An overview of the Hydraulics of Water Distribution Networks

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "An overview of the Hydraulics of Water Distribution Networks" Transcription

1 An overview of the Hydraulics of Water Distribution Networks June 21, 2017 by, P.E. Senior Water Resources Specialist, Santa Clara Valley Water District Adjunct Faculty, San José State University 1

2 Outline Pressurized vs. open-channel flow in closed conduits Uniform vs. nonuniform flow & steady vs. unsteady flow Conservation of mass principle Conservation of energy principle: Friction and minor headlosses What about HGL and EGL? Water distribution network analysis Software for steady-state analysis and extended-period simulations Pumps and turbines Hydraulic transients (surge analysis) Hydraulic transients software References Contact information Q&A session 2

3 Pressurized vs. open-channel flow in closed conduits Pressurized flow Open-channel flow Driven by head differential and/or pump(s) Reynolds number (Re): Laminar, transition zone or wholly turbulent Friction loss: Darcy-Weisbach s, Hazen-Williams or Chezy s equation Gravity driven Froude Number (Fr): Subcritical, critical or supercritical flow Friction loss: Manning s equation 3

4 Reynolds Number Reynolds Number (ratio of inertia force to viscous force) V = velocity (m/s or ft/sec) D = pipe diameter (m or ft) = density of fluid (Kg/m 3 or lbm/ft 3 ) = dynamic viscosity of fluid (N.s/m 2 or lbf.s/ft 2 ) = kinematic viscosity (m 2 /s or ft 2 /s) Re VD VD 4

5 Laminar vs. turbulent flow Re < 2,000: laminar flow Re from 4,000 to 800,000,000 (or more): turbulent flow (transition zone and wholly turbulent zone) 5

6 Moody Diagram 6

7 Uniform vs. Nonuniform Flow & Steady vs. Unsteady Flow Uniform flow: Constant flow characteristics (like velocity) with respect to space Nonuniform flow, like in the case of changing pipe size Steady flow: Constant flow characteristics with respect to time. Steady flow is considered when designing a pipe network (looking for pressures at certain locations and velocities in the pipes) Consider unsteady (transient) phenomena to refine the design (pipe pressure class and thickness) 7

8 Conservation of Mass Principle In a control volume: ds In Out dt (change in storage over time = inflow outflow) For steady & incompressible flow: ds/dt = 0, continuity equation becomes: In = Out (inflow = outflow) i.e., Q in = Q out 8

9 Conservation of Mass Principle Continuity equation applied to a pipe junction: Q 1 + Q 2 = Q 3 + Q 4 9

10 Conservation of Energy Principle In pipeline design, most often consider steady-state flow (does not vary with time). Energy equation is written as: p 1 V 2 z h p V pump 2 2g 2 2g z h turbine h losses Steady-state Bernoulli s Equation (no head loss nor gain) along a streamline: p 1 V 2 g + 1 2g + 1 z = p2 V 2 g + 2 2g + z 2 10

12 Friction Headloss Friction loss results from friction between the fluid and pipe wall The most useful headloss equation for pressurized pipe flow is the Darcy-Weisbach equation: Friction headloss L V f hlf D 2g Dimensionless friction coefficient Pipe length Pipe diameter 2 Pipe velocity Gravitational acceleration 12

13 Minor Headloss Minor headloss can be caused by the presence of a valve in the network, entrance to a pipe from a reservoir, exit to a tank, bend in the pipe, elbow, pipe expansion, pipe contraction (reducer), or other fittings Use a minor headloss coefficient (K) in the following minor headloss expression: 2 K V hlm 2 g 13

14 Minor Loss 14

15 Valves A large butterfly valve shown as partially open Headloss coefficient (K) for a butterfly valve (Bosserman and Hunt, 1998) K V g hlm 2 2 When K is very large, minor headloss could become larger than the major (friction) headloss. So the word minor is a misnomer 15

16 What about HGL and EGL? The Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) system records and reports on a screen various parameters data for a pipe network, a treatment plant, etc. Parameters such as: flow, pressure and hydraulic grade line (HGL) 16

17 EGL = p/ + z + V 2 /2g HGL = p/ + z What about HGL and EGL? Test your knowledge: What does the distance between the two arrows at Profile X represent? What does h refer to? Does the Box represent a pump or a turbine? Is the flow (discharge) in the pipeline going from left to right or vice versa? Explain your answer. 17

18 Water Distribution Network Analysis Source: Reference # 1 For the simple network shown above with 5 unknown flow values in the 5 pipes, we need to solve 5 equations. These are: 3 linear continuity equations at 3 junctions, and 2 nonlinear energy equations along 2 paths. Solution of a nonlinear system of 5 equations is not straightforward 18

