Temperature and Heat. Chapter 10. Table of Contents. Chapter 10. Chapter 10. Bellringer. Objectives. Chapter 10. Chapter 10

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1 Heat and Heat Technology Table of Contents Temperature and Heat Section 3 Matter and Heat Bellringer Objectives The temperature of boiling water is 100 on the Celsius scale and 212 on the Fahrenheit scale. Look at each of the following temperatures and decide whether you think that it is hot or cold: 60 F 60 C 37 F 37 C 0 C 100 F 70 F Describe how temperature relates to kinetic energy. Compare temperatures on different temperature scales. Give examples of thermal expansion. Write your responses in your science journal. What Is Temperature? Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object. What Is Temperature?, continued Which one has a higher temperature? The more kinetic energy -- the higher the temperature Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. All moving objects have kinetic energy. The amount of kinetic energy that an object has depends on the object s mass and speed.

2 Temperature Scales Fahrenheit scale F- Used by the USA water freezes at 32 and boils at 212 F Celsius scale C- the metric temperature scale --water freezes at 0 0 C and boiling at C. Kelvin scale K - used by scientist based on 0 being absolute 0 K, water freezing 273 K, and boiling at 373 K official SI units The lowest temperature on the Kelvin scale is 0 K, which is called absolute zero. Temperature Conversions To convert C F F C Use the equation F 9 5 C 32 C 5 9 F 32 Celsius Fahrenheit Conversions ( C+40) X = F Fahrenheit Celsius Conversions ( F+40) = C Celsius Kelvin Conversions C+273=K C K K C 273 K C C K 273 Measuring Temperature Thermometer - measures temperature because of a property called thermal expansion. Thermal expansion-- increase in temperature causes an increase in volume of a substance. More About Thermal Expansion Expansion Joints on Highways If the weather is very hot, a bridge can heat up enough to expand. As the bridge expands, it is in danger of breaking. As a substance s temperature increases, its particles move faster and spread out.

3 13 More About Thermal Expansion, continued Bimetallic Strips in Thermostats are made of two metals stacked in thin strips. Because the metals expand at different rates, a strip coils and uncoils in response to changes in temperature, as shown below. Bellringer You walk into the bathroom in your bare feet. The temperature in there is 23 C. You step onto the tile floor, and it feels very cold. Quickly, you step onto a throw rug, and the rug feels warmer. Is the floor really colder than the rug? Why do they seem to be at different temperatures when your bare feet touch them? Write your answers in your science journal. Objectives Define heat as thermal energy transferred between objects at different temperatures. Compare conduction, convection, and radiation. Use specific heat capacity to calculate heat. Transferred Thermal Energy Heat is the energy transferred between objects that are at different temperatures. always transferred from a warmer object to a cooler object Measured in calories1calorie= the energy required to raise 1g of water 1 c Section 3 Matter and Heat Heat and Chemical Changes, continued Calorimeters A calorimeter is a device that measures heat. When one object transfers thermal energy to another object, the energy lost by one object is gained by the other object.

4 Transferring Thermal energy What has a higher temperature? What has more heat energy? Thermal Conduction is the transfer of thermal energy through direct contact. A pan in contact with a burner is an example The particles in the burner vibrate and collide with the particles in the pan and cause the temperature to rise thermal conductors Substances that conduct thermal energy well Most metals are. thermal insulators Substances that do not conduct thermal energy well Wood, plastic, gasses Convection is the transfer of thermal energy by the movement of a liquid or a gas. (hot fluids rise) As water is heated, it becomes less dense. The warmer water rises through the cooler water above it. At the surface, the warm water cools and becomes more dense. The cooler water then sinks to the bottom and the cycle repeats. Conduction, Convection, and Radiation, Radiation transfer of energy by electromagnetic (EM) waves. can move through a vacuum (space) This is how we are warmed by the sun The hotter an object the more radiation it emits

5 Greenhouse Effect Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept You may stop the video at any time by pressing the Esc key.

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