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1 DESIGN OF LAMINATES FOR IN-PLANOADING G. VERCHERY ISMANS 44 avenue F.A. Bartholdi, Le Mans, France SUMMARY This work relates to the design of laminated structures primarily loaded in membrane, such as pressure vessels. It derives complete formulas, i.e. valid for any loading and any laminate, and without any approximation. Using the so called material ratio and the loading ratio, the design criterion takes a very simple form, equating the two ratios. Keywords: design, laminate, netting theory, polar description of anisotropy, anisotropy. INTRODUCTION Structures primarily loaded in membrane, such as cylindrical pressure vessels, must certainly been considered as the simplest case for design. However even for such cases, the tools available to the designer are on one side the netting theory (NT), which provides explicit design factors but is known to be approximate, and on the other side the classical laminated plate theory (CLPT), which is a precise analysis method, but so requires an iterative process to contribute to a design. As the CLPT in its usual form involves huge algebraic manipulations, it is not possible to derive explicit formulas even for simple cases such as pressurized tubes and only numerical computations can be done. These numerical applications of the CLPT are of course very easy to do and show discrepancy between this CLPT and the netting theory but might not reveal the significant factors for the design. Surprisingly, no work seems to have faced this question of significant parameters until 2002 when Evans and Gibson [1] gave a clear insight into the problem. In order to reveal the factors involved, they succeeded in developing explicit formulas based on the CLPT and compared them to the netting analysis for balanced angle-ply laminated tubes with hoop-to-axial-stress ratio of 2:1. They have shown that part of the netting theory can be retained (the principal strains of the plies should be equal), while other parts need to be corrected and they gave a correction formula for the optimal ply angle. Although they had to do lots of tedious algebraic manipulations (Evans [2]), their formulas do not solve exactly the CLPT equations, due to the cumbersome algebra involved in the theory, so their results for the correction in the angle still retain a difference with full calculation. In the numerical examples they published, this correction is shown to be small, however its small value is not guaranteed for other cases and the challenge for an exact CLPT solution remains. To summarize, the limitations of the paper of Evans and Gibson are the following: i) they limited to angleply laminates, ii) they limited to a 2:1 ratio for the principal stresses, iii) their formulas are approximate.

2 METHODOLOGY AND HYPOTHESES For many years, the author has developed the so-called polar method for twodimensional continuum mechanics, using as variables the polar parameters, which are complex linear combinations of the Cartesian components of the stress, strain, stiffness, compliance or other tensors. Among other features, it provides an efficient description of plane anisotropy. So it is useful for two-dimensional anisotropic systems such as composite materials. Specially, using these parameters, the CLPT receives an equivalent but simpler form, which makes possible many explicit algebraic developments otherwise intractable. From this, many applications can be derived for analysis and also for design of composites (see for instance [3]). This method was used in the present research, with the aim to improve the results of Evans and Gibson, and suppress their drawbacks. In this part of the paper, we will first describe the loading, geometric and material hypotheses of the study, present some important points of the polar method, then introduce two ratios which are relevant for the present research. In the next part, rules of design will be given, and the design criterion will be derived from them. Structural hypotheses We limit to the simplest conditions for the structure to be designed. Material and geometric hypotheses: the structure is -or behaves like- a laminated plate. with zero coupling stiffnesses and orthotropic membrane stiffnesses. We will specially consider laminates made of identical plies. Loading hypotheses: the structure is loaded in membrane, with uniform membrane forces N ij. The principal loads are N 1 and N 2, and we limit to the cases with N 1 > N 2 > 0. These hypotheses are those of the netting theory, and notably apply to pressure vessels. Extensions can be made but are not presented here as they make more intricate the discussion, which might conceal the principles of the method, that we want to emphasize. Basics of the polar method Complete equations can be found in [3]. A simpler form is sufficient in the present study. They are presented here in the case of orthotropy and in the principal axes of stress, strain or stiffness: for the stresses or membrane forces, they are obtained from the principal values with major principal axis along direction 1 as: 2 T N 1 N 2 2 R N 1 N 2 and similarly for the strains: 2 t r 1 2

