e a r n e y, ). T h e S t a n-b f oi rn de t i s, a f t e r a l l, o n e o f t h e t e s t s w i t h t h e h i g h e s t c e i l i n g a n d r e c o g n i s e d a s t h e m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e b y t h e s p e c i a l i s t s ( M E C, ) f o r m e a s u r i n g h i g h a b i l i t y. E v e n s o, e x t r e m e a bo if l i1 t8 y0 o r o v e r i n c h i l d r e n o v e r 1 3 y e a r s o f a g e c a n n o t b e m e a s u r e d ( B e n i t o, ). T h i s h a s c a u s e d s o m e t o t h i n k t h a t c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y i n c h i l d r e n h a s g o n e d o w n o v e r t h e y e a r s. N o t h i n g i s f u r t h e r f r o m t h e t r u t h. S o m e i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l e x p r e s s t h e o p i ntihoa nt i t i s i r r e l e v a n t w h e t h e r a p e r s o n h a s a n I Q o f o r i n t h e e n d, t h e y s a y, i t i s a l l t h e s a m e. A u c o n t r a i r e, i t i s n o t t h e s a m e. T h i s a r g u m e n t u n d e r s c o r e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f, a n d t h e r e a s o n f o r, t h e p r e s e n t a r t i c l e. T h e r e e x i s t v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f, a n d a p p r o a c h t o, t h e w o r l d i n w h i c h t h e s e e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y g i f t e d p e o p l e r e s i d e. T h e i r e m o t i o n a l, c o g n i t i v e a n d e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d s a r e v e r y d i f f e r e n t a n d, f o r t h i s r e a s o n, a p p r o p r i a t e a n d a c c u r a t e e v a l u a t i o n i s e s s e( nb te in ai lt o, ). T y p i c a l l y c h i l d r e n w i t h I Q s o f h a v e b e e n t e r m e d V e r y h i g h l y gy ie t f, t e td h e. t e r m V e r y h i g h l y g i f t e d i s b e s t r e s e r v e d f o r g i f t e d c h i l d r e n w i t h a n I Q o f o v e r C o n s i d e r H o l l i n g w o r t h ( a n d ), f o r e x a m p l e, w h o r e p e a t e d l y e s cd r i b e s t h e s p e c i a l n e e d s o f c h i l d r e n w i t h I Q s a n d b e y o n d ( S i l v e r m a n a n d K e a r n e y, ). S i m i l a r t e r m i n o l o g y a n d t h e f a c t t h a t s u c h c h i l d r e n d o h a v e a s o c i o -e m o t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t m a r k e d l y d i f f e r e n t t o i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n w i t h l o w er r e s I, Q m e a s u h a s b e e n n o t e d i n r e s e a r c h a n d d o c t o r a l t h e s e s ( A l o n s o, ; A l o n s o a n d B e n i t o, ; B e n i t o, ). G i f t e d a nd T a l e n t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l 2 4 ( 2 ), D e c e m b e r,

8 T h e W o r l d C o u n c i l f o r G i f t e d a n d T a l e n t e d C h i l d r e n M e t h o d S a m p l e O f t h i s g r o u p, i n t w o o f t h e f a m i l i e s I n c o n t r a s t t o p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h r e g a r d i n g o t h e r s i b l i n g s w e r e t e s t e d, b o t h o f w h o m w e r e e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y i n t e l l i g e n t c h i l d r e n, a l l t h e c h i l d r e n h i g h l y g i f t e d. O n e o f t h e m w a s t h e e l d e r b r o t h e r i n t h e s a m p l e w e r e b o y s. o f t h e 1 0 y e a r s a n d 1 mn ot h o l d c h i l d. H e N u m b e r o f c h i l d r e n : 1 0 o b t a i n e d a n I Q o f o n t h e S t a n f -o Br id n e t a n d I Q r a n g e : f r o m t o o n t h e W I S C - R. T h e o t h e r c h i l d w a s t h e A g e o f t h e c h i l d r e n a t t h e t i m e o f s e c o n d b r o t h e r o f t h e 6 y e a r s a n d 5 m o n t h s o l d e v a l u a t i o n : 3 y e a r s a n d 6 m o n t h s t o 1 0 c h i l d. H e o b t a i n e d a n I Q o f o n t h e S t a n- f o r d y e a r s a n d 1 m o n t h B i n e t, o n t h e W I S C- R a n d a n O I Q o f o n A v e r a g e a g e o f t h e g r o u p a t t h e t i m e o f t h e M S C A. e v a l u a t i o n : 5 y e a r s a n d 1 0 m o n t h s S a m p l e t a k e n f r o m t o O r d e r o f b i r t h : F i r s tb o r n : 7 I t s h o u l d b e t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t t h a t i n t h e c a s e o f c h i l d I ( 9 y e a r s a n d 3 m o n t h s ) w i t h a n I Q o f d a t a p r o v i d e d b y t h e p a r e n t s w i t h O n l y c h i l d : 3 r e s p e c t t o h i s e a r l y d e v e l o p m e n t a n d f i r s t S e c o n d c h i l d : 2 T h i r d c h i l d : 1 l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s m a y n o t h a v e b e e n e n t i r e l y a c c u r a t e s i n c e t h i s c h i wl ad s l i v i n g w i t h h i s N u m b e r o f c h i l d r e n p e r f a m i l y : f r o m 1 t o 3 g r a n d p a r e n t s f o r t h e f i r s t t h r e e y e a r s. R e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s F a m i l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s T h i s s t u d y, a s w i t h t h a t o f S i l v e r m a n a n d K e a r n e y ( ), c o n f i r m s p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g s, i. e., e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y i n t e l l i g e n t c h i l d r e n u s u a l l y c o m e f rr o m o r u p mp ie d d l e S E S l e v e l f a m i l i e s a n d h a v e a p a r e n t w i t h a h i g h e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l ( H o l l i n g w o r t h, ; B a r b e, ; H i t c h f i e l d, ; R o e d e l l, J a c k s o n a n d R o b i n s o n, ; A l b e r t, ). I n t e r e s t i n g l y, i n t h e s a m p l e, t h e r e w e r e p a r e n t s i n t h r e e f a mnio l iuens i vweirt sh i t y e d u c a t i o n a n d o f a l o w e r S E S : F s f a m i l y: F a t h e r w o r k e d a s a t e c h n i c a l e n g i n e e r, a l t h o u g h w i t h o u t a n o f f i c i a l t i t l e. H i s s t u d i e s c o r r e s p o n d e d t o t h e f i r s t g r a d e o f t h e B a c c a l a u r( eha it ge h S c h o o l l e v e l ) a n d t h e t i t l e o b t a i n e d w a s a s a n a d m i n is t r a t i v e w o r k e r i n m a r k e t i n g a n d s a l e s. T h e m o t h e r w a s a h o u s e w i f e h a d a n d s t u d i e d t h e E l e m e n t a r y B a c c a l a u r e a t e a n d t h e f i r s t g r a d e o f V o c a t i o n a l. T r Ta hi e n i cn hg i l d w a s 7 y e a r s a n d I m o n t h o l d w i t h a n I Q o f H s f a m i l y: F a t h e r h a d s t u d i e d t h e B a c c aul ra e a t e a n d t h e m o t h e r h a d a M i d d l e G r a d e t i t l e. T h e m o t h e r w a s a h o u s e w i f e a n d t h e f a t h e r w a s a h i g h e x e c u t i v e i n b a n k i n g. T h e c h i l d w a s 8 y e a r s a n d 7 m o n t h s o l d a n d h a d a n I Q o f I s f a m i l y : F a t h e r h a d s t u d i e d V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g a n d t h e m o t h e r at ch ce a lba u r e a t e. T h e f a t h e r w o r k e d a s a d r a u g h t s m a n a n d t h e m o t h e r w a s a n o f f i c e w o r k e r. T h e c h i l d w a s 9 y e a r s a n d 3 m o n t h s o l d a n d h a d a n I Q o f R e m a i n i n g s e v e n f a m i l i e s(a t l e a s t o n e o f t h e p a r e n t s h a d h i g h e r l e v e l s o f e d) u: c a t i o n I n A s f a m i l y, t h e tfh ae r w a s a n e l e c t r o n i c s e x p e r t a n d t h e m o t h e r h a d a d e g r e e i n m a t h e m a t i c s. B o t h p a r e n t s w o r k e d a s t e a c h e r s i n M i d d l e S c h o o l. T h e b o y w a s 3 y e a r s a n d 6 m o n t h s o l d w i t h a n I Q o f G i f te d a n d T a l e n t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l 2 4 (2 ), D e c e m b e r,

9 I n B s f a m i l y, b o t h p a r e n t s w e r e d o c t o r s i n C h e m i s t r y a n d w o r k e d a s r ehseeras r ci n a S c i e n t i f i c R e s e a r c h C e n t r e. T h e f a t h e r h a d s t u d i e d t h e p i a n o a n d t h e m o t h e r p l a y e d t h e g u i t a r w h e n s h e w a s 3 y e a r s o l d. T h e c h i l d w a s 3 y e a r s a n d 9 m o n t h s o l d w i t h a n I Q o f I n C s f a m i l y, t h e f a t h e r h a d s t u d i e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d t h e mh oa td h esr t u d i e d T e a c h e r T r a i n i n g. T h e f a t h e r w a s a f a r m e r a n d t h e m o t h e r w a s a t e a c h e r. T h e c h i l d w a s 4 y e a r s a n d 8 m o n t h s o l d w i t h a n I Q o f I n D s f a m i l y, t h e m o t h e r h a d a L a w d e g r e e a n d t h e f a t h e r a n E c o n o m i c s d e g r e e. T h e f a t h e r w o r k e d a s a n e c o n o m i s t an d t h e m o t h e r a s a U n i v e r s i t y l e c t u r e r. T h e c h i l d w a s 4 y e a r s a n d 1 0 m o n t h s o l d a n d h a d a n I Q o f T h e f a t h e r b e l o n g e d t o a v e r y n u m e r o u s f a m i l y i n w h i c h h e a n d o t h e r b r o t h e r s h a d b e e n c o n s i d e r e d h i g h l y g i f t e d. I n E s f a m i l y, b o t h p a r e n t s h a d s t u d i e d u nait v e r s i t y. T h e f a t h e r h a d a d e g r e e i n M e d i c i n e a n d t h e m o t h e r i n N u r s i n g. B o t h p a r e n t s w o r k e d : t h e f a t h e r a s a u n i v e r s i t y l e c t u r e r i n a T e a c h e r T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e a n d t h e m o t h e r a s a n u r s e. T h e c h i l d w a s 6 y e a r s a n d 5 m o n t h s o l d w i t h a n I Q o f T h i s w a st h e o t h e r f a m i l y i n w h i c h a n o t h e r o f t h e c h i l d r e n w a s t e s t e d a n d w h o w a s t h e s e c o n d o f t h e c h i l d r e n l e s s i n t e l l i g e n t t h a n -tb ho e r n f, i ra sl t h o u g h a l s o h i g h l y g i f t e d. I n G s f a m i l y, b o t h p a r e n t s h a d d e g r e e s i n T e a c h e r T r a i n i n g a n d b o t h w o r k e d a s j uh no io ol r s c t e a c h e r s. T h e c h i l d w a s 8 y e a r s a n d 5 m o n t h s o l d w i t h a n I Q o f I n J s f a m i l y, t h e f a t h e r w a s a d o c t o r i n M a t h e m a t i c s a n d t h e m o t h e r h a d a d e g r e e i n M e d i c i n e. T h e f a t h e r w o r k e d a s a u n i v e r s i t y l e c t u r e r a n d t h e m o t h e r a s a d o c t o r. T h i s w a s h e o n e o f t f a m i l i e s w h o s e c h i l d r e n w e r e t e s t e d a n d b o t h w e r e h i g h l y g i f t e d. T h e s e c o n d o f t h e s i b l i n g s w a s m o r e i n t e l l i g e n t t h a n t h e e l d e s t c h i l d. T h e c h i l d w a s 1 0 y e a r s a n d 1 m o n t h o l d w i t h a n I Q o f A s i n t h e s t u d y o f S i l v e r m a n a n d K e a r n e y, t h e p a r e n t s o n rd e sd p d i f f e r e n t l y u p o n k n o w i n g t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l e x c e p t i o n a l i t y o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n. W h i l e s o m e e v e n q u e s t i o n e d t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e t e s t s, a n o t h e r s r e j e c t e d i t o u t o f h a n d d e c l a r i n g t h e y d i d n t b e l i e v e i n s u c h t h i n g s, o t h e r s i n d i c a t e d t h e i r i n t e r e i n h ow t h e i r c h i l d r e n a c h i e v e d s u c h h i g h r e s u l t s b y a s k i n g, W h a t a r e t h e q u e s t i o n s l i k e? o r W h a t a r e t h e p r o b l e m s? I n y e t o t h e r c a s e s, t h e p a r e n t s c o n c e n t r a t e d m o r e o n w h a t t o d o a n d h o w t o e d u c a t e t h e i r c h i l d r e n k n o w i n g t h a t t h e i r a b i l i t i e s w e r e s o h i g h. G i v e n t h e s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s w e r e r a r e l y a w a r e o f t h e n e e d s a n d r i g h t s o f t h e s e p u p i l s, t h e p a r e n t s h a d t o i n f o r m t h e m o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l o p t i o n s. A l l p a r e n t s r e c o g n i z e d t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f m a k i n g t h e t e a c h i n g s u i t a b l e a n d t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s si pn e ct t h. i s T hre y p r o v i d e d b o o k s, i n f o r m a t i o n a n d a l l t y p e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t m i g h t s e r v e a s a g u i d e f o r t h e p e o p l e r e s p o n s i b l e i n t h e s c h o o l s. E v e n s o, a t t e m p t s b y p a r e n t s t o c o l l a b o r a t e w e r e n o t a l w a y s a c c e p t e d. I n n i n e o f t h e t e n c a s e s, t h e r e a s o n f on r i t ia an l i c o n s u l t a t i o n b y t h e p a r e n t s w a s a d e s i r e f o r k n o w l e d g e a b o u t t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c h i l d. T h e y h a d n o t e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e a r n i n g, m e m o r y, k n o w l e d g e, r e a s o n i n g a n d i n t e r e s t s, c o m p a r e d w i t h o t h e r c h i l d r e n. I n o n e c a s e, t h e p a r e n t s h a d f i r s t s o u g h t o u t a d v i c e f r o m a t e a c h e r a n d p s y c h o l o g i s t w h o w a s a f r i e n d o f t h e f a m i l y. O v e r a l l t h e i r o p i n i o n w a s t h ea it r t c h i l d r e n w e r e i n t e l l i g e n t. H o w e v e r, i t w a s h a r d f o r t h e m t o i m a g i n e t h e i r c h i l d r e n m i g h t b e h i g h l- y m ugc ih f tleed s s th a t t h e y m i g h t b e e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y g i f t e d. I n t h e c a s e o f t h e y o u n g e s t c h i l d, t h e p a r e n t s s h o w e d c o n s i d e r a b l e r e t i c e n c e w h e n i t c a m e t o d e c i d i n g a b o u t t e s t i n g t h e i r c h i l d. A n o t h e r c h i l d, t h e e l d e s t, c a m e c o i n c i d e n t l y h a v i n g b e e n b r o u g h t h i s e l d e r b r o t h e r h. e Tc h i l d i n s i s t e d o n c o m i n g b u t d i d n o t c o n s i d e r h i m s e l f i n t e l l i g e n t. D e v e l o p m e n t a n d L e a r n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s P e r s o n a l, A c a d e m i c a n d S o c i a l A d a p t a t i o n : D e v e l o p m e n t a n d L e a r n i n g P r e c o c i t y w i t h r e g a r d t o a t t e n t i o n a n d c o o r d i n a t i o n i s e v i d e n t f r o m t ht e omf o mbeinr t h i n a l l o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e s a m p l e : S u p p o r t i n g h i m s e l f w i t h h i s h a n d s, h e l i f t e d h i s h e a d a n d s a t u p w i t h h i s e y e s o p e n t h e v e r y d a y h e w a s b o r n. T h i s w a s n t a o-o n ef f t h i n g b e c a u s e f r o m t h e n o n w a r d s h e r e p e a t e d i t f r e q u e n t l y. G i f t e d a nd T a l e n t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l 2 4 ( 2 ), D e c e m b e r,