19 Water Distribution Network Analysis Hardy-Cross Method, 1936 (manual technique only suitable for small networks) Numerical Methods (like Newton-Raphson technique) use iterations but are prone to problems of diverging solutions Linearization Method (approximation) Perturbation Method (Basha & Kassab, 1996), a direct, mathematical solution: Source: Reference # 1 19

20 Software for steady-state analysis & extended-period simulations (EPS) Hydraulic modeling software use numerical algorithms to obtain the steady-state solution for a water distribution network EPS: used for water quality analysis (water age, contaminant tracing). EPS is simply a series of steady-solutions over time Free software: EPANET Commercial software (H2ONET, InfoMAP, WaterCAD, WaterGEMS, etc.) give same results as EPANET but have additional bells and whistles. Some have better graphic user interface (GUI), others work in a GIS environment or can have an add-on surge software. 20

21 Skeletonizing a Water Distribution Network The raw water distribution system of Santa Clara Valley Water District was modeled using H2ONET 21

22 Pumps and Turbines Pumps and valves are easily modeled using commercial software But it is important to have a solid understanding of pump curves, operating point concept, and pump efficiency 22

23 Pumps Pump characteristic curve (pump head hp vs. flow Q): originally provided by manufacturer, then updated by technicians/engineers who calibrate the pump regularly System curve: hp vs. Q as obtained from energy equation. Note that system curve changes every time conditions change (like tank level fluctuates) Operating point: where the 2 curves meet Operating point is not always point of best (maximum) efficiency Source: Reference # 2 23

24 Finding the Pump Operating Point System curve (a parabolic equation) for the case of a pump on a pipe connecting two reservoirs/tanks: h pump ( z z ) 1 2 h Lf h Lm 24

25 Pumps in Series & Pumps in Parallel For pumps in series: Pump head (hp) adds up but the flow Q remains constant For pumps in parallel: Flow (Q) adds up but pump head hp remains the same 25

26 Pump Power and Efficiency Hydraulic power of a pump = Q hp Etotal = overall (total) pump efficiency = output power / input power = Hydraulic power / electric power Etotal = Eo. Emotor. Epump 26

27 Turbines Hydraulic power of a turbine = Q ht ET = Overall turbine efficiency = ouput power / input power = electric power / hydraulic power 27

28 Hydraulic Transients (Surge Analysis) Hydraulic transients (aka waterhammers) are caused by a sudden opening or closure of a valve, starting or stopping a pump or a turbine, or accidental events, like power outage. Source: Reference # 3 28

29 Hydraulic Transients (Surge Analysis) Solution by: Arithmetic Method (Joukowski, 1904), approximation Method of Characteristics (MOC), most popular Wave-Plan Analysis Method (Wood et al., 1966) Linear methods (approximation) Perturbation Method (Basha & Kassab, 1996), direct, mathematical solution (Reference 3) Diagram representing the solution of a waterhammer problem by the MOC 29

30 Hydraulic Transients (Surge Analysis) The solution by the Perturbation Method (a direct, mathematical approach) matches very well with the numerical MOC Pressure head at the valve, as obtained by the Perturbation Method, for the cases of instantaneous, linear and exponential valve closure scenarios and their comparison to the numerical solution by the MOC Source: Reference # 3 30

31 Hydraulic Transients (Surge Analysis) Another valve closure case: Solution by Wave Characteristic Method matches with MOC Source: Reference # 4 31

32 Hydraulic Transients (Surge Analysis) To prevent transients: Slowly open and close of valves Properly close of fire hydrants Use pump controls to ramp pump speed up and down Lower pipeline velocities To control maximum and/or minimum pressures: Use surge tanks; air chambers; one-way tanks; pump bypass valves; relief valves; air inlet valves Source: Reference # 4 32

33 Hydraulic Transients Software Many software programs on the market. They rely on numerical methods to solve the waterhammer equations Innovyze (previosuly MWH Soft) has: H2OSurge program (an add-on to H2ONET), and InfoSurge (add-on to InfoWater, in GIS environment) 33

34 References 1. H. A. Basha and B. G. Kassab, Analysis of water distribution systems using a perturbation method. Applied Mathematical Modelling, 1996, 20 (4), Advanced Water Distribution Modeling and Management. Haestad Methods, Waterbury, Connecticut, H. A. Basha and B. G. Kassab, A perturbation solution to the transient pipe flow problem. Journal of Hydraulic Research, 1996, 34 (5), Pressure Wave Analysis of Transient Flow in Pipe Distribution Systems. D. Wood, S. Lingireddy and P. Boulos, MWH Soft, Pasadena, California,