3 for membrane stiffnesses with major principal axis in direction 1, they are: 8 T 0 A A A 1212 A A A 1122 A R 0 A A A 1212 A A 1111 A 2222 Similar formulas hold for ply stiffnesses and for compliances. Loading ratio A loading ratio is defined from the principal membrane forces N 1 > N 2 > 0 as: R T N 1 N 2. N 1 N 2 This quantity will prove to be more relevant to structural design than the more usual ratio N 1/ N 2 (which is the hoop-to-axial-stress ratio for tubes studied by Evans and Gibson). With the assumed values for the principal loads N k, this material ratio is positive and less than 1. It equals 1/3 in the classical case of cylindrical pressure vessel with hoop-to-axial-stress ratio equal to 2. Material ratio for the laminate With A ijkl being the in-plane stiffnesses, the (in-plane) orthotropy axes of the laminate are (1, 2) with the first axis along the direction of the major stiffness: A 1111 > A A material ratio is then defined from two of the polar parameters, as: A 1111 A 2222 A A 1122 A It should be noted that this material ratio does not involve the shear stiffness A Material ratio for a ply A material ratio for any ply is defined similarly from the stiffnesses Q ijkl in the material orthotropy axes (L, T) of the ply : Q LLLL Q TTTT Q LLLL 2Q LLTT Q TTTT This ratio can also be expressed with the compliances S ijkl in the same material orthotropy axes (L, T) or the engineering constants, longitudinal and transverse Young's moduli and, and principal (major) Poisson's ratio ν LT : Q LLLL Q TTTT Q LLLL 2Q LLTT Q TTTT S TTTT S LLLL S LLLL 2 S LLTT S TTTT E 2 LT Notice that this material ratio does not involve the shear property in the orthotropy axes.

4 OVERALL DESIGN PROCESS Design process is split in two steps: first at the laminate level, an overall material satisfying the loading conditions is built, and second, a convenient stacking giving the required overall properties is searched for. Both steps involve the ratios introduced above. Overall design rules We use as overall design criterion the following empirical rules, closely related to the guidelines of the netting analysis: i) select an orthotropic laminate with the major principal axis of stiffness aligned with the major principal axis of the loads, ii) select the material so that the strain is isotropic. Design based on these rules will be consequently called orthotropic isostrain design. Comments of the overall design rules These two rules are neither arbitrary nor obvious. Notice that they do not refer to a definite objective, and are not derived theoretically but are empirical, and so have to be assessed from their consequences. However some rationale is of course behind them. Starting with the meaning of the first rule, it is certainly common sense to retain orthotropic materials with axes aligned with the directions of principal stresses: as the stresses (being a second order tensor) have two orthogonal directions of symmetry, so should have the overall stiffnesses, i.e. the material should be orthotropic (for in-plane stiffness properties). Further, the first rule requires that the major orthotropy axis should be along the highest stress and the minor along the lowest stress (remember that the major stiffness is not always along the major stiffness axis, as it may be off-axis, however the stiffness along the major orthotropy axis is always highest than that along the minor orthotropy axis). This point may appear questionable when comparing to the principles of the netting theory, which aims to optimize the structural strength (and in fact cannot meet exactly its assumptions and its aim), while the present formulation appears to rest on elastic behaviour rather to strength behaviour: it is a fact that for an arbitrary orthotropic material, strength and stiffness may differ in orientation and variation. Results for laminates will justify afterwards this rule together with the second rule. As a consequence of the first rule, the strains have the same principal axes than the stresses and stiffnesses, but the major strain may be along any of the principal axes. The second rule settles this point as its meaning is the following: the material should be strained at the same level in any of the principal axes, and consequently in any direction. This second rule is specially relevant for laminates made of identical plies. According to the CLPT, while the state of strain (for membrane loading) is the same through the thickness in the structure axes, it generally varies from ply to ply in the local axes (principal axes of the plies), and so the state of stress in each ply depends on the ply

5 orientation (whatever the axes considered). Only in the case of an isotropic state of strain, the strains are the same in every ply whatever the axes, and consequently the states of stress are the same in the local axes of all the plies: then, every ply is in the same state of strain and stress and so contributes equally to the structural behaviour, which is certainly a good design (and probably an optimal design). Formula of the overall design criterion Translating the design rules in equations is quite simple using the polar parameters. For an orthotropic material loaded in its symmetry axes, the stress-strain relationship, expressed in these symmetry axes with polar parameters, writes: T 4 t 4 r R 4 t 2 T 0 R 0 r Then we have to state that the overall strain is isotropic, that is: r 0 Eliminating t, this gives the design criterion, which expresses simply as the equality of the load and material ratios defined above: R T. The reader can check that this can be derived using the Cartesian components in the orthotropy axes, at the cost of more algebra. STACKING DESIGN PROCESS The previous step of design has defined an overall condition for the material: it must be orthotropic for in-plane stiffness, with a fixed value of its material ratio. The next step will be to find stacking sequences meeting these requirements. As an orthotropic laminate possesses 4 independent in-plane stiffness parameters, while the material ratio involves only 2 of these parameters, it can be guessed that there might be several solutions. In the following, we examine the common (and simplest) case when the laminate is made of identical plies. Polar method applied to CLPT For laminates made of identical plies, the CLPT equations receive a very simple form with the polar parameters (see [3]). We limit here to the orthotropic case useful for the present research. In this case the 4 polar in-plane stiffness parameters have very simple expressions as functions of the polar parameters of the ply. Specially: T t 1 t R 1 cos 2 N k k 1 N