10 T h e W o r l d C o u n c i l f o r G i f t e d a n d T a l e n t e d C h i l d r e n T w e n t y d a y s af t e r b i r t h h e w e n t i n t o h o s p i t a l ( f o r a u r i n a r y i n f e c t i o n ) a n d w a s p u t i n a n i n c u b a t o r. W e s a w h i m t h r o u g h a g l a s s w i n d o w a n d h e w e n t m a d w h e n t h e y s h o w e d h i m t o u s t h r o u g h i t. H e w a s w a t c h i n g o u r m o v e m e n t s a n d m a k i n g g u t t u r a l s o u n d s t o a t t r a c t o u r aotn t e. n t i W h e n t h o s e w h o w e r e b o r n a t t h e s a m e t i m e s t i l l c o u l d n t h o l d t h e i r h e a d s s t e a d y, h e w a s g o i n g a l l o v e r t h e p l a c e f a c e d o w n i n t h e c h a i r w i t h h i s h e a d r a i s e d l o o k i n g a t e v e r y t h i n g. H e q u i c k l y c o o r d i n a t e d h i s h a n d s s o a s t o h a n d l e o b j e c t s o r p a s s ftr ho em m o n e h a n d t o a n o t h e r. A f t e r a b o u t a m o n t h ½ h e p a i d a t t e n t i o n f o r t w e n t y m i n u t e s t o s t o r i e s w h i c h h i s m o t h e r r e a d t o h i m a n d a t 1 8 m o n t h s h e l i s t e n e d a t t e n t i v e l y a n d u n i n t e r r u p t e d l y t o c o n c e r t s o n v i d e o f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 0 m i n u t e s. T h e r o a d s i g n s n d a t r a f f i c l i g h t s f a s c i n a t e d h i m f r o m 1 8 m o n t h s o n w a r d s. N u m b e r s a n d l e t t e r s h a v e a l w a y s b e e n a g a m e f o r h i m. F r o m v e r y y o u n g ( s i x m o n t h s ) h e w a s a b l e t o l e a r n t o c l a p a n d m o v e h i s h a n d s a n d t o d i s t i n g u i s h d i f f e r e n t s o n g s. T w o h o u r s a f t e r b i r t h I pd i c hk ie m u p i n m y a r m s a n d h e t h r e w a g l a n c e a t m e w h i c h l e f t m e a s t o n i s h e d. I f e l t a n i n t e n s e e m o t i o n ; I d o n t k n o w t o e x p l a i n i t : i t s b e y o n d w o r d s. A t s i x m o n t h s h e r e m a i n e d s e a t e d, t u r n i n g o v e r t h e p a g e s o f a b o o k o f a n i m a l s f o r a g e s. F r o m v e r y e a r l y h el i s t e n e d t o s t o r i e s e v e n t h o u g h t h e y w e r e v e r y l o n g. A t a y e a r ½ h e b e g a n t o a s k a b o u t t h e l e t t e r s a n d n u m b e r s a n d w h e n h e l e a r n t t h e m, h e c o n t i n u a l l y a s k e d y o u t o w r i t e t h e e n t i r e a l p h a b e t a n d t h e n u m b e r s f r o m 1 t o H e w a s a b l e t o r e m a i n s e a t e d, l o ok i n g, w h i l e h e d e m a n d e d t h a t y o u w r o t e t h e v o c a b u l a r y o r t h e n u m b e r s f o u r t i m e s i n a r o w. A l l t h e c h i l d r e n s l e p t f e w e r h o u r s t h a n t h o s e e x p e c t e d f o r t h e i r a g e. T h e y s h o w e d g r e a t v i t a l i t y, a g i l i t y a n d m a n u a l c o o r d i n a t i o n b u t n o t a s r e g a r d s t h e r e s t b o od f y. t hi en f a c t, o n l y f i v e o f t h e c h i l d r e n c o u l d w a l k w i t h o u t s u p p o r t b e f o r e t h e a g e o f o n e. T h e o t h e r s d i d i t a t a b o u t t h e a g e o f o n e. W i t h r e g a r d t o l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t, m o r e t h a n 5 0 y e a r s a g o, L e t a. H o l l i n g w o r t h p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s s h e t r ed a tw ei t h a n I Q o f o v e r b e g a n t o s p ei an k s e n t e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f 6 a n d 1 9 m o n t h s, w i t h a n a v e r a g e o f 1 4 m o n t h s ; t h e a v e r a g e c h i l d d o e s n o t b e g i n t o j o i n w o r d s, n o t e v e n i n p a i r s, u n t i l a b o u t 1 8 m o n tg hr s o s ( s, , p. 5.) I n t h e s a m p l e o n e o f t h e m t t eu r e d h i s f i r s t w o r d s a t s i x m o n t h s a n d h i s f i r s t s e n t e n c e a t o n e. A t t h e a g e o f 2 a l l o f t h e m w e r e a b l e t o m a i n t a i n a c o n v e r s a t i o n. G r o s s ( , p. 1 ), i n a l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y o f A u s t r a l i a n c h i l d r e n w i t h a n I Q o f o r m o r e, f o u n d t h e a v e r a g e a g e w h e n hi g h l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n e x p r e s s e d t h e i r f i r s t w o r d w a s a t 8. 5 m o n t h s a n d m a n y o f t h e m b e g a n t o s p e a k a t t h e a g e o f 4 a n d 5 m o n t h s. S u c h p r e c o c i t y i n v e r b a l d e v e l o p m e n t a n d m o v e m e n t a m o n g t h e g i f t e d p r o f o u n d l y a f f e c t s t h e i r e a r l y c o g n i t i v e a n -e d msootciioon a l d e v e l o p m e n t ( G r o s s, , p. 6 ). T h e i r v e r y e a r l y v e r b a l f l u e n c y m a k e s t h e m a b l e t o e x p r e s s t h e i r i d e a s, t o l o o k f o r i n f o r m a t i o n b y a s k i n g a n d t o i n t e r a c t v e r b a l l y w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s a n d o t h e r m e m b e r s o f t h e f a m i l y a t a n a g e a t w h i c h o t h e r c h i l d r e n a r e y ojn ul s t b e g i n n i n g t o e x p e r i m e n t w i t h o r a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n. T h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f v o c a b u l a r y c o r r e l a t e s w e l l w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e, a s T e r m a n ( ) p o i n t e d o u t. G u i l f o r d, S c h e u e r l e a n d S h o n b u r n ( ) a s w e l l a s L e w i s a n d L o u i s ( r1e9p9o 1 r) t e d t h a t l i n g u i s t i c c a p a c i t i e s a r e o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d a s i g n o f g i f t e d n e s s ( B e n i t o a n d M o r o, ). B o t h s t u d i e s e x a m i n e d p r e c o c i o u s c h i l d r e n. S u c h c h i l d r e n i n v a r i a b l y a s k a b o u t n e w w o r d s a n d q u i c k l y p u t t h e m t o u s e i n a c o r r e c t c o n t e x t. F r o m a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 y e a r s o l d t h e y d e v en l oi p n tae r e s t i n t h e s p e l l i n g o f t h e w o r d s. A n o t h e r o u t s t a n d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n i s t h e c o n t i n u a l n e e d o f l e a r n i n g. S i n c e t h e y b e g a n t o s p e a k, t h e y s h o w e d a g r e a t c u r i o s i t y f o r e v e r y t h i n g a r o u n d t h e m. T h e y a s k e d a b o u t n e w w o r d s a n d a s k e d e x p lo r a t o r y q u e s t i o n s : t h e c a u s e o f t h i n g s, t h e i r w o r k i n g, e t c. T h e i r q u e s t i o n s w e r e c o m p l e x a n d a l r e a d y f r o m a y o u n g a g e, t h e y w e r e i n t e r e s t e d i n s u c h m e t a p h y s i c a l s u b j e c t s a s t h e o r i g i n o f m a n a n d t h e u n i v e r s e. O n e c h i l d, a t 3 y e a r s o f a g e, a s k e d h o w cj oe us lu d s e x i s t i f h e d i d n t s e e h i m. W h e r e w a s h e a n d H o w d i d h e f e e l h i m? H i s q u e s t i o n s f r e q u e n t l y c o n c e r n e d d e a t h, t r u t h, t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e u n i v e r s e, t h e c o s m o s, e t c. : H e a s k s q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e m e a n i n g o f l i f e a n d j u s t i c e. H e i s c u r i o u s raybtoh uit n g e. v ea t 4, h e w a n t e d t o k n o w w h a t a c o u n t r y o r a n a t i o n w a s. A t 5, h e k n e w t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e c a p i t a l s o f t h e w o r l d, t h e t y p e s o f a n i m a l s t h e r e w e r e, e t c. I n g e n e r a l, e v e r y t h i n g i n t e r e s t s h i m. I f h e w a s r i d i n g i n a c a r, h e w a n t e d t o k n o w t h e r o a d s, s it gh ne t y p e s o f t r e e s t h a t h e s a w, t h e k i n d s o f 94 G i f te d a n d T a l e n t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l 2 4 (2 ), D e c e m b e r,

