# An overview of the Hydraulics of Water Distribution Networks

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1 An overview of the Hydraulics of Water Distribution Networks June 21, 2017 by, P.E. Senior Water Resources Specialist, Santa Clara Valley Water District Adjunct Faculty, San José State University 1

2 Outline Pressurized vs. open-channel flow in closed conduits Uniform vs. nonuniform flow & steady vs. unsteady flow Conservation of mass principle Conservation of energy principle: Friction and minor headlosses What about HGL and EGL? Water distribution network analysis Software for steady-state analysis and extended-period simulations Pumps and turbines Hydraulic transients (surge analysis) Hydraulic transients software References Contact information Q&A session 2

3 Pressurized vs. open-channel flow in closed conduits Pressurized flow Open-channel flow Driven by head differential and/or pump(s) Reynolds number (Re): Laminar, transition zone or wholly turbulent Friction loss: Darcy-Weisbach s, Hazen-Williams or Chezy s equation Gravity driven Froude Number (Fr): Subcritical, critical or supercritical flow Friction loss: Manning s equation 3

4 Reynolds Number Reynolds Number (ratio of inertia force to viscous force) V = velocity (m/s or ft/sec) D = pipe diameter (m or ft) = density of fluid (Kg/m 3 or lbm/ft 3 ) = dynamic viscosity of fluid (N.s/m 2 or lbf.s/ft 2 ) = kinematic viscosity (m 2 /s or ft 2 /s) Re VD VD 4

5 Laminar vs. turbulent flow Re < 2,000: laminar flow Re from 4,000 to 800,000,000 (or more): turbulent flow (transition zone and wholly turbulent zone) 5

6 Moody Diagram 6

7 Uniform vs. Nonuniform Flow & Steady vs. Unsteady Flow Uniform flow: Constant flow characteristics (like velocity) with respect to space Nonuniform flow, like in the case of changing pipe size Steady flow: Constant flow characteristics with respect to time. Steady flow is considered when designing a pipe network (looking for pressures at certain locations and velocities in the pipes) Consider unsteady (transient) phenomena to refine the design (pipe pressure class and thickness) 7

8 Conservation of Mass Principle In a control volume: ds In Out dt (change in storage over time = inflow outflow) For steady & incompressible flow: ds/dt = 0, continuity equation becomes: In = Out (inflow = outflow) i.e., Q in = Q out 8

9 Conservation of Mass Principle Continuity equation applied to a pipe junction: Q 1 + Q 2 = Q 3 + Q 4 9

10 Conservation of Energy Principle In pipeline design, most often consider steady-state flow (does not vary with time). Energy equation is written as: p 1 V 2 z h p V pump 2 2g 2 2g z h turbine h losses Steady-state Bernoulli s Equation (no head loss nor gain) along a streamline: p 1 V 2 g + 1 2g + 1 z = p2 V 2 g + 2 2g + z 2 10

12 Friction Headloss Friction loss results from friction between the fluid and pipe wall The most useful headloss equation for pressurized pipe flow is the Darcy-Weisbach equation: Friction headloss L V f hlf D 2g Dimensionless friction coefficient Pipe length Pipe diameter 2 Pipe velocity Gravitational acceleration 12

13 Minor Headloss Minor headloss can be caused by the presence of a valve in the network, entrance to a pipe from a reservoir, exit to a tank, bend in the pipe, elbow, pipe expansion, pipe contraction (reducer), or other fittings Use a minor headloss coefficient (K) in the following minor headloss expression: 2 K V hlm 2 g 13

14 Minor Loss 14

15 Valves A large butterfly valve shown as partially open Headloss coefficient (K) for a butterfly valve (Bosserman and Hunt, 1998) K V g hlm 2 2 When K is very large, minor headloss could become larger than the major (friction) headloss. So the word minor is a misnomer 15

16 What about HGL and EGL? The Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) system records and reports on a screen various parameters data for a pipe network, a treatment plant, etc. Parameters such as: flow, pressure and hydraulic grade line (HGL) 16

17 EGL = p/ + z + V 2 /2g HGL = p/ + z What about HGL and EGL? Test your knowledge: What does the distance between the two arrows at Profile X represent? What does h refer to? Does the Box represent a pump or a turbine? Is the flow (discharge) in the pipeline going from left to right or vice versa? Explain your answer. 17

18 Water Distribution Network Analysis Source: Reference # 1 For the simple network shown above with 5 unknown flow values in the 5 pipes, we need to solve 5 equations. These are: 3 linear continuity equations at 3 junctions, and 2 nonlinear energy equations along 2 paths. Solution of a nonlinear system of 5 equations is not straightforward 18

