# Physics 101: Lecture 26 Conduction, Convection, Radiation

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1 Final Physics 101: Lecture 26 Conduction, Convection, Radiation Today s lecture will cover Textbook Chapter Physics 101: Lecture 26, Pg 1

2 Review Heat is FLOW of energy Flow of energy may increase temperature Specific Heat, c DT = Q / (c m) Latent Heat, L heat associated with change in phase Q = m L Today: Mechanisms of Heat Flow Conduction Convection Radiation Physics 101: Lecture 26, Pg 2 07

3 Heat Transfer: Conduction Hot molecules have more KE than cold molecules High-speed molecules on left collide with low-speed molecules on right teaspoons energy transferred to lower-speed molecules heat transfers from hot to cold H = rate of heat transfer = Q/t [J/s] H = k A (T H -T C )/L» Q/t = k A DT/Dx T H Hot Area A L = Dx T C Cold k = thermal conductivity» Units: J/s-m-C demos» good thermal conductors high k» good thermal insulators low k Physics 101: Lecture 26, Pg 3 13

4 Conduction ACT On a cold winter night, which will keep you warmer in bed. A) A thin cotton sheet B) A thick wool blanket C) Either one Physics 101: Lecture 26, Pg 4

5 Prelecture 1 On a cool night you make your bed with a thin cotton sheet covered by a thick wool blanket. As you lay there all covered up, heat is leaving your body, flowing though the sheet and the blanket and into the air of the room. Compare the amount of heat that flows though the sheet to the amount of heat that flows through the blanket. 1. More heat flows through sheet than through the blanket. 2. More heat flows through blanket than through the sheet. 3. The same amount of heat flows through sheet as the blanket. correct Physics 101: Lecture 26, Pg 5 15

6 Conduction w/ 2 layers ACT Compare the heat flow through material 1 and 2. A) H 1 > H 2 B) H 1 =H 2 C) H 1 < H 2 Estimate T 0, the temperature between the two A) 2 C B) 12.5 C C) 20 C H 1 H 2 Outside: T C = 0C Inside: T H = 25C Dx 1 = 0.02 m A 1 = 35 m 2 k 1 = J/s-m-C Dx 2 = m A 2 = 35 m 2 k 2 = J/s-m-C 19 T 0 Physics 101: Lecture 26, Pg 6

7 Find H=Q/t in J/s Key Point: Continuity (just like fluid flow)» H 1 = H 2 Conduction w/ 2 layers» k 1 A(T 0 -T C )/Dx 1 = k 2 A(T H -T 0 )/Dx 2» solve for T 0 = temp. at junction» then solve for H 1 or H 2 answers: T 0 =2.27 C H=318 J/s H 1 H 2 Outside: T C = 0C Inside: T H = 25C Dx 1 = 0.02 m A 1 = 35 m 2 k 1 = J/s-m-C Dx 2 = m A 1 = 35 m 2 k 2 = J/s-m-C T 0 Physics 101: Lecture 26, Pg 7 22

8 Conduction ACT Which marbles will fall last? 1) Copper 2) Steel 3) Aluminum Physics 101: Lecture 26, Pg 8 24

9 Heat Transfer Convection Air heats at bottom Thermal expansion density gets smaller Lower density air rises Archimedes: low density floats on high density Cooler air pushed down Cycle continues with net result of circulation of air Practical aspects heater ducts on floor A/C ducts on ceiling stove heats water from bottom riding the thermals heater demos Physics 101: Lecture 26, Pg 9 27

10 Heat Transfer: Radiation All things radiate electromagnetic energy H emit = Q/t = ea T 4» e = emissivity (between 0 and 1) perfect black body has e=1» T is temperature of object in Kelvin» = Stefan-Boltzmann constant = 5.67 x 10-8 J/s-m 2 -K 4 No medium required All things absorb energy from surroundings I absorb = ea T 0 4» T 0 is temperature of surroundings in Kelvin» good emitters (e close to 1) are also good absorbers T Surroundings at T 0 Hot stove DEMO Physics 101: Lecture 26, Pg 10 35

11 Heat Transfer: Radiation All things radiate and absorb electromagnetic energy I emit = ea T 4 I absorb = ea T 4 0 I net = I emit - I absorb = ea (T 4 - T 04 ) T Surroundings at T 0 Hot stove» if T > T 0, object cools down» if T < T 0, object heats up HW Physics 101: Lecture 26, Pg 11 38

12 Earth Homework The Earth has a surface temperature around 270 K and an emissivity of 0.8, while space has a temperature of around 2 K. What is the net power radiated by the earth into free space? (Radii of the Earth and the Sun are R e = m, R s = m.) I net = I emit - I absorb = ea (T 4 - T 04 ) Watts R earth Physics 101: Lecture 26, Pg 12 42

13 Prelecture One day during the winter, the sun has been shining all day. Toward sunset a light snow begins to fall. It collects without melting on a cement playground, but it melts immediately upon contact on a black asphalt road adjacent to the playground. How do you explain this. Black absorbs heat so the asphalt is hotter Physics 101: Lecture 26, Pg 13 45

14 Summary Conduction - contact Convection - fluid motion Radiation Physics 101: Lecture 26, Pg 14 50

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