7 principal stresses instead of the loading ratio. For instance, changing from glass/epoxy plies to HM carbon/epoxy plies increases the material ratio by 40%, and so is the loading ratio range, while the range for the principal stresses ratio is increased by 140%, from 3.8 up to 9. It also can be shown that when the material ratio increases, the formulas get closer to the netting analysis results, and when it goes up to 1, all the formulas reduce to the netting analysis. Using micromechanics formulas of prediction of elastic properties of UD shows that the material ratio is closely dependent on the reinforcement-to-matrix-stiffness ratio (such as E f /E m ): when this ratio increases, so does the material ratio / of a unidirectionally reinforced ply, up to the limiting case of a very soft matrix (for instance, rubber reinforced with steel fibres), with the ratio going up to 1. Plies reinforced with balanced fabrics have a zero material ratio and cannot be used in our design method. Plies reinforced with unbalanced fabrics have generally a low material ratio, limiting the range of loading they can efficiently carry. When the conditions of applicability are met, several solutions generally exist. The weighting factor should receive a fixed value equal to the loading ratio divided by the ply material ratio, and as it includes an unspecified number N of parameters θ k, an infinite number of solutions exist theoretically. Practical conditions on the number N and the angles values reduce the effective solutions. APPLICATION EXAMPLES To go further, the practical field of design parameters must be specified. Angle-ply and cross-ply laminates are of interest. Design of cylindrical pressure vessel is also of major importance for its practical applications as well as for comparison purpose with the netting theory and the Evans and Gibson results. Design with angle-ply laminates Angle-ply laminates with layers at ±β (or filament winding in these same directions) are defined by a unique parameter and the design equation writes: cos 2 R T This equation can be solved in seconds with a pocket calculator, to give the optimal angle in agreement with the CLPT. The influence of the significant factors can be check easily. The design angle ±β 0 of the netting theory is given by the limit case when the material ratio equals 1: cos 2 0 R T

8 It appears that cos 2 cos 2 0 so the exact angle is closer to the major stress direction than predicted by the netting theory. A quantitative comparison between these angle values can be obtained by Taylor expansion up to the second order in the quantity ( - )/. It gives: 1 1 T /R T 0 1 T /R or using the principal Young's moduli and Poisson's ratio: 1 0 T /R LT 1 1 T / R third order 1 LT third order Design with cross-ply laminates Cross-ply laminates are also defined by only one parameter 0 < q < 1, the percentage q of layers at 0, with 1-q layers at 90. The design equation writes: 2 q 1 R T So the percentage of plies at 0 should be higher than that indicated by the netting theory, which is such as 2 q 0 1 R /T. Design of cylindrical pressure vessel For cylindrical pressure vessels, N 1 2 N 2, so T 3R. These values in the formulas derived above for angle-ply laminates define the exact value of the helical angles at which such cylindrical pressure vessels must be wound, angles which are closer to the hoop direction than predicted by the netting theory. The approximate formula derived by Evans and Gibson writes: LT while the present analysis gives: LT LT third order The main difference comes from the term instead of -, which appears in the denominator of the Evans and Gibson formula. It explain about 90% of the difference they observed with the numerical results they computed from the CLPT. With the second order terms (in the parentheses) of the present analysis, the CLPT values are recovered exactly.

9 CONCLUSION Within the conditions of applicability of the present approach, all the limitations of the analysis of Evans and Gibson are relieved and explicit design formulas for any state of stress and stacking sequence can be derived. A further step in this research will be to study the stability of solutions obtained. References 1. J T Evans and A G Gibson, 2002, Composite angle ply laminates and netting analysis, Proc. R. Soc. Lond., Vol A 458, pp J T Evans, 2007, private communication ( dated July 6 th, 2007). 3. G Verchery, 1999, Designing with anisotropy, keynote lecture, Twelfth International Conference on Composite Materials (ICCM-12), 5-9 July, Paris.

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