19 Water Distribution Network Analysis Hardy-Cross Method, 1936 (manual technique only suitable for small networks) Numerical Methods (like Newton-Raphson technique) use iterations but are prone to problems of diverging solutions Linearization Method (approximation) Perturbation Method (Basha & Kassab, 1996), a direct, mathematical solution: Source: Reference # 1 19

20 Software for steady-state analysis & extended-period simulations (EPS) Hydraulic modeling software use numerical algorithms to obtain the steady-state solution for a water distribution network EPS: used for water quality analysis (water age, contaminant tracing). EPS is simply a series of steady-solutions over time Free software: EPANET Commercial software (H2ONET, InfoMAP, WaterCAD, WaterGEMS, etc.) give same results as EPANET but have additional bells and whistles. Some have better graphic user interface (GUI), others work in a GIS environment or can have an add-on surge software. 20

21 Skeletonizing a Water Distribution Network The raw water distribution system of Santa Clara Valley Water District was modeled using H2ONET 21

22 Pumps and Turbines Pumps and valves are easily modeled using commercial software But it is important to have a solid understanding of pump curves, operating point concept, and pump efficiency 22

23 Pumps Pump characteristic curve (pump head hp vs. flow Q): originally provided by manufacturer, then updated by technicians/engineers who calibrate the pump regularly System curve: hp vs. Q as obtained from energy equation. Note that system curve changes every time conditions change (like tank level fluctuates) Operating point: where the 2 curves meet Operating point is not always point of best (maximum) efficiency Source: Reference # 2 23

24 Finding the Pump Operating Point System curve (a parabolic equation) for the case of a pump on a pipe connecting two reservoirs/tanks: h pump ( z z ) 1 2 h Lf h Lm 24

25 Pumps in Series & Pumps in Parallel For pumps in series: Pump head (hp) adds up but the flow Q remains constant For pumps in parallel: Flow (Q) adds up but pump head hp remains the same 25

26 Pump Power and Efficiency Hydraulic power of a pump = Q hp Etotal = overall (total) pump efficiency = output power / input power = Hydraulic power / electric power Etotal = Eo. Emotor. Epump 26

27 Turbines Hydraulic power of a turbine = Q ht ET = Overall turbine efficiency = ouput power / input power = electric power / hydraulic power 27

28 Hydraulic Transients (Surge Analysis) Hydraulic transients (aka waterhammers) are caused by a sudden opening or closure of a valve, starting or stopping a pump or a turbine, or accidental events, like power outage. Source: Reference # 3 28

29 Hydraulic Transients (Surge Analysis) Solution by: Arithmetic Method (Joukowski, 1904), approximation Method of Characteristics (MOC), most popular Wave-Plan Analysis Method (Wood et al., 1966) Linear methods (approximation) Perturbation Method (Basha & Kassab, 1996), direct, mathematical solution (Reference 3) Diagram representing the solution of a waterhammer problem by the MOC 29

30 Hydraulic Transients (Surge Analysis) The solution by the Perturbation Method (a direct, mathematical approach) matches very well with the numerical MOC Pressure head at the valve, as obtained by the Perturbation Method, for the cases of instantaneous, linear and exponential valve closure scenarios and their comparison to the numerical solution by the MOC Source: Reference # 3 30

31 Hydraulic Transients (Surge Analysis) Another valve closure case: Solution by Wave Characteristic Method matches with MOC Source: Reference # 4 31

32 Hydraulic Transients (Surge Analysis) To prevent transients: Slowly open and close of valves Properly close of fire hydrants Use pump controls to ramp pump speed up and down Lower pipeline velocities To control maximum and/or minimum pressures: Use surge tanks; air chambers; one-way tanks; pump bypass valves; relief valves; air inlet valves Source: Reference # 4 32

33 Hydraulic Transients Software Many software programs on the market. They rely on numerical methods to solve the waterhammer equations Innovyze (previosuly MWH Soft) has: H2OSurge program (an add-on to H2ONET), and InfoSurge (add-on to InfoWater, in GIS environment) 33

34 References 1. H. A. Basha and B. G. Kassab, Analysis of water distribution systems using a perturbation method. Applied Mathematical Modelling, 1996, 20 (4), Advanced Water Distribution Modeling and Management. Haestad Methods, Waterbury, Connecticut, H. A. Basha and B. G. Kassab, A perturbation solution to the transient pipe flow problem. Journal of Hydraulic Research, 1996, 34 (5), Pressure Wave Analysis of Transient Flow in Pipe Distribution Systems. D. Wood, S. Lingireddy and P. Boulos, MWH Soft, Pasadena, California,

35 Contact Information Webpage: Q&A session 35

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