35 Contact Information Webpage: Q&A session 35

Hydraulics for Urban Storm Drainage Urban Hydraulics Hydraulics for Urban Storm Drainage Learning objectives: understanding of basic concepts of fluid flow and how to analyze conduit flows, free surface flows. to analyze, hydrostatic pressure

Chapter (3) Water Flow in Pipes Chapter (3) Water Flow in Pipes Water Flow in Pipes Bernoulli Equation Recall fluid mechanics course, the Bernoulli equation is: P 1 ρg + v 1 g + z 1 = P ρg + v g + z h P + h T + h L Here, we want to study

FACULTY OF CHEMICAL & ENERGY ENGINEERING FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY TITLE OF EXPERIMENT: MINOR LOSSES IN PIPE (E4) FACULTY OF CHEMICAL & ENERGY ENGINEERING FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY TITLE OF EXPERIMENT: MINOR LOSSES IN PIPE (E4) 1 1.0 Objectives The objective of this experiment is to calculate loss coefficient (K

Lesson 6 Review of fundamentals: Fluid flow Lesson 6 Review of fundamentals: Fluid flow The specific objective of this lesson is to conduct a brief review of the fundamentals of fluid flow and present: A general equation for conservation of mass

Review of pipe flow: Friction & Minor Losses ENVE 204 Lecture -1 Review of pipe flow: Friction & Minor Losses Assist. Prof. Neslihan SEMERCİ Marmara University Department of Environmental Engineering Important Definitions Pressure Pipe Flow: Refers

FE Fluids Review March 23, 2012 Steve Burian (Civil & Environmental Engineering) Topic: Fluid Properties 1. If 6 m 3 of oil weighs 47 kn, calculate its specific weight, density, and specific gravity. 2. 10.0 L of an incompressible liquid exert a force of 20 N at the earth s surface.

Chapter 3 Water Flow in Pipes The Islamic University o Gaza Faculty o Engineering Civil Engineering Department Hydraulics - ECI 33 Chapter 3 Water Flow in Pipes 3. Description o A Pipe Flow Water pipes in our homes and the distribution

1-Reynold s Experiment Lect.No.8 2 nd Semester Flow Dynamics in Closed Conduit (Pipe Flow) 1 of 21 The flow in closed conduit ( flow in pipe ) is differ from this occur in open channel where the flow in pipe is at a pressure

Hydraulics and hydrology Hydraulics and hydrology - project exercises - Class 4 and 5 Pipe flow Discharge (Q) (called also as the volume flow rate) is the volume of fluid that passes through an area per unit time. The discharge

EXPERIMENT No.1 FLOW MEASUREMENT BY ORIFICEMETER EXPERIMENT No.1 FLOW MEASUREMENT BY ORIFICEMETER 1.1 AIM: To determine the co-efficient of discharge of the orifice meter 1.2 EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED: Orifice meter test rig, Stopwatch 1.3 PREPARATION 1.3.1

Hydraulics. B.E. (Civil), Year/Part: II/II. Tutorial solutions: Pipe flow. Tutorial 1 Hydraulics B.E. (Civil), Year/Part: II/II Tutorial solutions: Pipe flow Tutorial 1 -by Dr. K.N. Dulal Laminar flow 1. A pipe 200mm in diameter and 20km long conveys oil of density 900 kg/m 3 and viscosity

STEADY FLOW THROUGH PIPES DARCY WEISBACH EQUATION FOR FLOW IN PIPES. HAZEN WILLIAM S FORMULA, LOSSES IN PIPELINES, HYDRAULIC GRADE LINES AND ENERGY STEADY FLOW THROUGH PIPES DARCY WEISBACH EQUATION FOR FLOW IN PIPES. HAZEN WILLIAM S FORMULA, LOSSES IN PIPELINES, HYDRAULIC GRADE LINES AND ENERGY LINES 1 SIGNIFICANCE OF CONDUITS In considering the convenience

Chapter (3) Water Flow in Pipes Chapter (3) Water Flow in Pipes Water Flow in Pipes Bernoulli Equation Recall fluid mechanics course, the Bernoulli equation is: P 1 ρg + v 1 g + z 1 = P ρg + v g + z h P + h T + h L Here, we want to study

Chapter 7 The Energy Equation Chapter 7 The Energy Equation 7.1 Energy, Work, and Power When matter has energy, the matter can be used to do work. A fluid can have several forms of energy. For example a fluid jet has kinetic energy,

FLOW FRICTION CHARACTERISTICS OF CONCRETE PRESSURE PIPE 11 ACPPA TECHNICAL SERIES FLOW FRICTION CHARACTERISTICS OF CONCRETE PRESSURE PIPE This paper presents formulas to assist in hydraulic design of concrete pressure pipe. There are many formulas to calculate