11 c l o u d s i n t h e s k y. E v e r y t h i n g w a s a c a u s e o f c u r i o s i t y a n d s o m e s u b j e c t s w e r e s u f f i c i e n t r e a s o n f o r h i m t o g o a n d c o n s u l t a b o o k a n d e n c y c l o p e d i a s : w h a t a r e c o n s t e l l a t i o n s, m y t h o l o g y, m i n e r a l s, h i s t o r y, e. t c. f r o m v e r y y o u n g h i s v o c a b u l a r y h a s b e e n v e r y r i c h b u t, a b o v e a l l, s i n c e h e b e g a n t o r e a d ( b e f o r e 4 y e a r s o l d ) h e h a s b e e n v e r y c o n c e r n e d a b o u t u s i n g w o r d s c o r r e c t l y a n d t o l o o k f o r e x p r e s s i o n s a n d s y n o n y m s i n o r d e r t o e x p r e s s h i m s e l f v e r y c l e a r lay l. w a yh s e s t o o d o u t b e c a u s e h i s w a y o f s p e a k i n g d i d n o t c o r r e s p o n d t o w h a t a c h i l d o f h i s a g e i s s u p p o s e d t o s a y. F o r e x a m p l e, a f e w m o n t h s a g o, a g e d 6, h e b e g a n t o u s e p h r a s e s h e h a d r e a d i n s o m e b o o k s a n d w h i c h h e l i k e d o r w h i c h o c c u r r e d t o h i m b e c a u s e ta hp ep ye a r e d m o r e e x a c t ( a c c o r d i n g t o h i s o w n i d e a o f e x a c t i t u d e ). O n e d a y, i n a b o o k s h o p, h e w a s a s k e d i f h e h a d f a l l e n d o w n b e c a u s e h e h a d a n i n j u r y a n d h e a n s w e r e d : N o. I v e b u m p e d i n t o a n o t h e r h u m a n b e i n g o f m y o w n s p e c i e s. H e s a i d i t e n t i r e l y n ay t ub ru at l lt h e f a c e o f t h e s h o p a s s i s t a n t, h i s c o m m e n t a n d o t h e r s i n d i f f e r e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s h a v e g i v e n r i s e t o t h e f a c t t h a t n o w, a t 6 y e a r s a n d 5 m o n t h s, h e s p e a k s d i f f e r e n t l y d e p e n d i n g o n t h e p l a c e a n d t h e p e o p l e w h o h e m e e t s. O t h e r p a r e n t s c o m m e n t t h a t : B e f o r e h e w a s 2, h e b e g a n t o d i s t i n g u i s h d a y, n i g h t, a f t e r n o o n a n d m o r n i n g. L a t e r, h e b e c a m e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e h o u r s, t h e d a y s o f t h e w e e k, t h e s e a s o n s, t h e m o n t h s, t h e d a y s o f e v e r y m o n t h. A t 2 a n d a h a l f, h e e v e n a s k e d w h e t h e r t i m e e v e r f i n i s h e s. A t 2 y e a r s, h e c o u l d c o u n t u p t o o v e r i n S p a n i s h a n d a l m o s t u p t o i n F r e n c h a n d B a s q u e. H e k n e w t h e l e t t e r s, h e c o u l d r e a d, w r i t e a n d t h e h o u r s o f t h e c l o c k. H e c o u l d i d e n t i f y t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e g e o m e t r i c a l f i g u r e s, t h e r o a d s i g n s, s o m e c o u nit r i le os c, a t ih oe n a n d t h e i r f l a g s. H e h a s a l w a y s s h o w n i n t e r e s t i n e v e r y t h i n g a n d a s k e d a b o u t e v e r y t h i n g a r o u n d h i m : t h e n a m e s o f c i t i e s, t r e e s, f l o w e r s, c a r s, e t c.. O t h e r p a r e n t s a l s o r e p o r t e d h o w, a t 3 y e a r s a n d 6 m o n t h s, t h e i r c h i l d A nad s kb ed f: o r e I w a s i n M u m s s t o m a c h, w h e r e w a s I? A t t h e s a m e a g e, h e c o u n t e d u p t o i n E n g l i s h a n d G e r m a n. I n t h S p a n i s h h e c o u l d s a y a n y -f 5 i g u r e n u m b e r. H e c o u l d a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n : w h a t d a y d o e s M2a4r c h f a l l o n? A n d h e a n s w e r e d c o r r ec t l y, f o r e x a m p l e, o n S a t u r d a y. H e s h o w e d g r e a t i n t e r e s t i n t r a f f i c s i g n s, l e t t e r s, n u m b e r s, s y m b o l s i n g e n e r a l, w a y s o f m e a s u r i n g t i m e, t h e s u n, t h e m o o n a n d t h e s t a r s. O n t h e p i a n o h e w a s a b l e t o r e p r o d u c e q u i t e c o m p l e x m e l o d i e s w i t h a t r u l y s u r p r i s i n g c a p a c i t y f o r p h r a s i n g f o r ( 3 h i ys e aargs e a n d 9 m o n t h s ) a vh i n g o n l y r e c e n t l y h e a r d t h e m. H e c o u l d d i s t i n g u i s h t h e s o u n d o f a l m o s t a l l t h e i n s t r u m e n t s o f a n o r c h e s t r a. H e w a s a b l e t o r e a d s i m p l e p i e c e s w r i t t e n i n t h e k e y o f G w i t h i n t o n a t i o n, a l t h o u g h w i t h o u t m e l o d y. H e w a s a b l e t o p l a y s i m p l e p i e c e s o n t h e p i a n o a p p r o p r i a t e f o r c h i l d r e n o v e r 7 y e a r s o l d. W h e n h e w a s a s k e d a b o u t t h e n a m e o f t h e t h r e e s o n g s h e m o s t l i k e d, h e a n s w e r e d : T h e N e w W o r l d S y m p h o n y b y D v o r a k ( f i r s t m o v e m e n t ) ; V a r i a t i o n s o n a t h e m e b y H a y d n ( B r a h m s ) a n d T h e S u n Si as d w h i c h h e h a d l e a r n t a t s c h o o l. W h e n t h e c h i l d w a s a s k e d a b o u t t h e s e, h e h u m m e d t h e m a n d h i s m o t h e r w r o t e t h e n a m e. H e i d e n t i f i e d t h e m b y t h e a u t h o r a n d t h e i r o r d e r o n t h e r e c o r d. T h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e f l e c t t h o s e o b s e r v e d i n s o m e i m p o r t a n t h if si tg ou r ie c s. T a k e f o r e x a m p l e, F r a n c i s G a l t o n. H e r e i s a n e x a m p l e f r o m a l e t t e r w r i t t e n a l i t t l e b e f o r e h i s f i f t h b i r t h d a y : M y d e a r e s t A d e l a, I a m f o u r y e a r s o l d a n d I c a n r e a d a n y b o o k i n E n g l i s h. I c a n s a y a l l t h e n o u n s, a d j e c t i v e s a n d a c t i v e v e r b s i n al s a t wi en l l a s r e c i t i n g 5 0 l i n e s o f L a t i n p o e t r y. I c a n a d d a n y q u a n t i t y a n d m u l t i p l y b y 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 1 0, a n d 1 1. I c a n a l s o s a y t h e m o n e t a r y t a b l e, r e a d a l i t t l e F r e n c h a n d I k n o w t i( mc eo s l o m, , p. 5 1 ). T h e v o c a b u l a r y l e v e l a t t a i n e d b y cthhiel d r e n i n s o m e o f t h e t e s t s w a s a s f o l l o w s : G i f t e d a nd T a l e n t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l 2 4 ( 2 ), D e c e m b e r,

12 T a b l e 2 : E q u i v a l e n t a g e s i n v o c a b u l aer sy t s t. C h i l d A g e W E C H S L E R S C A L E ( V O C A B U L A R Y ) T h e W o r l d C o u n c i l f o r G i f t e d a n d T a l e n t e d C h i l d r e n S T A N F O R D - B I N E T ( F o r m L - M ) ( V O C A B U L A R Y ) T V T P ( P E A B O D Y ) A 3 y e a r s 6 m o n t h s, I Q y e a r s 8 y e a r s 1 0 m o n t h s B 3 y e a r s 9 m on t h s, I Q y e a r s 6 y e a r s 5 y e a r s 0 m o n t h s C 4 y e a r s 8 m o n t h s, I Q y e a r s 6 m o n t h s 8 y e a r s 7 y e a r s 1 m o n t h D 4 y e a r s 1 0 m o n t h s, I Q y e a r s 6 m o n t h s 8 y e a r s 8 y e a r s 0 m o n t h s E 6 y e a r s 5 m o n t h s, I Q y e a r s 6 m o n t h s 1 2 y e a r s 9 y e a r s 8 m o nt h s F 7 y e a r s 1 m o n t h, I Q y e a r s 2 m o n t h s 1 2 y e a r s 9 y e a r s 3 m o n t h s G 8 y e a r s 5 m o n t h s, I Q y e a r s 1 0 m o n t h s U p p e r A d u l t s I I H 8 y e a r s 7 m o n t h s, I Q y e a r s 1 0 m o n t h s M e d i u m A d u l t s 1 6 y e a r s 2 m o n t h s I 9 y e a r s 3 m o n t h s, I Q y e a r s 1 0 m o n t h s U p p e r A d u l t s I 1 9 y e a r s 2 m o n t h s J 1 0 y e a r s 1 m o n t h, I Q y e a r s 1 0 m o n t h s U p p e r A d u l t s I I 1 5 y e a r s 2 m o n t h s R e g a r d i n g t h e s u b j e c t o f r e a d i n g, p r e c o c i o u s r e a d e r s h a v e b e e n d e f i n e d a s t h o s e c h i l d r e n w h o h a v e m a d e s u b s t a n t i a l p r o g r e s s irne a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n b e f o r e s t a r t i n g t h e f i r s t y e a r a t s c h o o l ( J a c k s o n, D o n a l d s o n a n d C l e l a n d, ). M i l l s a n d J a c k s o n ( ) s u g g e s t e d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n c a n b e p r e d i c t e d f r o m t h e t e s t s c a r r i e d o u t 5 o r 6 y e a r s l y p. r e Tv hi eo y u a l s o p o i n t o u t t h a t v e r b a l a b i l i t y t u r n s o u t t o b e a n e q u a l l y g o o d p r e d i c t o r ( e. g., P e r l e t h, ). A c c o r d i n g J a c k s o n ( ), t h e a b i l i t y t o r e a d a t s u c h a p r e c o c i o u s a g e d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r h i g h l y g i f t e d p e r f o r m a n c e. I n t h i s c o n xt t e, R o b i n s o n ( ) p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n s h e s t u d i e d w e r e c o m p e t e n t r e a d e r s b e f o r e s t a r t i n g i n f a n t s s c h o o l a n d t y p i c a l l y p o s s e s s e d a h i g h I Q, w h i c h t e n d e d t o w a r d s a n a v e r a g e o f S h e a l s o f o u n d p r e c o c i o u s r e a d e r s t e n d e d t o m a i n t a i n a n a d v a on vt ea r g e t h e i r p e e r s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i r s k i l l s i n r- e adl it nh g o u g h l e s s d r a m a t i c a l - l y a n d g e n e r a l l y t h e y p e r f o r m w e l l a t s c h o o l. S h e m a i n t a i n e d t h a t i f t h e s e p u p i l s w e r e n o t a d e q u a t e l y t a u g h t t o r e a d v e r y e a r l y o n a n d w h e n t h e i r c o m p a n i o n s a r e b e g i n n i ntg o r e a d, n o t o n l y a b r a k e o n t h e g r o w t h o f t h e i r a b i l i t i e s c o u l d o c c u r, b u t a l s o a p r o f o u n d d i s c o u r a g e m e n t w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m c o u l d d e v e l o p. T h e p r e c o c i o u s l e a r n i n g o f r e a d i n g i n t h e s e p r e c o c i o u s c h i l d r e n i s n o t c a u s e d b y t h e i n s i s t e n c e o f t h e p a r e n t s. N o t a l l g i f t e d c h i l d r e n w h o a r e r e a d y t o r e a d a c t u a l l y r e a d. M a n y p a r e n t s r e s i s t r e s p o n d i n g t o q u e s t i o n s a n d a n i n t e r e s t i n r e a d i n g o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n, a f t e r a d v i c e f r o m t e a c h e r s w h o a r g u e t h a t t h i s c o u l d b e h a r m f u l i n t h e i r a c a d e m i c n g l ei an r ns iu b s e q u e n t y e a r s. G i f t e d c h i l d r e n w h o r e a d e a r l y l e a r n t o r e a d i n c i d e n t a l l y a n d u n g u i d e d a n d i t i s c u r i o s i t y w h i c h l e a d s t h e m t o l e a r n. O f t h e 1 0 c a s e s i n t h e s a m p l e, o n e b e g a n t o r e c o g n i z e l e t t e r s a t 1 y e a r, 2 m o n t h s, a n o t h e r a t 1 y e a r, 8 m o n t h s d a ns i x s t a r t e d t o r e c o g n i z e l e t t e r s a t t h e a g e o f 2. I n a n o t h e r c a s e, t h e d a t a i s n o t a v a i l a b l e a n d i n t h e t w o r e m a i n i n g, o n e b e g a n t o r e c o g n i z e l e t t e r s a t 3 y e a r s a n d 6 m o n t h s a n d t h e o t h e r a t 4. T h e y l e a r n t o r e a d f u n c t i o n a l l y, g a t h e r i n g k n o w l e d g e t oa f i n c el ro g o t y p e s a n d a n a g r a m s. T h e y p l y c o n t i n u o u s q u e s t i o n s, e. g W. h, a t d o e s i t s a y h e r e? T y p i c a l l y t h e y d o n o t a s k a b o u t s i n g l e l e t t e r s r a t h e r w h o l e w o r d s ( a l t h o u g h c u r i o u s l y o n e c h i l d l e a r n e d b y a s k i n g a b o u t t h e l e t t e r s a n d n o t t h e w o r d s ) : A t 3 y e a r s nad 1 0 m o n t h s h e l e a r n t t o r e a d b y h i m s e l f b y a s k i n g w h a t e a c h c a p i t a l l e t t e r w a s. B e f o r e r e a d i n g, h e u s e d t o s p e l l e v e r y t h i n g h e s a w w r i t t e n. N o b o d y t a u g h t h i m t o w r i t e, h e d i d i t v e r y b a d l y b u t h e l i k e d t o d o i t. F r o m 3 y e a r s o f a g e h i s f a v o r i t t o y s h a v e b e e n b o o k s, p a p e r a n d p e n c i l s. I n T e r m a n s ( ) s a m p l e, p r e c o c i t y w a s v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y e v i d e n t c o n c e r n i n g l e a r n i n g t o r e a d : 4 2 % o f t h e v e r y g i f t e d ( I Q o v e r ) l e a r n e d t o r e a d b e f o r e 5 y e a r s o l d, c o m p a r e d t o % o f t h e t o t a l f o r t h e g r o u p s t u d i e( dg i f t e d a n d h i g h l y g i f t e d o v e r ). F r o m t h e s t a t i s t i c a l p o i n t o f v i e w t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t. 96 G i f te d a n d T a l e n t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l 2 4 (2 ), D e c e m b e r,

