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1 CHAPTER 7 LESSON 1: FORMS OF ENERGY Potential Energy Stored Energy Energy Kinetic Potential Work What is Energy? Mechanical Sound Thermal Electric Radiant Nuclear Potential is stored due to the interactions between objects or particles. The gravitational potential stored between and object and Earth depends on the object s weight and height. Elastic potential is stored in objects that are compressed or stretched. Chemical potential is stored in the chemical bonds between atoms. Energy is the ability to cause change. Energy can cause changes in the motions of objects. Energy and Work Kinetic Energy Energy of Motion Kinetic is due to motion. All moving objects have kinetic. The faster and object moves, the more kinetic it has. Work is the transfer of that occurs when a force is applied over a distance. Work depends on both force and distance. You only do work on an object if that object moves. If two objects move at the same speed, the object with more mass has more kinetic. The kinetic (KE) of an object depends on its speed and its mass. The vertical bars in the picture below show the kinetic of each vehicle. The girl does work on the boxes as she lifts it. The work she does transfers to the box. The colored bars show the work that the girl does (W) and the box s potential (PE). All can be measured in joules (J).

2 Forms of Energy: CHAPTER 7 LESSON 2: ENERGY TRANSFORMATIONS Mechanical : the total of an object or group of objects due to large-scale motions and interactions. o The mechanical of a basketball increases when a player shoots the ball. However, the mechanical of a pot of water does not increase when you hear the water. Sound : the that sound carries. o When you pluck a guitar string, the string vibrates and produces sound. Vibrating objects emit sound. However, sound cannot travel through a vacuum such as the space between Earth and the Sun. Thermal : due to the motion of particles that make up an object. o All objects and materials are made of particles that are always moving. Because these particles move, they have. o Thermal moves from warmer objects to colder objects. When you heat objects, you transfer thermal to those objects from their surroundings. Electric : the that an electric current carries. o Electric appliances, such as fans and dishwashers, change electric into other forms of. Radiant : the that electromagnetic waves carry. o The Sun gives off that travels to Earth as electromagnetic waves. Unlike sound waves, electromagnetic waves can travel through a vacuum. o Light waves, microwaves, and radio waves are all electromagnetic waves. o Sometimes radiant is called light. Nuclear : that is stored in the nucleus of an atom. o At the center of every atom is a nucleus. o In the Sun, nuclear is released when nuclei join together. o In a nuclear power plant, nuclear is released when the nuclei of uranium atoms are split apart. Law of conservation of Friction Changes between Forms of Energy The changes from one type of to another type of are called transformations. A microwave oven changes electric into radiant. 1. Electric flows from electric outlet through power cord into microwave. 2. Microwave changes electric into microwaves that carry radiant to the popcorn. 3. Radiant is converted to thermal as the popcorn absorbs the waves, causing the popcorn to get hot and pop.

3 Changes between Kinetic and Potential Energy Energy changes between kinetic (KE) and potential (PE) when a ball is thrown and moved upward and then downward. As the ball moved upward, its speed and kinetic decrease, but the potential is increasing because the ball s height is increasing. At the ball s highest point, the gravitational potential is the greatest, and the ball s kinetic is the least. As the ball moves downward, potential decreases. At the same time, the ball s kinetic increases. When the ball reaches the player s hand again, its kinetic is at a maximum value again. The Law of Conservation of Energy According to the law of conservation of, can be transferred from one form into another or transferred from one region to another, but cannot be created or destroyed. Friction is a force that resists the sliding of two surfaces that are touching. Friction and the Law of Conservation of Energy What happens to mechanical when you apply the bicycle brakes and the bicycle stops? A moving bicycle has mechanical. When you apply the brakes, the bicycle s mechanical is not destroyed. The mechanical is transformed into thermal. Friction between the brake and moving wheel transforms mechanical into thermal. There is always friction between any two surfaces that are rubbing against each other.

4 Using Energy CHAPTER 7 LESSON 3: THERMAL ENERGY ON THE MOVE When you use, you usually change it from one form into another. All forms of can be transformed into thermal. Heat Conduction Thermal conductor Thermal insulator Convection Radiation During photosynthesis, a plant transforms the Sun s radiant into chemical that it stores in chemical compounds. Heat When changes form, some thermal is always released. Scientists often refer to thermal that cannot be used as waste. Whenever is used, some is transformed into waste. Heat is thermal moving from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature. Objects contain thermal, not heat The movement of thermal causes changes in temperature. Two objects in contact with each other at the same temperature are said to be in thermal equilibrium. Conduction Conduction is the transfer of thermal due to collisions between particles in matter. Conduction occurs in solids, liquids, and gases. When faster-moving particles collide with nearby particles as slower speeds, thermal is transferred. A material in which thermal moves quickly is called a thermal conductor. Solids are better thermal conductors than liquids and gases. Most metals are excellent thermal conductors. A material in which thermal moves slowly is a thermal insulator. A winter coat filled with an air-trapping material is a good example of a thermal insulator.

5 Convection Convection is the transfer of thermal by the movement of particles from one part of a material to another. Convection occurs in liquids and gases. Begins when part of a liquid or gas becomes warmer than the rest of it. The cooler, denser liquid or gas falls, pushing the warmer, less dense liquid or gas to the top. Radiation Radiation is the transfer of thermal from one object to another by electromagnetic waves. Radiation transfers thermal through matter or through space, where no matter exists. Occurs between objects that are not in contact. All objects give off electromagnetic waves, but most are not visible. Extremely hot objects emit visible light. Electromagnetic waves carry and radiation transfers this thermal from objects at higher temperatures to objects at lower temperatures. 1. Thermal from the burner is transferred into water by conduction. 2. Thermal is transferred out of hot water by radiation and conduction. 3. Cycles of rising and sinking water transfer thermal throughout water by convection.

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