Viscous Flow in Ducts Dr. M. Siavashi Iran University of Science and Technology Spring 2014 Objectives 1. Have a deeper understanding of laminar and turbulent flow in pipes and the analysis of fully developed flow 2. Calculate

Reynolds, an engineering professor in early 1880 demonstrated two different types of flow through an experiment: 7 STEADY FLOW IN PIPES 7.1 Reynolds Number Reynolds, an engineering professor in early 1880 demonstrated two different types of flow through an experiment: Laminar flow Turbulent flow Reynolds apparatus

Pipe Flow. Lecture 17 Pipe Flow Lecture 7 Pipe Flow and the Energy Equation For pipe flow, the Bernoulli equation alone is not sufficient. Friction loss along the pipe, and momentum loss through diameter changes and corners

vector H. If O is the point about which moments are desired, the angular moment about O is given: The angular momentum A control volume analysis can be applied to the angular momentum, by letting B equal to angularmomentum vector H. If O is the point about which moments are desired, the angular moment

Water Circuit Lab. The pressure drop along a straight pipe segment can be calculated using the following set of equations: Water Circuit Lab When a fluid flows in a conduit, there is friction between the flowing fluid and the pipe walls. The result of this friction is a net loss of energy in the flowing fluid. The fluid pressure

Hydraulic Design Of Polyethylene Pipes Hydraulic Design Of Polyethylene Pipes Waters & Farr polyethylene pipes offer a hydraulically smooth bore that provides excellent flow characteristics. Other advantages of Waters & Farr polyethylene pipes,

Chapter 8: Flow in Pipes Objectives 1. Have a deeper understanding of laminar and turbulent flow in pipes and the analysis of fully developed flow 2. Calculate the major and minor losses associated with pipe flow in piping networks

Pressure Head: Pressure head is the height of a column of water that would exert a unit pressure equal to the pressure of the water. Design Manual Chapter - Stormwater D - Storm Sewer Design D- Storm Sewer Sizing A. Introduction The purpose of this section is to outline the basic hydraulic principles in order to determine the storm

FLUID MECHANICS. Dynamics of Viscous Fluid Flow in Closed Pipe: Darcy-Weisbach equation for flow in pipes. Major and minor losses in pipe lines. FLUID MECHANICS Dynamics of iscous Fluid Flow in Closed Pipe: Darcy-Weisbach equation for flow in pipes. Major and minor losses in pipe lines. Dr. Mohsin Siddique Assistant Professor Steady Flow Through

Basic Hydraulics. Rabi H. Mohtar ABE 325 Basic Hydraulics Rabi H. Mohtar ABE 35 The river continues on its way to the sea, broken the wheel of the mill or not. Khalil Gibran The forces on moving body of fluid mass are:. Inertial due to mass (ρ

ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I. Part 8 Viscous Flow in Pipes and Ducts. Flow in Pipes and Ducts. Flow in Pipes and Ducts (cont d) ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I Flow in Pipes and Ducts Flow in closed conduits (circular pipes and non-circular ducts) are very common. Part 8 Viscous Flow in Pipes and Ducts These presentations are prepared

Piping Systems and Flow Analysis (Chapter 3) Piping Systems and Flow Analysis (Chapter 3) 2 Learning Outcomes (Chapter 3) Losses in Piping Systems Major losses Minor losses Pipe Networks Pipes in series Pipes in parallel Manifolds and Distribution

LOSSES DUE TO PIPE FITTINGS LOSSES DUE TO PIPE FITTINGS Aim: To determine the losses across the fittings in a pipe network Theory: The resistance to flow in a pipe network causes loss in the pressure head along the flow. The overall

Chapter 10 Flow in Conduits Chapter 10 Flow in Conduits 10.1 Classifying Flow Laminar Flow and Turbulent Flow Laminar flow Unpredictable Turbulent flow Near entrance: undeveloped developing flow In developing flow, the wall shear

Engineers Edge, LLC PDH & Professional Training 510 N. Crosslane Rd. Monroe, Georgia 30656 (770) 266-6915 fax (678) 643-1758 Engineers Edge, LLC PDH & Professional Training Copyright, All Rights Reserved Engineers Edge, LLC Pipe Flow-Friction Factor

Fluid Mechanics II 3 credit hour. Fluid flow through pipes-minor losses COURSE NUMBER: ME 323 Fluid Mechanics II 3 credit hour Fluid flow through pipes-minor losses Course teacher Dr. M. Mahbubur Razzaque Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering BUET 1 Losses in Noncircular