13 I n t h e g i r l s, t h e p e r c e n t a g e i s o f 2 5 % c o m p a r e d t o 1 8 % o f t h e t o t a l o f t h e g r o u p s t u d i e d ( a l l v e r y g i f t e d ). T h e p r o p o r t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s r be ea fd oi rn e g t h e a g e o f 4 i s t w o ½ t i m e s m o r e a m o n g t h e v e r y g i f t e d ( I Q o f o r m o r e ) t h a n t h e g r o u p o f g i f t e d i n g e n e r a l. I n r e s e a r c h a i m e d a t i d e n t i f y i n g t h e m o s t u s e f u l v a r i a b l e s r e g a r d i n g e a r l y a n d r e l i a b l e s c r e e n i n g o f g i f t e d p u p i l s, r e a d i n g a b o o k e a st i lty h e a g e o f 4 w a s t h e v a r i a b l e w i t h t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e. T h i s v a r i a b l e c a n b e s e e n i n % o f t h e c a s e s o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n i n t h e s t u d y. A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e o b s e r v e d i s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e a m o n g c h i l d r e n w i t h an I Q o f a n d c h i l d r e n w i t h a n I Q o f m o r e t h a n T h e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e m w a s f o u n d t o b e t h e l e a r n i n g o f t h e a l p h a b e t a t 2 ½ y e a r s o l d i n c h i l d r e n w h o s e I Q i s o v e r ( B e n i t o a n d M o r o, , p. 2 4 ). I n t h e s a m p l e, f o u r o f t h e c h i ls dtra er n t e d r e a d i n g a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 ½, a n o t h e r a t 3 y e a r s 1 0 m o n t h s, a n o t h e r t h r e e b e g a n a t 4 a n d t h e r e m a i n d e r a t 5 y e a r s o l d. A l l o f t h e m, w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e e l d e s t c h i l d i n t h e s a m p l e, s h o w e d a n i n t e n s e i n t e r e s t i n r e a d i n g a n d a h i g h r e a d. i ni g n sf pa ec et d, t h e t w o c h i l d r e n w h o r e a d l a t e s t, b e g a n t o r e a d v e r y q u i c k l y s h o r t l y a f t e r : A t a b o u t 5 y e a r s a n d 6 m o n t h s, i n c l a s s t h e y t o o k h i m t o t h e l i b r a r y s o t h a t h e w a s o c c u p i e d w h i l e t h e o t h e r c l a s s m a t e s l e a r n t t o r e a d. H e l e a r n t t o r e a d i n o n e w ei en k s e c o n d g r a d e o f p r e s c h o o l. A t 6 y e a r s o l d, o n s c h o o l d a y s, h e w o u l d r e a d a s h o r t s t o r y b e f o r e b r e a k f a s t. H e l i k e d t h e b o o k s f r o m t h e c o l l e c t i o n S t e a m B o a t. H e e v e n r e a d w h i l e h e w a t c h e d T V. T h e o n l y c h i l d i n t h e g r o u p w h o s h o w e d n o i n t e n s e i nt eir n e s r e a d i n g w a s a g e d 1 0 y e a r s a n d I m o n t h. E v e n s o, h e w a s a v e r y q u i c k r e a d e Ar t : 7 h e r e a d m o r e t h a n w o r d s p e r m i n u t e. T h e m o s t p r e c o c i o u s c h i l d l e a r n e d t o r e a d a t 2 y e a r s a n d 3 m o n t h s. A t t h e a g e o f 2 y e a r s a n d 1 0 m o n t h s, h e c o u l d r e a d 5 2 w o r d s epr m i n u t e. H e c o u l d w r i t e s o m e w o r d s d i c t a t e d t o h i m, m a i n l y i n c a p i t a l l e t t e r s a n d i n t h e r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n t e s t f o r l e v e l 1 o f p r i m a r y s c h o o l h e o b t a i n e d a s c o r e o f 8 o n a s c a l e o f 1 t o 1 0. H e l e a r n e d t o r e a d b y a s k i n g w h a t w a s w r i t t e n o n t hie n ntohte i csetsr e e t. I n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t e x t r a o r d i n a r y m a t h e m a t i c a l s k i l l s a r e o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d a s v e r y i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n t h e e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n ( S t a p f, , p ), t h e r e h a s b e e n l i t t l e r e s e a r c h r e g a r d i ne g e tx ht r a o r d i n a r y m a t h e m a t i c a l a b i l i t i e s o f t h e y o u n g e s t c h i l d r e n. T h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n c a r r i e d o u t w i t h p u p i l s o v e r 1 0 y e a rp s e r ol le d t. h,( L e h w a l d a n d B r o w d e r, ). M a r j o r a n a n d N e l s o n ( ) r e p o r t e d s o m e i n d i c a t o r s f o r t h e e a r l fy i ci ad te in ot n i o f c h i l d r e n w i t h a t a l e n t f o r m a t h e m a t i c s, s u c h a s a p r e f e r e n c e f o r l o g i c a l e l e m e n t s o f c o n n e c t i o n i n i t s l a n g u a g e, t h e i n t e r e s t i n a n d d e d i c a t i o n t o g e o m e t r i c a l d r a w i n g s o r s y s t e m s o f o r d e r a n d t h e g r e a t s a t i s f a c t i o n o b t a i n e d f r o m p u z z l e s a n d b lu di i n g t o y s. H o w e v e r, n o e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e e x i s t s t o s u p p o r t t h e s a i d i n d i c a t o r s P e( r l e t h, L e h w a l d a n d B r o w d e r, ). I n s o m e o f t h e s e c a s e s, e v e n i n b a b i e s, p a r e n t s o b s e r v e d a t e n d e n c y t o s t r u c t u r e t h e e n v i r o n m e n t. I n t h e i r g a m e s, f o r e x a m p l e, t h e y mfio grhm t s e r i e s a n d o r d e r t h i n g s l o g i c a l l y, p l a c i n g t h e i r t o y s i n r o w s, c i r c l e s, a c c o r d i n g t o s i z e a n d s h a p e : S i n c e h e b e g a n t o m o v e h i s a r m s, h e p l a c e d e v e r y t h i n g i n r o w s ( h i s d u m m y, r u b b e r d o l l, e t c. ). A s h e g o t o l d e r, a l l h i s g a m e s w e r e b a s e d o n lpl u thti is n g t oay s i n a r o w a n d o r d e r i n g t h e m b y t y p e s. T h e i n t e r e s t i n j i g s a w s h a s b e e n v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t. O f t h e t e n c h i l d r e n s t u d i e d, f i v e w o r k e d w i t h 2 0 p i e c e s a t 2 y e a r s o l d a n d f o u r a t 3 y e a r s. O n l y o n e s h o w e d n o s p e c i a l f o n d n e s s f - o r h e t hp er m e. f e r r e d w o r d g r i d s. S o m e o f t h e a c c o u n t s f r o m p a r e n t s w h o s e c h i l d r e n h a d l e a r n e d t o -pdio e c2e 0 j i g s a w s a t 2 y e a r s o l d i n c l u d e : H e s h o w e d g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n n u m b e r s. A s f o r j i g s a w s, h e d i d t h e m q u i c k l y a n d o n c e h e u n d e r s t o o d h o w t o d o t h e m, h e m o v e d o n t o a n o t h eo r n e. H e n e v e r d i d o n e t w i c e. T h e t o y s w h i c h h e p l a y e d w i t h w e r e a l w a y s j i g s a w s. H e h a d o t h e r t o y s : c a r s, d o l l s, b u i l d i n g t o y s, e t c, b u t h e h a r d l y p l a y e d w i t h t h e m, o n l y i f w e i n s i s t e d. H e d i d t h e m f a c e d o w n, c o v e r i n g t h e p i c t u r e. H e l i k e d j i g s a w s a ub t o S p a i n a n d t h a t s h o w h i s i n t e r e s t b e g a n i n g e o g r a p h y : t h e n a t i o n s, c o n t i n e n t s a n d t h e g l o b e o f t h e e a r t h. A t t h e a g e o f 3 h e d i d t h e m w i t h 5 0 o r 6 0 p i e c e s. A l l t e n c h i l d r e n s h o w e d a v e r y d e e p l e v e lo f a p t i t u d e f o r m a t h e m a t i c s. M o s t w e r e e x c e p t i o n a l a n d o n e h a d a p r o d i g i o u s a p t i t u d e : i. e. e q hu e a l e d t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f a n a d u l t i n m a t h e m a t i c a l r e a s o n i n g b e f o r e h e w a s 1 0 y e a r s o l d. G i f t e d a nd T a l e n t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l 2 4 ( 2 ), D e c e m b e r,

14 T a b l e 3 : E q u i v a l e n t a g e s i n c a l c u l u s a n d n u m e r i c a l r e a s o n i n g. T h e W o r l d C o u n c i l f o r G i f t e d a n d T a l e n t e d C h i l d r e n C h i l d A G E W E C H S L E R S T A N F O R D - B I N E T M S C A C a l c u l u s S C A L E A r i t h m e t i c ( F o r m L - M ) N u m e r i c a l R e a s o n i n g A 3 y e a r s 6 m o n t h s I Q y e a r s 7 y e a r s 6 m o n t h s B 3 y e a r s 9 m o n t h s I Q y e a r s 6 m o n t h s 6 y e a r s 7 y e a r s a p p r o x i m a t e l y C 4 y e a r s 8 m o n t h s I Q y e a r s 6 m o n t h s + 6 y e a r s 8 y e a r s a p p r o x i m a t e l y D 4 y e a r s 1 0 m o n t h s I Q y e a r s 6 m o n t h s 9 y e a r s + 8 y e a r s 6 m o n t h s E 6 y e a r s 5 m o n t h s I Q y e a r s 1 0 m o n t h s 9 y e a r s + 8 y e a r s 6 m o n t h s F 7 y e a r s 1 m o n t h I Q y e a r s 1 0 m o n t h s U p p e r A d u l t s I + 8 y e a r s 6 m o n t h s G 8 y e a r s 5 m o n t h s I Q y e a r s 1 0 m o n t h s U p p e r A d u l t s I I I H 8 y e a r s 7 m o n t h s I Q y e a r s 1 0 m o n t h s M e d i u m A d u l t s I 9 y e a r s 3 m o n t h s I Q y e a r s 1 0 m o n t h s U p p e r A d u l t s I J 1 0 y e a r s 1 m o n t h I Q y e a r s 1 0 m o n t h s U p p e r A d u l t s I I I I n f o u r c h i l d r e n, a n e x t r a o r d i n a r y c a p a c i t y f o r m a mt ai tc hs e c o u l d b e o b s e r v e d : A ( 3 y e a r s a n d 6 m o n t h s ), D ( 4 y e a r s a n d 1 0 m o n t h s ) F, ( 7 y e a r s a n d 1 m o n t h ) a n G d ( 8 y e a r s a n d 5 m o n t h s ). I n t h e l a t t e r c a s e, h e h a d a p r o d i g i o u s a b i l i t y : A t 1 3 o r 1 4 m o n t h s, h e l o v e d t o a r r a n g e g e o m e t r i c a l s h a p e s. A t 1 4 m ho e n t ch os u l d m a k e a p e r f e c t p y r a m i d. A t 1 8 m o n t h s, h e w a n t e d a b o o k w i t h n u m b e r s a n d h e a s k e d a b o u t t h e n u m b e r s o f a l l t h e h o u s e s. A t 2 y e a r s o l d, h e h a d m a s t e r e d a l l t h e n u m b e r s. A t 3, h e m a s t e r e d q u a n t i t i e s o f m i l l i o n s. B e f o r e h e w a s 4, h e c o u l d c o u n t b a c k w a r d s f r o m o n e t h o u s a n d a n d a t t h e s a m e a g e h e w a s a b l e t o r e s o l v e p r o b l e m s i n h i s h e a d w i t h 2 o r m o r e o p e r a t i o n s. A t 5, h e k n e w t h e s u r f a c e a r e a a n d p o p u l a t i o n o f m a n y S p a n i s h p r o v i n c e s. H e l e a r n t t h e m u l t i p l i c a t i o n t a b l e s w i t h a c a l c u l a t o r a t 5. B y h i m s e l f, h e s t a r t e d t o u n d e r s t a n d h o w t h e t a b l e s w o r k e d. A t 8 a n d a h a l f, t h e a g e t h a t w h i c h h e a t t e n d e d t h e C e n t r e, h e c o u l d r e s o l v e p r o b l e m s f r o m g r a8 d e o f s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l a n d v e r y q u i c k l y. W h e n h e w a s t e s t e d t h e e x a m i n e r s w e r e s u r p r i s e d b y t h e w a y h e l od o kae t t h e m a n d h i s n u m e r i c a l c a p a c i t y. I t w a s a m a z i n g h o w h e r e s o l v e d t h e p r o b l- e pm es r f o r m i n g t h e C a l c u l u s T e s t o f t h e T E A - 3 w i t h o u t u s i n g p a p e r t o d o t h e o p e r a t i o n s a n d d o i n g e v e r y t h i n g m e n t a l l y. H e w a s i n t h e 9 9 t h p e r c e n t i l e o n t h e s c a l e c o r r e s p o n d i no g t th e p r e- u n i v e r s i t y s c h o o l c o u r s e. B u t w h a t r e a l l y w a s s u r p r i s i n g w a s h o w h e s o l v e d t h e r e a s o n i n g p r o b l e m p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e U p p e r A d u l t L e v e l I I I o f t h e S t a n f o r d T e s t : I n m y g a r d e n t h e r e w a s a p l a n t w h i c h w a s 8 c e n t i m e t e r s h i g h. A t t h e e n d o f o n e y e a r I m e a s u r e d i t a n d i t w a s 1 2 c e n t i m e t e r s h i g h, a t 2 y e a r s i t r e a c h e d 1 8 c e n t i m e t e r s a n d a t t h e e n d o f t h e t h i r d y e a r i t w a s 2 7 c e n t i m e t e r s. W h a t h e i g h t d o y o u t h i n k i t w o u l d r e a c h a t t h e e n d o f t h e f o u r t h y e a r?. A f t e r 7 s e c o n d s h e g a v e t h e c o r r e c t a n s w e r h. e n W a s k e d h o w h e h a d d o n e i t, h e a n s w e r e d t h a t i t w a s e a s y o n c e h e r e a l i z e d t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n e a c h o f t h e n u m b e r s w a s 1. 5 : 8 x 1. 5 = x 1. 5 = x 1. 5 = x 1. 5 = A t t h e t i m e h e w a s b e g i n n i n g t h i r d g r a d e a n d c l ai sn s j u s t b e g i n n i n g t o l e a r n h o w t o d i v i d e. A s i n d i c a t e d o n p r e v i o u s o c c a s i o n s, t y p i c a l l y i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n f r o m t h e a g e o f 6 s h o w m e t a - c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s i n t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f m a t h e m a t i c a l p r o b l e m s ( B e n i t o, ). H o w e v e r, e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y f tg ei d c h i l d r e n e v e n a s y o u n g a s 4 y e a r s a n d 1 0 m o n t h s d e m o n s t r a t e t h e e m e r g e n c e o f t h i s s k i l l. F o r e x a m p l e, wd h ew n a s a s k e d, I f y o u b u y a b a l l t h a t c o s t s 2 0 E u r o s a n d y o u p a y w i t h h o w m u c h h a v e y o u l e f t? H e a n s w e r e d 8 0!. B e f o r e s e t t i n g t h e s t o p c h w, a t t h e c h i l d h a d a l r e a d y g i v e n t h e r i g h t a n s w e r, a l t h o u g h i n t h i s c a s e i t d i d n o t a p p e a r t o b e d u e t o a n a u t o m a t i c 98 G i f te d a n d T a l e n t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l 2 4 (2 ), D e c e m b e r,