Chapter 8: Flow in Pipes 8-1 Introduction 8-2 Laminar and Turbulent Flows 8-3 The Entrance Region 8-4 Laminar Flow in Pipes 8-5 Turbulent Flow in Pipes 8-6 Fully Developed Pipe Flow 8-7 Minor Losses 8-8 Piping Networks and Pump

REE 307 Fluid Mechanics II. Lecture 1. Sep 27, Dr./ Ahmed Mohamed Nagib Elmekawy. Zewail City for Science and Technology REE 307 Fluid Mechanics II Lecture 1 Sep 27, 2017 Dr./ Ahmed Mohamed Nagib Elmekawy Zewail City for Science and Technology Course Materials drahmednagib.com 2 COURSE OUTLINE Fundamental of Flow in pipes

Chapter (6) Energy Equation and Its Applications Chapter (6) Energy Equation and Its Applications Bernoulli Equation Bernoulli equation is one of the most useful equations in fluid mechanics and hydraulics. And it s a statement of the principle of conservation

ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I. Chapter 8 Viscous Flow in Pipes and Ducts ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I Chapter 8 Viscous Flow in Pipes and Ducts These presentations are prepared by Dr. Cüneyt Sert Department of Mechanical Engineering Middle East Technical University Ankara, Turkey

V/ t = 0 p/ t = 0 ρ/ t = 0. V/ s = 0 p/ s = 0 ρ/ s = 0 UNIT III FLOW THROUGH PIPES 1. List the types of fluid flow. Steady and unsteady flow Uniform and non-uniform flow Laminar and Turbulent flow Compressible and incompressible flow Rotational and ir-rotational

FE Exam Fluids Review October 23, Important Concepts FE Exam Fluids Review October 3, 013 mportant Concepts Density, specific volume, specific weight, specific gravity (Water 1000 kg/m^3, Air 1. kg/m^3) Meaning & Symbols? Stress, Pressure, Viscosity; Meaning

FLUID MECHANICS D203 SAE SOLUTIONS TUTORIAL 2 APPLICATIONS OF BERNOULLI SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE 1 FLUID MECHANICS D203 SAE SOLUTIONS TUTORIAL 2 APPLICATIONS OF BERNOULLI SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE 1 1. A pipe 100 mm bore diameter carries oil of density 900 kg/m3 at a rate of 4 kg/s. The pipe reduces

Determining Liquid Capacity 4 th Annual Pipeline Knowledge Retention Chris Sonneborn November 7, 2013 Determining Liquid Capacity 4 th Annual Pipeline Knowledge Retention Chris Sonneborn November 7, 2013 Outline What is important? Liquid Properties Thermal Conditions Hydraulic Gradient Flow Regime in Liquids

When water (fluid) flows in a pipe, for example from point A to point B, pressure drop will occur due to the energy losses (major and minor losses). PRESSURE DROP AND OSSES IN PIPE When water (luid) lows in a pipe, or example rom point A to point B, pressure drop will occur due to the energy losses (major and minor losses). A B Bernoulli equation:

CVE 372 HYDROMECHANICS EXERCISE PROBLEMS VE 37 HYDROMEHNIS EXERISE PROLEMS 1. pump that has the characteristic curve shown in the accompanying graph is to be installed in the system shown. What will be the discharge of water in the system? Take

LECTURE 6- ENERGY LOSSES IN HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS SELF EVALUATION QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS LECTURE 6- ENERGY LOSSES IN HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS SELF EVALUATION QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 1. What is the head loss ( in units of bars) across a 30mm wide open gate valve when oil ( SG=0.9) flow through at a

Fluid Mechanics c) Orificemeter a) Viscous force, Turbulence force, Compressible force a) Turbulence force c) Integration d) The flow is rotational Fluid Mechanics 1. Which is the cheapest device for measuring flow / discharge rate. a) Venturimeter b) Pitot tube c) Orificemeter d) None of the mentioned 2. Which forces are neglected to obtain Euler

Chapter Four fluid flow mass, energy, Bernoulli and momentum 4-1Conservation of Mass Principle Consider a control volume of arbitrary shape, as shown in Fig (4-1). Figure (4-1): the differential control volume and differential control volume (Total mass entering

Applied Fluid Mechanics Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 6. Flow of Fluid and

Chapter 6. Losses due to Fluid Friction Chapter 6 Losses due to Fluid Friction 1 Objectives To measure the pressure drop in the straight section of smooth, rough, and packed pipes as a function of flow rate. To correlate this in terms of the

NPTEL Quiz Hydraulics Introduction NPTEL Quiz Hydraulics 1. An ideal fluid is a. One which obeys Newton s law of viscosity b. Frictionless and incompressible c. Very viscous d. Frictionless and compressible 2. The unit of kinematic

Chapter 6. Losses due to Fluid Friction Chapter 6 Losses due to Fluid Friction 1 Objectives ä To measure the pressure drop in the straight section of smooth, rough, and packed pipes as a function of flow rate. ä To correlate this in terms of

CEE 3310 Control Volume Analysis, Oct. 7, D Steady State Head Form of the Energy Equation P. P 2g + z h f + h p h s. CEE 3310 Control Volume Analysis, Oct. 7, 2015 81 3.21 Review 1-D Steady State Head Form of the Energy Equation ( ) ( ) 2g + z = 2g + z h f + h p h s out where h f is the friction head loss (which combines

FLOW IN CONDUITS. Shear stress distribution across a pipe section. Chapter 10 Chapter 10 Shear stress distribution across a pipe section FLOW IN CONDUITS For steady, uniform flow, the momentum balance in s for the fluid cylinder yields Fluid Mechanics, Spring Term 2010 Velocity

Experiment- To determine the coefficient of impact for vanes. Experiment To determine the coefficient of discharge of an orifice meter. SUBJECT: FLUID MECHANICS VIVA QUESTIONS (M.E 4 th SEM) Experiment- To determine the coefficient of impact for vanes. Q1. Explain impulse momentum principal. Ans1. Momentum equation is based on Newton s

PIPE FLOW. The Energy Equation. The first law of thermodynamics for a system is, in words = + The Energy Equation PIPE FLOW The first law of thermodynamics for a system is, in words Time rate of increase of the total storage energy of the t Net time rate of energy addition by heat transfer into

VARIED FLOW IN OPEN CHANNELS Chapter 15 Open Channels vs. Closed Conduits VARIED FLOW IN OPEN CHANNELS Fluid Mechanics, Spring Term 2011 In a closed conduit there can be a pressure gradient that drives the flow. An open channel has

Chapter 7 FLOW THROUGH PIPES Chapter 7 FLOW THROUGH PIPES 7-1 Friction Losses of Head in Pipes 7-2 Secondary Losses of Head in Pipes 7-3 Flow through Pipe Systems 48 7-1 Friction Losses of Head in Pipes: There are many types of losses

Applied Fluid Mechanics Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 6. Flow of Fluid and

SENTHIL SELIYAN ELANGO ID: UB3016SC17508 AIU HYDRAULICS (FLUID DYNAMICS) SENTHIL SELIYAN ELANGO ID: UB3016SC17508 AIU HYDRAULICS (FLUID DYNAMICS) ATLANTIC INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY INTRODUCTION Real fluids The flow of real fluids exhibits viscous effect, which are they tend

Rate of Flow Quantity of fluid passing through any section (area) per unit time Kinematics of Fluid Flow Kinematics is the science which deals with study of motion of liquids without considering the forces causing the motion. Rate of Flow Quantity of fluid passing through any section

The effect of geometric parameters on the head loss factor in headers Fluid Structure Interaction V 355 The effect of geometric parameters on the head loss factor in headers A. Mansourpour & S. Shayamehr Mechanical Engineering Department, Azad University of Karaj, Iran Abstract

2 Internal Fluid Flow Internal Fluid Flow.1 Definitions Fluid Dynamics The study of fluids in motion. Static Pressure The pressure at a given point exerted by the static head of the fluid present directly above that point.

Mechanical Engineering Programme of Study Mechanical Engineering Programme of Study Fluid Mechanics Instructor: Marios M. Fyrillas Email: eng.fm@fit.ac.cy SOLVED EXAMPLES ON VISCOUS FLOW 1. Consider steady, laminar flow between two fixed parallel

Hydroelectric Design INTERAMERICAN UNIVERSITY OF BAYAMON PUERTO RICO Hydroelectric Design Dr. Eduardo G. Pérez Díaz Erik T. Rosado González 5/14/2012 Hydroelectric design project for fluid class. TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF

Lecture 3 The energy equation Lecture 3 The energy equation Dr Tim Gough: t.gough@bradford.ac.uk General information Lab groups now assigned Timetable up to week 6 published Is there anyone not yet on the list? Week 3 Week 4 Week 5

Comparison of MOC and Lax FDE for simulating transients in Pipe Flows International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-issn: 395-0056 Volume: 04 Issue: 03 Mar -07 www.irjet.net p-issn: 395-007 Comparison of MOC and Lax FDE for simulating transients

OPEN CHANNEL FLOW. One-dimensional - neglect vertical and lateral variations in velocity. In other words, Q v = (1) A. Figure 1. One-dimensional Flow OPEN CHANNEL FLOW Page 1 OPEN CHANNEL FLOW Open Channel Flow (OCF) is flow with one boundary exposed to atmospheric pressure. The flow is not pressurized and occurs because of gravity. Flow Classification