15 t h o u g h t. H e k n e w o n s o m e o c c a s i o n s, a t l e a s t, w h a t r e a s o n i n g h e h a d f o l l o w e d t o r e s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m. I n t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e c o n c e p t s c o m p o n e no tf t h e C o g n i t i v e A p t i t u d e s T e s t, h e d i d n o t c o u n t t h e p o i n t s o n e b y o n e, b u t r a t h e r a t a g l a n c e. H e r a p i d l y a d d e d u p a n d t o o k a w a y n u m b e r s w i t h m o r e t h a n 3 f i g u r e s i n h i s h e a d a n d n o t w i t h t h e u s e o f p a p e r. W h e n a s k e d h o w h e d i d i t, h e r e si p o n d e d : t h i n k a b o u t t h e m, o n e p l u s o n e, a n d I a d d t h e m u p b u t w i t h o u t p a p e r. F o r e x a m p l e : 4 p l u s 6 e q u a l s 1 0. T h e y o u n g e s t o f t h e c h i l d r e n h a d a w a y o f t h i n k i n g a b o u t p r o b l e m s o l v i n g t h a t i s u s u a l i n s o m e g i f t e d c h i l d r e n u p t o 5 y e a r s o l d, i. e. a u t o m a t i c a l l y aunt d awniy t h ao p p a r e n t t h o u g h t. A f t e r r e a d i n g t h e p r o b l e m, t h e y g i v e t h e c o r r e c t a n s w e r. W h e n t h e y a r e v e r y y o u n g, i f t h e y s t a r t c o u n t i n g o n t h e i r f i n g e r s t h e y w o u l d m a k e a m i s t a k e. F o r e x a m p l e, w h e n a s k e d h o w m a n y c u b e s a r e o n t h e t a b l e a t a g l a n c e t h e y w o u l d y s 1a 1. O n t h e o t h e r h a n d, i f a s k e d t o c o u n t t h e c u b e s o n e b y o n e, t h e y w o u l d o f t e n c o m m i t a m i s t a k e. T h e y o u n g e s t o f 3 y e a r s t o o k o n l y 2 s e c o n d s t o r e s p o n d t o a p r o b l e m s u c h a s t h e f o l l o w i n g I: f y o u h a v e 9 E u r o s a n d y o u l o s e 2, h o w m a n y h a v e y o u l e f t?. A n o t h e r c h i l d H, ( 8 y e a r s a n d 7 m o n t h s ), a l t h o u g h g r e a t l y i n t e r e s t e d i n m a t h e m a t i c s h a d a r e a l p a s s i o n f o r c h e m i s t r y : A t a b o u t 6 y e a r s o l d, h e l e a r n t a t m i d n i g h t, w i t h h i s b r o t h e r, a n d i n a l i t t l e o v e r a n h o u r s o m e t h i n g a s a r i d a s t h e V a l e n c e c h e m i s t r y l et s a b b e c a u s e h e w a n t e d t o l e a r n h o w t o f o r m u l a t e. A t t h e s a m e a g e, o n e o f t h e t h i n g s w h i c h m o s t a m a z e d m e a b o u t m y s o n, a n d w h i c h a c t u a l l y f r i g h t e n e d m e, w a s t h e s p e e d a n d e a s e w i t h w h i c h l e l e a r n t t h e b a s i c r u l e s o f f o r m u l a t i o n. B e t w e e n a p p r o x i m a t e l y ah n o u r a n d a q u a r t e r a n d a n h o u r ½ h e w a s f o r m u l a t i n g a c i d s, t a u g h t b y h i s b r o t h e r. T h e g e n e r a l i d e a t h a t c r e a t i v i t y a n d i n t e l l i g e n c e a r e d i s t i n c t a b i l i t i e s i s f o u n d e d o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s o b t a i n e d b e t w e e n t h e t w o a b i l i t ei re es n t a t l edv ie fl fs o f g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e. C r e a t i v i t y c a n c o r r e l a t e g w, i tb h u t a t t h eh i g h e s t l e v e l s o f g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e, t h e c o r r e l a t i o n i s l o w e r. T h e u l t i m a t e r e a s o n i s t h a t, e v e n w h e n a h i g h l e v e l o f g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e i s n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n f o r i ghh c r e a t i v i t y, t h e f i r s t d o e s n o t g u a r a n t e e t h e s e c o n d. M a n y i n t e l l i g e n t i n d i v i d u a l s l a c k t r u l y c r e a t i v e c a p a c i t i e s ( B u s s a n d P o l e y, , p. 5 8 ). F i g u r e 1: I n t e l l i g e n c e a n d C r e a t i v i t y. C u r r e n t l y, i t i s w i d e l y a c c e p t e d t h a t a t l e a s t a n o r m a l n c ie n ti es l ln ie gc e s s a r y t o b e c r e a t i v e. A c c o r d i n g t o E r i k a L a n d a u, t h e r e i s n o s i g n i f i c a n t c r e a t i v i t y w i t h o u t a h i g h I Q o f a b o u t ( B e n i t o, ). T e r m a n ( ) o b s e r v e d h o w t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d p r e s e n t e d o t h e r e x c e p t i o n a l f e a t u r e s s u c h a s c r e a t i v i t y a n d a l etn t. I t m a y a l s o b e n o t e d t h a t G a r c i a Y a g ü e a n d o t h e r s ( , p ) c o n s i d e r e d t h e s e p a r a t i o n m a d e b e t w e e n i n t e l l e c t u a l g i f t s, c r e a t i v i t y a n d s p e c i a l t a l e n t s t o b e G i f t e d a nd T a l e n t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l 2 4 ( 2 ), D e c e m b e r,

16 T h e W o r l d C o u n c i l f o r G i f t e d a n d T a l e n t e d C h i l d r e n u n j u s t i f i a b l e. I n f a c t, i t s e e m s p r o b a b l e t h a t, w h e n w e m a n a g e, i n t h e f u t u r e y, w th o i c ih d eg ne tn ie fs a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a c e r t a i n c o g n i t i v e c a p a c i t y, t h e y w i l l b e t h e s a m e o n e s t h a t c o n d i t i o n o t h e r c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s ( P l o m i n a n d D e F r i e s, , p. 2 0 ). T h e 1 0 c h i l d r e n i n t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y g r o u p s h o w e d g r e a t c r e a t i v i t y w h i c h w a s c l e an r l y s h o w i n t h e i r d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s o f i n t e r e s t a n d t h e i r a p t i t u d e s. F o r e x a m p l e : I n t h e c a s e oa f ( 3 y e a r s 6 m o n t h s ) : S t a r t i n g f r o m a l l h i s k n o w l e d g e a n d t h e f e w f i l m s h e h a d s e e n, h e s p e n t a l l t h e d a y i m a g i n i n g w h a t a g a l a c t i c w a r r i o r w a s w h o s e l a s e r h ta rd o y t o d e s t h e m o t h e r s h i p A Z , b e c a u s e t h e s p a c e c o n d e n s e r a n d t h o u s a n d s o f s i m i l a r a d v e n t u r e s. A t o t h e r t i m e s h e w o u l d b e a n a r c h a e o l o g i s t w h o w a s s e a r c h i n g f o r t h e m u m m y o f e t c.. B ( 3 y e a r s a n d 9 m o n t h s ) : H e h a d n o i m a g i n a r y f r i e n d s b u t h e h i m s e l f a dd o p dt ie f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l i t i e s : s o m e d a y s h e g o t u p a s T a r z a n, o t h e r s h i s g r a n d m o t h e r, o t h e r s t h e l e t t e r / R /, e t c. H e i n v e n t e d n a m e s f o r t h e d o l l s a n d e v e n e v e r y d a y o b j e c t s. H e t o o k o n d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l i t i e s a n d o f t e n c h a n g e d t h e i d e n t i t y o f t h e o b j e c t s o p al ne d a pr eo u n d h i m. H ( 8 y e a r s a n d 7 m o n t h s ) : H e l i k e d t o m a k e c o m i c s t o r i e s b y d r a w i n g t h e m a n d t o i n v e n t r e a l t h i n g s : f o r e x a m p l e, a t 6 y e a r s a n d 5 m o n t h s, o n e d a y w i t h a r e m o t e c o n t r o l c a r, a r o p e, a k n i f e, s o m e b o o k s w h i c h h e l d d o w n t h e r e m o t e c o n t r on l d as o m e o t h e r t h i n g s, h e a r r a n g e d e v e r y t h i n g i n s u c h a w a y t h a t, w h e n a c e r t a i n p l a c e w a s p r e s s e d, i t w a s l i k e a t r a p a n d t h e c a r c r a s h e d i n t o y o u ( i t d i d n t a l w a y s w o r k b e c a u s e t h e k n i f e w a s a l i t t l e b l u n t a n d i t d i d n t a l w a y s c u t t h e r o p e. F ( 7 y e a r s ad n 1 m o n t h ) : H e l i k e d t o i n v e n t s t o r i e s v e r y m u c h. I n h i s d r a w i n g s h e t r i e d t o r e f l e c t t h e r e a l s i t u a t i o n o f t h e p e r s o n a g e s : t h e h a i r b l o w n b y t h e w i n d, c a n d l e s b e h i n d w i n d o w s, s w e a t o n t h e f a c e o f p e o p l e w o r k i n g, e t c.. G ( 8 y e a r s a n d 5 m o n t h s ) : H e d r e a m t o f b u i l d i n g h i s o w n h o u s e a n d c a r, e t c. H e k n e w t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e m a k e s o f c a r o n t h e m a r k e t, a s w e l l a s t h e i r t e c h n i c a l f e a t u r e s a n d p r i c e. H e w a s i n t e r e s t e d i n k n o w i n g t h e p r i c e s o f f l a t s a n d h o u s e s, d e s i g n i n g h i s o w n h o u s e a n d t h e l a y o u t, f u r n i s h iin t g, d r a w i n g u p t h e p l a n s, e t c.. A l l i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n a r e, i n g e n e r a l, c r e a t i v e i n t h e i r e a r l y y e a r s. A s p r e v i o i n d i c a t e d, t h e r e i s n o r e a l c r e a t i v i t y w i t h o u t a h i g h I Q o f a t l e a s t : b e l o w t h i s l e v e l, t h e c o r r e l a d e c r e a s e s. B u t on w h a t d o e s i t d e p e n d t h e f a c t t h a t i n t h e i r a d o l e s c e n c e, m a t u r i t y a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l l i f e t h e y b e c o m e h i g h l y c r e a t i v e p e o p l e? A n a n s w e r t o t h i s q u e s t i o n w i l l b e p r o v i d e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n. P e r s o n a l, a c a d e m i c a n d s o c i a l a d a p t a t i o n C o n t r a r y t o w h a t mgi h t b e s u p p o s e d, t h e p e r s o n a l, a c a d e m i c, s o c i a l a n d f a m i l y a d a p t a t i o n w i t h i n t h e c u r r e n t s a m p l e w a s g o o d, w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e t w o y o u n g e s t c h i l d r e n. T h e y h a d d i f f i c u l t i e s a d a p t i n g w h i c h c o u l d b e o b s e r v e d b o t h i n t h e s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t a s w e lh l e i r a s i n t r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e i r c l a s s m a t e s. C o m p l e t e l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e t e a c h i n g m e t h o d s w e r e e v i d e n t a t t h a t a g e. H o w e v e r, t h e y w e r e t o o y o u n g t o ( a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r p r o b l e m s? ), w o r k o u t a s o l u t i o n t o t h e i r p r o b l e m s a n d r e c e i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g. F o r e x a m p l e, A s p a r e n t s s a i d w h i l e t h e i r s o n w a s v a l u Te hd e : b i g p r o b l e m o f t h e c h i l d o f 3 y e a r s a n d 6 m o n t h s w a s t o a d a p t t o t h e s c h o o l b e c a u s e o u t s i d e o f i t h e r e l a t e d w i t h a n y b o d y w h o u n d e r s t o o d h i m a n d d e d i c a t e d t i m e t o h i s g a m e s a n d h i s b o o k s, b u t i n t h e c l a s s r o o m, h e w hhea n d o f n e c e s s i t y t o r e l a t e w i t h t h o s e o f h i s o w n a g e w h o d i d n t h a v e t h e s a m e l e v e l o f l a n g u a g e, c o n c e r n s o r e m o t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t, h e w a s a l o n e r a n d g o t b o r e d p a i n t i n g a l l d a y a n d p l a y i n g s t u p i d g a m e s a s h e s a i d. H e d i d n t f e e l a t e a s e, h e dk ie d n f it g hlt i n g w i t h t h e o t h e r c h i l d r e n f o r b a l l s a n d h e d i d n t p a r t i c i p a t e i n a n y a c t i v i t y i n w h i c h t h e w i n n e r w a s t h e s t r o n g e s t. T h e m e n t a l m a t u r i t y o f t h e c h i l d l e d h i m t o a c c e p t w i t h r e s i g n a t i o n t h a t h e h a d t o b e i n c l a s s i n t h e m o r n i n g a n d h e e v etn h act l a iim t e d w a s h i s w o r k, I d o i t t h e s a m e a s y o u, w h y d o n t t h e y p a y m e f o r i t?. T h e w o r s t o f a l l w a s t h a t h e d i d n t h a v e f r i e n d s a l t h o u g h h e w a n t e d t o m i x w i t h t h e o t h e r s. I n c l a s s h e d i d n t p a r t i c i p a t e b e c a u s e a s t h e c h i l d r e n d i d n t s i t s t i l l a n d n oty he ad t hai nm, h e p r e f e r r e d n o t t o s p e a k a t a l l s o a s n o t t o a d d t o t h e r a c k e t a n d u n d e r s t a n d e v e n l e s s. T h e t e a c h e r g i v e s t h e c l a s s o n l y t o m e b e c a u s e t h e o t h e r s d o n t p a y a t t e n t i o n. B u t I a l r e a d y k n o w a l l t h e t h i n g s s h e s a y s. T h e t e n d e n c y o f t o h e l ac uh gi h l d r e n t w h e n t h e y h e a r d h i m s a y s t r a n g e t h i n g s h a d g i v e n h i m a c e r t a i n c o m p l e x o f t h e y r e l a u g h i n g a t 100 G i f te d a n d T a l e n t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l 2 4 (2 ), D e c e m b e r,