S.E. (Mech.) (First Sem.) EXAMINATION, (Common to Mech/Sandwich) FLUID MECHANICS (2008 PATTERN) Time : Three Hours Maximum Marks : 100 Total No. of Questions 12] [Total No. of Printed Pages 8 Seat No. -113 S.E. (Mech.) (First Sem.) EXAMINATION, 2012 (Common to Mech/Sandwich) FLUID MECHANICS (2008 PATTERN) Time : Three Hours Maximum

CIVE HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING PART II Pierre Julien Colorado State University 1 CIVE 401 - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING PART II Pierre Julien Colorado State University Problems with and are considered moderate and those with are the longest and most difficult. In 2018 solve the problems

Lesson 37 Transmission Of Air In Air Conditioning Ducts Lesson 37 Transmission Of Air In Air Conditioning Ducts Version 1 ME, IIT Kharagpur 1 The specific objectives of this chapter are to: 1. Describe an Air Handling Unit (AHU) and its functions (Section 37.1).

1.060 Engineering Mechanics II Spring Problem Set 4 1.060 Engineering Mechanics II Spring 2006 Due on Monday, March 20th Problem Set 4 Important note: Please start a new sheet of paper for each problem in the problem set. Write the names of the group members

Objectives. Conservation of mass principle: Mass Equation The Bernoulli equation Conservation of energy principle: Energy equation Objectives Conservation of mass principle: Mass Equation The Bernoulli equation Conservation of energy principle: Energy equation Conservation of Mass Conservation of Mass Mass, like energy, is a conserved

1.060 Engineering Mechanics II Spring Problem Set 8 1.060 Engineering Mechanics II Spring 2006 Due on Monday, May 1st Problem Set 8 Important note: Please start a new sheet of paper for each problem in the problem set. Write the names of the group members

UNIT I FLUID PROPERTIES AND STATICS SIDDHARTH GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS :: PUTTUR Siddharth Nagar, Narayanavanam Road 517583 QUESTION BANK (DESCRIPTIVE) Subject with Code : Fluid Mechanics (16CE106) Year & Sem: II-B.Tech & I-Sem Course & Branch:

UNIFORM FLOW CRITICAL FLOW GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW UNIFORM FLOW CRITICAL FLOW GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW Derivation of uniform flow equation Dimensional analysis Computation of normal depth UNIFORM FLOW 1. Uniform flow is the flow condition obtained from a

Detailed Outline, M E 320 Fluid Flow, Spring Semester 2015 Detailed Outline, M E 320 Fluid Flow, Spring Semester 2015 I. Introduction (Chapters 1 and 2) A. What is Fluid Mechanics? 1. What is a fluid? 2. What is mechanics? B. Classification of Fluid Flows 1. Viscous

PIPE FLOW. General Characteristic of Pipe Flow. Some of the basic components of a typical pipe system are shown in Figure 1. PIPE FLOW General Characteristic of Pipe Flow Figure 1 Some of the basic components of a typical pipe system are shown in Figure 1. They include the pipes, the various fitting used to connect the individual

Head loss coefficient through sharp-edged orifices Head loss coefficient through sharp-edged orifices Nicolas J. Adam, Giovanni De Cesare and Anton J. Schleiss Laboratory of Hydraulic Constructions, Ecole Polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

Fluid Mechanics. du dy FLUID MECHANICS Technical English - I 1 th week Fluid Mechanics FLUID STATICS FLUID DYNAMICS Fluid Statics or Hydrostatics is the study of fluids at rest. The main equation required for this is Newton's

William В. Brower, Jr. A PRIMER IN FLUID MECHANICS. Dynamics of Flows in One Space Dimension. CRC Press Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C. William В. Brower, Jr. A PRIMER IN FLUID MECHANICS Dynamics of Flows in One Space Dimension CRC Press Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Fluid Properties Kinetic Theory

CIE4491 Lecture. Hydraulic design CIE4491 Lecture. Hydraulic design Marie-claire ten Veldhuis 19-9-013 Delft University of Technology Challenge the future Hydraulic design of urban stormwater systems Focus on sewer pipes Pressurized and

PIPING SYSTEMS. Pipe and Tubing Standards Sizes for pipes and tubes are standardized. Pipes are specified by a nominal diameter and a schedule number. PIPING SYSTEMS In this chapter we will review some of the basic concepts associated with piping systems. Topics that will be considered in this chapter are - Pipe and tubing standards - Effective and hydraulic

WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS CE 370 1 Components of Water Supply System 2 1 Water Distribution System Water distribution systems are designed to adequately satisfy the water requirements for a combinations