17 m e. H e w a s h a p p y t o f i n d o u t t h a t i t w a s p o s s i b l e t o c h a n g e t o a n o t h e r c l a s s o f o l d e r c h i l d r e n w h e r e h e c o u l d l e a r n i n t e r e s t i n g t h i n g s a s h e es na i td o,( B ). W h e n v e r y y o u n g i t w o u l d b e t t e r t o b r i n g t h e s e c h i l d r e n t o g e t h e r a s a h o m o g e n e o u s g r o u p a t s p e c i f i c t i m e s i n o r d e r f o r t h e m t o s h a r e w i t h t h e r e s t o f t h e i r h i g h l y a b l e c o m p a n i o n s o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s, e. g., p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n., a n wd h ia lr e t o t h e r l e s s a b l e c l a s s m a t e s a r e l e a r n i n g t o r e a d a n d l e a r n o t h e r b a s i c s k i l l s. T h i s w o u l d h e l p n o t o n l y t h e i r c o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t b u t a l s o f u n d a m e n t a l l y t h e i r s o c i a l a n d e m o t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t. T h e r e s t o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y sghroowuep d g o o d s c h o o l a n d s o c i a l a d a p t a t i o n. T h e y m a i n t a i n e d a d e q u a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b o t h w i t h t h e i r c l a s s m a t e s a s w e l l a s w i t h o t h e r c h i l d r e n o f d i f f e r e n t a g e s. T h e i r p s y c h o l o g i c a l b a l a n c e w a s g o o d a n d t h e y w e r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d b y t h e i r n o t a b l e m a t u r i t y, e n e, r g yd e s i r e t o s h i n e, -sc eo ln f i d e n c e, s e n s e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a n d s o c i a b i l i t y. T h e y h a d a n a t u r a l i n f l u e n c e o n t h e i r s c h o o l m a t e s a n d f i v e o f t h e t e n w e r e v e r y c l e a r l y l e a d e r s. F o r e x a m p l e, J s m o t h e r ( 1 0 y e a r s a n d 1 m o n t h ) d e s c r i b e d h e r s o n i n t h e f o g l l wo aw y i : n M y c h i l d h a s s u c c e s s f u l l y c u l t i v a t e d f r i e n d s h i p s. H e i s w e l l a c c e p t e d a n d v e r y r a r e l y a r g u e s w i t h h i s f r i e n d s. H e h a s n o p r o b l e m s i n d e a l i n g w i t h p e o p l e. H e s v e r y d e t e r m i n e d. W h e n h e w a n t s t o t a l k t o s o m e b o d y ( a u t h o r i t i e s, s p o r t s p e r s o n, e t c. ) h e f i n d s t h e m a n d t a l k s t o t h e m w i t h o u t b e i n g s h y. H e s i n d e p e n d e n t a n d a t t i m e s s t u b b o r n. H e d o e s n t l i e a n d p r e f e r s t o b e r e p r i m a n d e d. F ( 7 y e a r s a n d 1 m o n t h ) w a s c h o s e n i n p- sr ce h o o l t o d i r e c t t h e o t h e r c h i l d r e n i n t h e e n d o f t e r m s h o w a n d t o r e c i t e a ep m o w i t h a n o t h e r c h i l d. H e w a s t h e n 4 y e a r s a n d 5 m o n t h s o l d. A t f o o t b a l l h e w a s a l w a y s c a p t a i n a n d f r e q u e n t l y p r o p o s e d g a m e s t o h i s f r i e n d s. I n A l o n s o a n d B e n i t o s r e s e a r c h i t w a s o b s e r v e d t h a t c h i l d r e n a g e d b e t w e e n 6 a n d 1 0 a r e t h e m o s t s t a b l e, m a t u r e a ned x t r o v e r t e d. I t w a s n o t e d t h a t t h e h i g h e r t h e I Q l e v e l, t h e h i g h e r a r e t h e l e v e l s o f a c a d e m i c a n d s o c i a l a d a p t a t i o n, a s c a n b e s e e n i n t h e f o lf li ogwui rn g e s ( A l o n s o a n d B e n i t o, , p p ; B e n i t o, , p p ) : F i g u r e 2: L e v e l s o f a c a d e m i c d a p t a t i o n f o r 8 y e a r s o l d c h i l d r e n o n -W R I. S C G i f t e d a nd T a l e n t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l 2 4 ( 2 ), D e c e m b e r,

18 T h e W o r l d C o u n c i l f o r G i f t e d a n d T a l e n t e d C h i l d r e n F i g u r e 3:. L e v e l s o f s o c i a l a d a p t a t i o n f o r 8 y e a r s o l d c h i l d r e n - R o. n W I S C 102 G i f te d a n d T a l e n t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l 2 4 (2 ), D e c e m b e r,

A L A BA M A L A W R E V IE W

A L A BA M A L A W R E V IE W A L A BA M A L A W R E V IE W Volume 52 Fall 2000 Number 1 B E F O R E D I S A B I L I T Y C I V I L R I G HT S : C I V I L W A R P E N S I O N S A N D TH E P O L I T I C S O F D I S A B I L I T Y I N

More information

P a g e 5 1 of R e p o r t P B 4 / 0 9

P a g e 5 1 of R e p o r t P B 4 / 0 9 P a g e 5 1 of R e p o r t P B 4 / 0 9 J A R T a l s o c o n c l u d e d t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e i n t e n t o f N e l s o n s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n i s t o e n h a n c e c o n n e

More information

I M P O R T A N T S A F E T Y I N S T R U C T I O N S W h e n u s i n g t h i s e l e c t r o n i c d e v i c e, b a s i c p r e c a u t i o n s s h o

I M P O R T A N T S A F E T Y I N S T R U C T I O N S W h e n u s i n g t h i s e l e c t r o n i c d e v i c e, b a s i c p r e c a u t i o n s s h o I M P O R T A N T S A F E T Y I N S T R U C T I O N S W h e n u s i n g t h i s e l e c t r o n i c d e v i c e, b a s i c p r e c a u t i o n s s h o u l d a l w a y s b e t a k e n, i n c l u d f o l

More information

176 5 t h Fl oo r. 337 P o ly me r Ma te ri al s

176 5 t h Fl oo r. 337 P o ly me r Ma te ri al s A g la di ou s F. L. 462 E l ec tr on ic D ev el op me nt A i ng er A.W.S. 371 C. A. M. A l ex an de r 236 A d mi ni st ra ti on R. H. (M rs ) A n dr ew s P. V. 326 O p ti ca l Tr an sm is si on A p ps

More information

I N A C O M P L E X W O R L D

I N A C O M P L E X W O R L D IS L A M I C E C O N O M I C S I N A C O M P L E X W O R L D E x p l o r a t i o n s i n A g-b eanste d S i m u l a t i o n S a m i A l-s u w a i l e m 1 4 2 9 H 2 0 0 8 I s l a m i c D e v e l o p m e

More information

P a g e 3 6 of R e p o r t P B 4 / 0 9

P a g e 3 6 of R e p o r t P B 4 / 0 9 P a g e 3 6 of R e p o r t P B 4 / 0 9 p r o t e c t h um a n h e a l t h a n d p r o p e r t y fr om t h e d a n g e rs i n h e r e n t i n m i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s s u c h a s a q u a r r y. J

More information

T h e C S E T I P r o j e c t

T h e C S E T I P r o j e c t T h e P r o j e c t T H E P R O J E C T T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S A r t i c l e P a g e C o m p r e h e n s i v e A s s es s m e n t o f t h e U F O / E T I P h e n o m e n o n M a y 1 9 9 1 1 E T

More information

I n t e r n a t i o n a l E l e c t r o n i c J o u r n a l o f E l e m e n t a r y E.7 d u, c ai ts is ou n e, 1 V3 1o-2 l6, I n t h i s a r t

I n t e r n a t i o n a l E l e c t r o n i c J o u r n a l o f E l e m e n t a r y E.7 d u, c ai ts is ou n e, 1 V3 1o-2 l6, I n t h i s a r t I n t e r n a t i o n a l E l e c t r o n i c J o ue rlne am l e not fa r y E d u c a t i o n, 2 0 1 4, 1 37-2 ( 16 ). H o w R e a d i n g V o l u m e A f f e c t s b o t h R e a d i n g F l u e n c y

More information

Software Process Models there are many process model s in th e li t e ra t u re, s om e a r e prescriptions and some are descriptions you need to mode

Software Process Models there are many process model s in th e li t e ra t u re, s om e a r e prescriptions and some are descriptions you need to mode Unit 2 : Software Process O b j ec t i ve This unit introduces software systems engineering through a discussion of software processes and their principal characteristics. In order to achieve the desireable

More information

H STO RY OF TH E SA NT

H STO RY OF TH E SA NT O RY OF E N G L R R VER ritten for the entennial of th e Foundin g of t lair oun t y on ay 8 82 Y EEL N E JEN K RP O N! R ENJ F ] jun E 3 1 92! Ph in t ed b y h e t l a i r R ep u b l i c a n O 4 1922

More information

OH BOY! Story. N a r r a t iv e a n d o bj e c t s th ea t e r Fo r a l l a g e s, fr o m th e a ge of 9

OH BOY! Story. N a r r a t iv e a n d o bj e c t s th ea t e r Fo r a l l a g e s, fr o m th e a ge of 9 OH BOY! O h Boy!, was or igin a lly cr eat ed in F r en ch an d was a m a jor s u cc ess on t h e Fr en ch st a ge f or young au di enc es. It h a s b een s een by ap pr ox i ma t ely 175,000 sp ect at

More information

F l a s h-b a s e d S S D s i n E n t e r p r i s e F l a s h-b a s e d S S D s ( S o-s ltiad t e D r i v e s ) a r e b e c o m i n g a n a t t r a c

F l a s h-b a s e d S S D s i n E n t e r p r i s e F l a s h-b a s e d S S D s ( S o-s ltiad t e D r i v e s ) a r e b e c o m i n g a n a t t r a c L i f e t i m e M a n a g e m e n t o f F l a-b s ah s e d S S D s U s i n g R e c o v e r-a y w a r e D y n a m i c T h r o t t l i n g S u n g j i n L e, e T a e j i n K i m, K y u n g h o, Kainmd J

More information

h : sh +i F J a n W i m +i F D eh, 1 ; 5 i A cl m i n i sh» si N «q a : 1? ek ser P t r \. e a & im a n alaa p ( M Scanned by CamScanner

h : sh +i F J a n W i m +i F D eh, 1 ; 5 i A cl m i n i sh» si N «q a : 1? ek ser P t r \. e a & im a n alaa p ( M Scanned by CamScanner m m i s t r * j i ega>x I Bi 5 n ì r s w «s m I L nk r n A F o n n l 5 o 5 i n l D eh 1 ; 5 i A cl m i n i sh» si N «q a : 1? { D v i H R o s c q \ l o o m ( t 9 8 6) im a n alaa p ( M n h k Em l A ma

More information

Ranking accounting, banking and finance journals: A note

Ranking accounting, banking and finance journals: A note MPRA Munich Personal RePEc Archive Ranking accounting, banking and finance ournals: A note George Halkos and Nickolaos Tzeremes University of Thessaly, Department of Economics January 2012 Online at https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/36166/

More information

Last 4 Digits of USC ID:

Last 4 Digits of USC ID: Chemistry 05 B Practice Exam Dr. Jessica Parr First Letter of last Name PLEASE PRINT YOUR NAME IN BLOCK LETTERS Name: Last 4 Digits of USC ID: Lab TA s Name: Question Points Score Grader 8 2 4 3 9 4 0

More information

Beechwood Music Department Staff

Beechwood Music Department Staff Beechwood Music Department Staff MRS SARAH KERSHAW - HEAD OF MUSIC S a ra h K e rs h a w t r a i n e d a t t h e R oy a l We ls h C o l le g e of M u s i c a n d D ra m a w h e re s h e ob t a i n e d

More information

C o r p o r a t e l i f e i n A n c i e n t I n d i a e x p r e s s e d i t s e l f

C o r p o r a t e l i f e i n A n c i e n t I n d i a e x p r e s s e d i t s e l f C H A P T E R I G E N E S I S A N D GROWTH OF G U IL D S C o r p o r a t e l i f e i n A n c i e n t I n d i a e x p r e s s e d i t s e l f i n a v a r i e t y o f f o r m s - s o c i a l, r e l i g i

More information

Element Cube Project (x2)

Element Cube Project (x2) Element Cube Project (x2) Background: As a class, we will construct a three dimensional periodic table by each student selecting two elements in which you will need to create an element cube. Helpful Links

More information

Speed of light c = m/s. x n e a x d x = 1. 2 n+1 a n π a. He Li Ne Na Ar K Ni 58.

Speed of light c = m/s. x n e a x d x = 1. 2 n+1 a n π a. He Li Ne Na Ar K Ni 58. Physical Chemistry II Test Name: KEY CHEM 464 Spring 18 Chapters 7-11 Average = 1. / 16 6 questions worth a total of 16 points Planck's constant h = 6.63 1-34 J s Speed of light c = 3. 1 8 m/s ħ = h π

More information

Chemistry 2 Exam Roane State Academic Festival. Name (print neatly) School

Chemistry 2 Exam Roane State Academic Festival. Name (print neatly) School Name (print neatly) School There are fifteen question on this exam. Each question is weighted equally. n the answer sheet, write your name in the space provided and your answers in the blanks provided.

More information

02/05/09 Last 4 Digits of USC ID: Dr. Jessica Parr

02/05/09 Last 4 Digits of USC ID: Dr. Jessica Parr Chemistry 05 B First Letter of PLEASE PRINT YOUR NAME IN BLOCK LETTERS Exam last Name Name: 02/05/09 Last 4 Digits of USC ID: Dr. Jessica Parr Lab TA s Name: Question Points Score Grader 2 2 9 3 9 4 2

More information

c. What is the average rate of change of f on the interval [, ]? Answer: d. What is a local minimum value of f? Answer: 5 e. On what interval(s) is f

c. What is the average rate of change of f on the interval [, ]? Answer: d. What is a local minimum value of f? Answer: 5 e. On what interval(s) is f Essential Skills Chapter f ( x + h) f ( x ). Simplifying the difference quotient Section. h f ( x + h) f ( x ) Example: For f ( x) = 4x 4 x, find and simplify completely. h Answer: 4 8x 4 h. Finding the

More information

CHEM 10113, Quiz 5 October 26, 2011

CHEM 10113, Quiz 5 October 26, 2011 CHEM 10113, Quiz 5 October 26, 2011 Name (please print) All equations must be balanced and show phases for full credit. Significant figures count, show charges as appropriate, and please box your answers!