INSTRUCTIONS FOR LABORATORY EXPERIMENT IN FLUID MECHANICS INSTRUCTIONS FOR LABORATORY EXPERIMENT IN FLUID MECHANICS VT2010 Pipe Flow: General Information: Attendance at the laboratory experiment is required for completion of the course. The experiments will be

CEE 3310 Control Volume Analysis, Oct. 10, = dt. sys CEE 3310 Control Volume Analysis, Oct. 10, 2018 77 3.16 Review First Law of Thermodynamics ( ) de = dt Q Ẇ sys Sign convention: Work done by the surroundings on the system < 0, example, a pump! Work done

Properties and Definitions Useful constants, properties, and conversions Properties and Definitions Useful constants, properties, and conversions gc = 32.2 ft/sec 2 [lbm-ft/lbf-sec 2 ] ρwater = 1.96 slugs/ft 3 γwater = 62.4 lb/ft 3 1 ft 3 /sec = 449 gpm 1 mgd = 1.547 ft 3 /sec

s and FE X. A. Flow measurement B. properties C. statics D. impulse, and momentum equations E. Pipe and other internal flow 7% of FE Morning Session I Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Exam General Section Steven Burian Civil & Environmental Engineering October 26, 2010 s and FE X. A. Flow measurement B. properties C. statics D. impulse, and momentum

Experiment (4): Flow measurement Experiment (4): Flow measurement Introduction: The flow measuring apparatus is used to familiarize the students with typical methods of flow measurement of an incompressible fluid and, at the same time

INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING Dundigal, Hyderabad AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING QUESTION BANK : AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING. Course Name Course Code Class Branch INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING Dundigal, Hyderabad - 00 0 AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING : Mechanics of Fluids : A00 : II-I- B. Tech Year : 0 0 Course Coordinator

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics Sixth Edition Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics International Student Version BRUCE R. MUNSON DONALD F. YOUNG Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics THEODORE H. OKIISHI Department

Hydraulic (Piezometric) Grade Lines (HGL) and Hydraulic (Piezometric) Grade Lines (HGL) and Energy Grade Lines (EGL) When the energy equation is written between two points it is expresses as in the form of: Each term has a name and all terms have CE 6303 MECHANICS OF FLUIDS L T P C QUESTION BANK 3 0 0 3 UNIT I FLUID PROPERTIES AND FLUID STATICS PART - A 1. Define fluid and fluid mechanics. 2. Define real and ideal fluids. 3. Define mass density

Reservoir Oscillations with Through Flow American Journal of Environmental Sciences 3 (): 37-42, 27 ISSN 553-345X 27 Science Publications Reservoir Oscillations with Through Flow A. A. Khan 28 Lowry Hall, epartment of Civil Engineering, Clemson

Pipe Flow/Friction Factor Calculations using Excel Spreadsheets Pipe Flow/Friction Factor Calculations using Excel Spreadsheets Harlan H. Bengtson, PE, PhD Emeritus Professor of Civil Engineering Southern Illinois University Edwardsville Table of Contents Introduction

Implementing unsteady friction in Pressure Time measurements Implementing unsteady friction in Pressure Time measurements PhD Pontus P. Jonnson Pöyry SwedPower AB, Sweden. pontus.jonsson@poyry.com PhD Jørgen Ramdal Gauldal Consult AS, Norway. jorgen.ramdal@gauldalconsult.no

Friction Factors and Drag Coefficients Levicky 1 Friction Factors and Drag Coefficients Several equations that we have seen have included terms to represent dissipation of energy due to the viscous nature of fluid flow. For example, in the

Major and Minor Losses Abstract Major and Minor Losses Caitlyn Collazo, Team 2 (1:00 pm) A Technovate fluid circuit system was used to determine the pressure drop across a pipe section and across an orifice. These pressure drops

Dimensions represent classes of units we use to describe a physical quantity. Most fluid problems involve four primary dimensions BEE 5330 Fluids FE Review, Feb 24, 2010 1 A fluid is a substance that can not support a shear stress. Liquids differ from gasses in that liquids that do not completely fill a container will form a free UTILITY REPORT FOR 3301 East 120 th Avenue Assited Living & Memory Care 1 st Submittal January 23, 2016 2 nd Submittal March 04, 2016 Prepared for: 3301 E. 120 th Ave, LLC. 8200 E. Maplewood Ave., Suite COURSE NUMBER: ME 321 Fluid Mechanics I 3 credit hour Basic Equations in fluid Dynamics Course teacher Dr. M. Mahbubur Razzaque Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering BUET 1 Description of Fluid