More information

Trade Patterns, Production networks, and Trade and employment in the Asia-US region

Trade Patterns, Production networks, and Trade and employment in the Asia-US region Trade Patterns, Production networks, and Trade and employment in the Asia-U region atoshi Inomata Institute of Developing Economies ETRO Development of cross-national production linkages, 1985-2005 1985

More information

Solutions and Ions. Pure Substances

Solutions and Ions. Pure Substances Class #4 Solutions and Ions CHEM 107 L.S. Brown Texas A&M University Pure Substances Pure substance: described completely by a single chemical formula Fixed composition 1 Mixtures Combination of 2 or more

More information

The Periodic Table. Periodic Properties. Can you explain this graph? Valence Electrons. Valence Electrons. Paramagnetism

The Periodic Table. Periodic Properties. Can you explain this graph? Valence Electrons. Valence Electrons. Paramagnetism Periodic Properties Atomic & Ionic Radius Energy Electron Affinity We want to understand the variations in these properties in terms of electron configurations. The Periodic Table Elements in a column

More information

Table of C on t en t s Global Campus 21 in N umbe r s R e g ional Capac it y D e v e lopme nt in E-L e ar ning Structure a n d C o m p o n en ts R ea

Table of C on t en t s Global Campus 21 in N umbe r s R e g ional Capac it y D e v e lopme nt in E-L e ar ning Structure a n d C o m p o n en ts R ea G Blended L ea r ni ng P r o g r a m R eg i o na l C a p a c i t y D ev elo p m ent i n E -L ea r ni ng H R K C r o s s o r d e r u c a t i o n a n d v e l o p m e n t C o p e r a t i o n 3 0 6 0 7 0 5

More information

2. T H E , ( 7 ) 2 2 ij ij. p i s

2. T H E , ( 7 ) 2 2 ij ij. p i s M O D E L O W A N I E I N Y N I E R S K I E n r 4 7, I S S N 1 8 9 6-7 7 1 X A N A L Y S I S O F T E M P E R A T U R E D I S T R I B U T I O N I N C O M P O S I T E P L A T E S D U R I N G T H E R M A

More information

INSTRUCTIONS: Exam III. November 10, 1999 Lab Section

INSTRUCTIONS: Exam III. November 10, 1999 Lab Section CHEM 1215 Exam III John III. Gelder November 10, 1999 Name TA's Name Lab Section INSTRUCTIONS: 1. This examination consists of a total of 7 different pages. The last page includes a periodic table and

More information

o Alphabet Recitation

o Alphabet Recitation Letter-Sound Inventory (Record Sheet #1) 5-11 o Alphabet Recitation o Alphabet Recitation a b c d e f 9 h a b c d e f 9 h j k m n 0 p q k m n 0 p q r s t u v w x y z r s t u v w x y z 0 Upper Case Letter

More information

8. Relax and do well.

8. Relax and do well. CHEM 1515 Exam II John II. Gelder October 14, 1993 Name TA's Name Lab Section INSTRUCTIONS: 1. This examination consists of a total of 8 different pages. The last two pages include a periodic table, a

More information

5 questions, 3 points each, 15 points total possible. 26 Fe Cu Ni Co Pd Ag Ru 101.

5 questions, 3 points each, 15 points total possible. 26 Fe Cu Ni Co Pd Ag Ru 101. Physical Chemistry II Lab CHEM 4644 spring 2017 final exam KEY 5 questions, 3 points each, 15 points total possible h = 6.626 10-34 J s c = 3.00 10 8 m/s 1 GHz = 10 9 s -1. B= h 8π 2 I ν= 1 2 π k μ 6 P

More information

Lab Day and Time: Instructions. 1. Do not open the exam until you are told to start.

Lab Day and Time: Instructions. 1. Do not open the exam until you are told to start. Name: Lab Day and Time: Instructions 1. Do not open the exam until you are told to start. 2. This exam is closed note and closed book. You are not allowed to use any outside material while taking this

More information

(please print) (1) (18) H IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA He (2) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17)

(please print) (1) (18) H IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA He (2) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) CHEM 10113, Quiz 3 September 28, 2011 Name (please print) All equations must be balanced and show phases for full credit. Significant figures count, show charges as appropriate, and please box your answers!

More information

Chemistry 185 Exam #2 - A November 5, Lab Day and Time: Instructions. 1. Do not open the exam until you are told to start.

Chemistry 185 Exam #2 - A November 5, Lab Day and Time: Instructions. 1. Do not open the exam until you are told to start. Name: Lab Day and Time: Instructions 1. Do not open the exam until you are told to start. 2. This exam is closed note and closed book. You are not allowed to use any outside material while taking this

More information

(C) Pavel Sedach and Prep101 1

(C) Pavel Sedach and Prep101 1 (C) Pavel Sedach and Prep101 1 (C) Pavel Sedach and Prep101 1 (C) Pavel Sedach and Prep101 2 (C) Pavel Sedach and Prep101 2 (C) Pavel Sedach and Prep101 3 (C) Pavel Sedach and Prep101 3 (C) Pavel Sedach

More information

Circle the letters only. NO ANSWERS in the Columns!

Circle the letters only. NO ANSWERS in the Columns! Chemistry 1304.001 Name (please print) Exam 5 (100 points) April 18, 2018 On my honor, I have neither given nor received unauthorized aid on this exam. Signed Date Circle the letters only. NO ANSWERS in

More information

8. Relax and do well.

8. Relax and do well. CHEM 15 Exam II John II. Gelder March 4, 1999 Name TA's Name Lab Section INSTRUCTIONS: 1. This examination consists of a total of 7 different pages. The last two pages includes a periodic table, a solubility

More information

M10/4/CHEMI/SPM/ENG/TZ2/XX+ CHEMISTRY. Wednesday 12 May 2010 (afternoon) 45 minutes INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

M10/4/CHEMI/SPM/ENG/TZ2/XX+ CHEMISTRY. Wednesday 12 May 2010 (afternoon) 45 minutes INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES M10/4/CHEMI/SPM/ENG/TZ/XX+ 106116 CHEMISTRY standard level Paper 1 Wednesday 1 May 010 (afternoon) 45 minutes INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES Do not open this examination paper until instructed to do so. Answer

More information

30 Zn(s) 45 Rh. Pd(s) Ag(s) Cd(s) In(s) Sn(s) white. 77 Ir. Pt(s) Au. Hg(l) Tl. 109 Mt. 111 Uuu. 112 Uub. 110 Uun. 65 Tb. 62 Sm. 64 Gd. 63 Eu.

30 Zn(s) 45 Rh. Pd(s) Ag(s) Cd(s) In(s) Sn(s) white. 77 Ir. Pt(s) Au. Hg(l) Tl. 109 Mt. 111 Uuu. 112 Uub. 110 Uun. 65 Tb. 62 Sm. 64 Gd. 63 Eu. Enthalpy changes: experimentally it is much easier to measure heat flow at const pressure - this is enthalpy q p = )H : also nearly all chemical reactions are done at constant pressure. Enthalpy (heat)

More information

HANDOUT SET GENERAL CHEMISTRY II

HANDOUT SET GENERAL CHEMISTRY II HANDOUT SET GENERAL CHEMISTRY II Periodic Table of the Elements 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 IA VIIIA 1 2 H He 1.00794 IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA 4.00262 3 Li 6.941 11 Na 22.9898

More information

Radiometric Dating (tap anywhere)

Radiometric Dating (tap anywhere) Radiometric Dating (tap anywhere) Protons Neutrons Electrons Elements on the periodic table are STABLE Elements can have radioactive versions of itself called ISOTOPES!! Page 1 in your ESRT has your list!

More information

Atoms and the Periodic Table

Atoms and the Periodic Table Atoms and the Periodic Table Parts of the Atom Proton Found in the nucleus Number of protons defines the element Charge +1, mass 1 Parts of the Atom Neutron Found in the nucleus Stabilizes the nucleus

More information

Guide to the Extended Step-Pyramid Periodic Table

Guide to the Extended Step-Pyramid Periodic Table Guide to the Extended Step-Pyramid Periodic Table William B. Jensen Department of Chemistry University of Cincinnati Cincinnati, OH 452201-0172 The extended step-pyramid table recognizes that elements

More information

8. Relax and do well.

8. Relax and do well. CHEM 1215 Exam III John III. Gelder November 11, 1998 Name TA's Name Lab Section INSTRUCTIONS: 1. This examination consists of a total of 7 different pages. The last page includes a periodic table and

More information

Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST D

Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST D Lesson eight What are characteristics of chemical reactions? Science Constructing Explanations, Engaging in Argument and Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS Reading

More information

8. Relax and do well.

8. Relax and do well. CHEM 1314 3;30 pm Theory Exam III John III. Gelder November 13, 2002 Name TA's Name Lab Section INSTRUCTIONS: 1. This examination consists of a total of 8 different pages. The last page include a periodic

More information

Secondary Support Pack. be introduced to some of the different elements within the periodic table;

Secondary Support Pack. be introduced to some of the different elements within the periodic table; Secondary Support Pack INTRODUCTION The periodic table of the elements is central to chemistry as we know it today and the study of it is a key part of every student s chemical education. By playing the

More information

CHM 101 PRACTICE TEST 1 Page 1 of 4

CHM 101 PRACTICE TEST 1 Page 1 of 4 CHM 101 PRACTICE TEST 1 Page 1 of 4 Please show calculations (stuffed equations) on all mathematical problems!! On the actual test, "naked answers, with no work shown, will receive no credit even if correct.

More information

Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST D

Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.WHST D Lesson seven What is a chemical reaction? Science Constructing Explanations, Engaging in Argument and Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS Reading Informational Text,

More information

Made the FIRST periodic table

Made the FIRST periodic table Made the FIRST periodic table 1869 Mendeleev organized the periodic table based on the similar properties and relativities of certain elements Later, Henri Moseley organized the elements by increasing

More information

What is the periodic table?

What is the periodic table? The periodic table of the elements represents one of the greatest discoveries in the history of science that certain elements, the basic chemical substances from which all matter is made, resemble each

More information

Lab Day and Time: Instructions. 1. Do not open the exam until you are told to start.

Lab Day and Time: Instructions. 1. Do not open the exam until you are told to start. Name: Lab Day and Time: Instructions 1. Do not open the exam until you are told to start. 2. This exam is closed note and closed book. You are not allowed to use any outside material while taking this

More information

Circle the letters only. NO ANSWERS in the Columns! (3 points each)

Circle the letters only. NO ANSWERS in the Columns! (3 points each) Chemistry 1304.001 Name (please print) Exam 4 (100 points) April 12, 2017 On my honor, I have neither given nor received unauthorized aid on this exam. Signed Date Circle the letters only. NO ANSWERS in

More information

8. Relax and do well.

8. Relax and do well. CHEM 1225 Exam III John III. Gelder April 8, 1999 Name TA's Name Lab Section INSTRUCTIONS: 1. This examination consists of a total of 7 different pages. The last two pages includes a periodic table and

More information

CHEM 108 (Spring-2008) Exam. 3 (105 pts)

CHEM 108 (Spring-2008) Exam. 3 (105 pts) CHEM 08 (Spring-008) Exam. (05 pts) Name: --------------------------------------------------------------------------, CLID # -------------------------------- LAST NAME, First (Circle the alphabet segment

More information

Dangote Flour Mills Plc

Dangote Flour Mills Plc SUMMARY OF OFFER Opening Date 6 th September 27 Closing Date 27 th September 27 Shares on Offer 1.25bn Ord. Shares of 5k each Offer Price Offer Size Market Cap (Post Offer) Minimum Offer N15. per share

More information

2 tel

2   tel Us. Timeless, sophisticated wall decor that is classic yet modern. Our style has no limitations; from traditional to contemporar y, with global design inspiration. The attention to detail and hand- craf

More information

Chemistry 1 First Lecture Exam Fall Abbasi Khajo Levine Mathias Mathias/Ortiz Metlitsky Rahi Sanchez-Delgado Vasserman

Chemistry 1 First Lecture Exam Fall Abbasi Khajo Levine Mathias Mathias/Ortiz Metlitsky Rahi Sanchez-Delgado Vasserman Chemistry 1 First Lecture Exam Fall 2011 Page 1 of 9 NAME Circle the name of your recitation/lab instructor(s) Abbasi Khajo Levine Mathias Mathias/Ortiz Metlitsky Rahi Sanchez-Delgado Vasserman Before

More information

ORBITAL DIAGRAM - A graphical representation of the quantum number "map" of electrons around an atom.

ORBITAL DIAGRAM - A graphical representation of the quantum number map of electrons around an atom. 178 (MAGNETIC) SPIN QUANTUM NUMBER: "spin down" or "spin up" - An ORBITAL (region with fixed "n", "l" and "ml" values) can hold TWO electrons. ORBITAL DIAGRAM - A graphical representation of the quantum

More information

Ch. 9 NOTES ~ Chemical Bonding NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics.

Ch. 9 NOTES ~ Chemical Bonding NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics. Ch. 9 NOTES ~ Chemical Bonding NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics. I. Review: Comparison of ionic and molecular compounds Molecular compounds Ionic

More information

CHEM 10123/10125, Exam 2

CHEM 10123/10125, Exam 2 CHEM 10123/10125, Exam 2 March 7, 2012 (50 minutes) Name (please print) Please box your answers, and remember that significant figures, phases (for chemical equations), and units do count! 1. (13 points)

More information

CMSC 313 Lecture 17 Postulates & Theorems of Boolean Algebra Semiconductors CMOS Logic Gates

CMSC 313 Lecture 17 Postulates & Theorems of Boolean Algebra Semiconductors CMOS Logic Gates CMSC 313 Lecture 17 Postulates & Theorems of Boolean Algebra Semiconductors CMOS Logic Gates UMBC, CMSC313, Richard Chang Last Time Overview of second half of this course Logic gates &

More information

Physical Chemistry I CHEM 4641 Final Exam 13 questions, 30 points

Physical Chemistry I CHEM 4641 Final Exam 13 questions, 30 points Physical Chemistry I CHEM 4641 Final Exam 13 questions, 30 points Name: KEY Gas constant: R = 8.314 J mol -1 K -1 = 0.008314 kj mol -1 K -1. Boltzmann constant k = 1.381 10-23 J/K = 0.6950 cm -1 /K h =

More information

Advanced Placement. Chemistry. Integrated Rates

Advanced Placement. Chemistry. Integrated Rates Advanced Placement Chemistry Integrated Rates 204 47.90 9.22 78.49 (26) 50.94 92.9 80.95 (262) 52.00 93.94 83.85 (263) 54.938 (98) 86.2 (262) 55.85 0. 90.2 (265) 58.93 02.9 92.2 (266) H Li Na K Rb Cs Fr

More information

The Periodic Table of Elements

The Periodic Table of Elements The Periodic Table of Elements 8 Uuo Uus Uuh (9) Uup (88) Uuq (89) Uut (8) Uub (8) Rg () 0 Ds (9) 09 Mt (8) 08 Hs (9) 0 h () 0 Sg () 0 Db () 0 Rf () 0 Lr () 88 Ra () 8 Fr () 8 Rn () 8 At (0) 8 Po (09)

More information

CLASS TEST GRADE 11. PHYSICAL SCIENCES: CHEMISTRY Test 4: Matter and materials 1

CLASS TEST GRADE 11. PHYSICAL SCIENCES: CHEMISTRY Test 4: Matter and materials 1 CLASS TEST GRADE PHYSICAL SCIENCES: CHEMISTRY Test 4: Matter and materials MARKS: 45 TIME: hour INSTRUCTIONS AND INFORMATION. Answer ALL the questions. 2. You may use non-programmable calculators. 3. You

More information

MANY ELECTRON ATOMS Chapter 15

MANY ELECTRON ATOMS Chapter 15 MANY ELECTRON ATOMS Chapter 15 Electron-Electron Repulsions (15.5-15.9) The hydrogen atom Schrödinger equation is exactly solvable yielding the wavefunctions and orbitals of chemistry. Howev er, the Schrödinger

More information

CHEM 130 Exp. 8: Molecular Models

CHEM 130 Exp. 8: Molecular Models CHEM 130 Exp. 8: Molecular Models In this lab, we will learn and practice predicting molecular structures from molecular formulas. The Periodic Table of the Elements IA 1 H IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA 3 5

More information

4.01 Elements, Symbols and Periodic Table

4.01 Elements, Symbols and Periodic Table .0 Elements, Symbols and Periodic Table Dr. Fred O. Garces Chemistry 00 Miramar College.0 Elements, symbols and the Periodic Table Aug The Elements: Building block of Matter The periodic table of the chemical

More information

7. Relax and do well.

7. Relax and do well. CHEM 1215 Exam II John II. Gelder October 7, 1998 Name TA's Name Lab Section INSTRUCTIONS: 1. This examination consists of a total of 5 different pages. The last page includes a periodic table and a solubility

More information

If anything confuses you or is not clear, raise your hand and ask!

If anything confuses you or is not clear, raise your hand and ask! CHM 1045 Dr. Light s Section December 10, 2002 FINAL EXAM Name (please print) Recitation Section Meeting Time This exam consists of six pages. Make sure you have one of each. Print your name at the top

More information

PART 1 Introduction to Theory of Solids

PART 1 Introduction to Theory of Solids Elsevier UK Job code: MIOC Ch01-I044647 9-3-2007 3:03p.m. Page:1 Trim:165 240MM TS: Integra, India PART 1 Introduction to Theory of Solids Elsevier UK Job code: MIOC Ch01-I044647 9-3-2007 3:03p.m. Page:2

More information

7. Relax and do well.

7. Relax and do well. CHEM 1215 Exam II John II. Gelder October 13, 1999 Name TA's Name Lab Section INSTRUCTIONS: 1. This examination consists of a total of 5 different pages. The last page includes a periodic table and a solubility

More information

PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS

PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS Useful Constants and equations: K = o C + 273 Avogadro's number = 6.022 x 10 23 d = density = mass/volume R H = 2.178 x 10-18 J c = E = h = hc/ h = 6.626 x 10-34 J s c = 2.998 x 10 8 m/s E n = -R H Z 2

More information

Nucleus. Electron Cloud

Nucleus. Electron Cloud Atomic Structure I. Picture of an Atom Nucleus Electron Cloud II. Subatomic particles Particle Symbol Charge Relative Mass (amu) protons p + +1 1.0073 neutrons n 0 1.0087 electrons e - -1 0.00054858 Compare

More information

Agenda Rationale for ETG S eek ing I d eas ETG fram ew ork and res u lts 2

Agenda Rationale for ETG S eek ing I d eas ETG fram ew ork and res u lts 2 Internal Innovation @ C is c o 2 0 0 6 C i s c o S y s t e m s, I n c. A l l r i g h t s r e s e r v e d. C i s c o C o n f i d e n t i a l 1 Agenda Rationale for ETG S eek ing I d eas ETG fram ew ork

More information

K. 27 Co. 28 Ni. 29 Cu Rb. 46 Pd. 45 Rh. 47 Ag Cs Ir. 78 Pt.

K. 27 Co. 28 Ni. 29 Cu Rb. 46 Pd. 45 Rh. 47 Ag Cs Ir. 78 Pt. 1 IA 1 ydrogen 1.01 Atomic number Element symbol Element name Atomic mass VIIIA 1 1.01 IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA 2 e 4.00 Metalloids 3 Li 6.94 4 Be 9.01 5 B 10.81 6 C 12.01 7 N 14.01 8 O 16.00 9 F 19.00

More information

Chemistry 431 Practice Final Exam Fall Hours

Chemistry 431 Practice Final Exam Fall Hours Chemistry 431 Practice Final Exam Fall 2018 3 Hours R =8.3144 J mol 1 K 1 R=.0821 L atm mol 1 K 1 R=.08314 L bar mol 1 K 1 k=1.381 10 23 J molecule 1 K 1 h=6.626 10 34 Js N A = 6.022 10 23 molecules mol

More information

Chapter 12 The Atom & Periodic Table- part 2

Chapter 12 The Atom & Periodic Table- part 2 Chapter 12 The Atom & Periodic Table- part 2 Electrons found outside the nucleus; negatively charged Protons found in the nucleus; positive charge equal in magnitude to the electron s negative charge Neutrons

More information

Instructions. 1. Do not open the exam until you are told to start.

Instructions. 1. Do not open the exam until you are told to start. Name: Lab Day and Time: Instructions 1. Do not open the exam until you are told to start. 2. This exam is closed note and closed book. You are not allowed to use any outside material while taking this

More information

The Periodic Table of the Elements

The Periodic Table of the Elements The Periodic Table of the Elements All matter is composed of elements. All of the elements are composed of atoms. An atom is the smallest part of an element which still retains the properties of that element.

More information

THIS PAGE DECLASSIFIED IAW E

THIS PAGE DECLASSIFIED IAW E THS PAGE DECLASSFED AW E0 2958 BL K THS PAGE DECLASSFED AW E0 2958 THS PAGE DECLASSFED AW E0 2958 B L K THS PAGE DECLASSFED AW E0 2958 THS PAGE DECLASSFED AW EO 2958 THS PAGE DECLASSFED AW EO 2958 THS

More information

1 Genesis 1:1. Chapter 10 Matter. Lesson. Genesis 1:1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. (NKJV)

1 Genesis 1:1. Chapter 10 Matter. Lesson. Genesis 1:1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. (NKJV) 1 Genesis 1:1 Genesis 1:1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. (NKJV) 1 Vocabulary Saturated having all the solute that can be dissolved at that temperature Neutron a particle with no

More information

INSTRUCTIONS: CHEM Exam I. September 13, 1994 Lab Section

INSTRUCTIONS: CHEM Exam I. September 13, 1994 Lab Section CHEM 1314.05 Exam I John I. Gelder September 13, 1994 Name TA's Name Lab Section Please sign your name below to give permission to post, by the last 4 digits of your student I.D. number, your course scores

More information

Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences Chemistry Department. Semester Test 1. Analytical Chemistry CMY 283. Time: 120 min Marks: 100 Pages: 6

Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences Chemistry Department. Semester Test 1. Analytical Chemistry CMY 283. Time: 120 min Marks: 100 Pages: 6 Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences Chemistry Department Semester Test 1 Analytical Chemistry CMY 283 Date: 5 September 2016 Lecturers : Prof P Forbes, Dr Laurens, Mr SA Nsibande Time: 120 min

More information

610B Final Exam Cover Page

610B Final Exam Cover Page 1 st Letter of Last Name NAME: 610B Final Exam Cover Page No notes or calculators of any sort allowed. You have 3 hours to complete the exam. CHEM 610B, 50995 Final Exam Fall 2003 Instructor: Dr. Brian

More information

NAME: FIRST EXAMINATION

NAME: FIRST EXAMINATION 1 Chemistry 64 Winter 1994 NAME: FIRST EXAMINATION THIS EXAMINATION IS WORTH 100 POINTS AND CONTAINS 4 (FOUR) QUESTIONS THEY ARE NOT EQUALLY WEIGHTED! YOU SHOULD ATTEMPT ALL QUESTIONS AND ALLOCATE YOUR

More information

Fall 2011 CHEM Test 4, Form A

Fall 2011 CHEM Test 4, Form A Fall 2011 CHEM 1110.40413 Test 4, Form A Part I. Multiple Choice: Clearly circle the best answer. (60 pts) Name: 1. The common constituent in all acid solutions is A) H 2 SO 4 B) H 2 C) H + D) OH 2. Which

More information

8. Relax and do well.

8. Relax and do well. CHEM 1314.03 Exam I John I. Gelder September 25, 1997 Name TA's Name Lab Section Please sign your name below to give permission to post, by the last 4 digits of your student I.D. number, your course scores

More information

Why all the repeating Why all the repeating Why all the repeating Why all the repeating

Why all the repeating Why all the repeating Why all the repeating Why all the repeating Why all the repeating Why all the repeating Why all the repeating Why all the repeating Patterns What Patterns have you observed in your life? Where to Get Help If you don t understand concepts in chapter

More information

M11/4/CHEMI/SPM/ENG/TZ2/XX CHEMISTRY STANDARD LEVEL PAPER 1. Monday 9 May 2011 (afternoon) 45 minutes INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

M11/4/CHEMI/SPM/ENG/TZ2/XX CHEMISTRY STANDARD LEVEL PAPER 1. Monday 9 May 2011 (afternoon) 45 minutes INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES M11/4/CHEMI/SPM/ENG/TZ/XX 116116 CHEMISTRY STANDARD LEVEL PAPER 1 Monday 9 May 011 (afternoon) 45 minutes INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES Do not open this examination paper until instructed to do so. Answer

More information

Using the Periodic Table

Using the Periodic Table MATH SKILLS TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET Using the Periodic Table 6 Use with Chapter 6, Section 6.2 1. Identify the number of valence electrons in each of the following elements. a. Ne e. O b. K f. Cl c. B g.

More information

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS 48 CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS - Dalton's theory does not mention this, but there is more than one way for atoms to come together to make chemical compounds! - There are TWO common kinds of chemical compound, classified

More information

PROOF/ÉPREUVE ISO INTERNATIONAL STANDARD. Space environment (natural and artificial) Galactic cosmic ray model

PROOF/ÉPREUVE ISO INTERNATIONAL STANDARD. Space environment (natural and artificial) Galactic cosmic ray model INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 15390 First edition 2004-##-## Space environment (natural and artificial) Galactic cosmic ray model Environnement spatial (naturel et artificiel) Modèle de rayonnement cosmique

More information

Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences Chemistry Department. Semester Test 1 MEMO. Analytical Chemistry CMY 283

Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences Chemistry Department. Semester Test 1 MEMO. Analytical Chemistry CMY 283 Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences Chemistry Department Semester Test 1 MEMO Analytical Chemistry CMY 283 Date: 5 September 2016 Lecturers : Prof P Forbes, Dr Laurens, Mr SA Nsibande Time: 90

More information

Ash Wednesday. First Introit thing. * Dómi- nos. di- di- nos, tú- ré- spi- Ps. ne. Dó- mi- Sál- vum. intra-vé-runt. Gló- ri-

Ash Wednesday. First Introit thing. * Dómi- nos. di- di- nos, tú- ré- spi- Ps. ne. Dó- mi- Sál- vum. intra-vé-runt. Gló- ri- sh Wdsdy 7 gn mult- tú- st Frst Intrt thng X-áud m. ns ní- m-sr-cór- Ps. -qu Ptr - m- Sál- vum m * usqu 1 d fc á-rum sp- m-sr-t- ó- num Gló- r- Fí- l- Sp-rí- : quó-n- m ntr-vé-runt á- n-mm c * m- quó-n-

More information

VIIIA H PREDICTING CHARGE

VIIIA H PREDICTING CHARGE 58 IA PREDICTING CHARGE VIIIA H IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA You can reliably determine the charge using our method for Groups IA, IIA, IIIB, Aluminum, and the Group VA, VIA, and VIIA NONMETALS Li Be B C N

More information

8. Relax and do well.

8. Relax and do well. CHEM 1225 Exam I John I. Gelder February 4, 1999 Name KEY TA's Name Lab Section Please sign your name below to give permission to post your course scores on homework, laboratories and exams. If you do

More information

Unit 1 Part 2 Atomic Structure and The Periodic Table Introduction to the Periodic Table UNIT 1 ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND THE PERIODIC TABLE

Unit 1 Part 2 Atomic Structure and The Periodic Table Introduction to the Periodic Table UNIT 1 ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND THE PERIODIC TABLE UNIT 1 ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND THE PERIODIC TABLE PART 2 INTRODUCTION TO THE PERIODIC TABLE Contents 1. The Structure of the Periodic Table 2. Trends in the Periodic Table Key words: group, period, block,

More information