# 6. Bending CHAPTER OBJECTIVES

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1 CHAPTER OBJECTIVES Determine stress in members caused by bending Discuss how to establish shear and moment diagrams for a beam or shaft Determine largest shear and moment in a member, and specify where they occur Consider members that are straight, symmetric x- section and homogeneous linear-elastic material 1

2 CHAPTER OBJECTIVES Consider special cases of unsymmetrical bending and members made of composite materials Consider curved members, stress concentrations, inelastic bending, and residual stresses 2

3 CHAPTER OUTLINE 1. Shear and Moment Diagrams 2. Graphical Method for Constructing Shear and Moment Diagrams 3. Bending Deformation of a Straight Member 4. The Flexure Formula 5. Unsymmetrical Bending 6. *Composite Beams 7. *Reinforced Concrete Beams 8. *Curved Beams 9. Stress Concentrations 10. *Inelastic Bending 11. *Residual Stress 3

4 6.1 SHEAR AND MOMENT DIAGRAMS Members that are slender and support loadings applied perpendicular to their longitudinal axis are called beams 4

5 6.1 SHEAR AND MOMENT DIAGRAMS In order to design a beam, it is necessary to determine the maximum shear and moment in the beam Express V and M as functions of arbitrary position x along axis. These functions can be represented by graphs called shear and moment diagrams Engineers need to know the variation of shear and moment along the beam to know where to reinforce it 5

6 6.1 SHEAR AND MOMENT DIAGRAMS Shear and bending-moment functions must be determined for each region of the beam between any two discontinuities of loading 6

7 6.1 SHEAR AND MOMENT DIAGRAMS Beam sign convention Although choice of sign convention is arbitrary, in this course, we adopt the one often used by engineers: 7

8 6.1 SHEAR AND MOMENT DIAGRAMS IMPORTANT Beams are long straight members that carry loads perpendicular to their longitudinal axis. They are classified according to how they are supported To design a beam, we need to know the variation of the shear and moment along its axis in order to find the points where they are maximum Establishing a sign convention for positive shear and moment will allow us to draw the shear and moment diagrams 8

9 6.1 SHEAR AND MOMENT DIAGRAMS Procedure for analysis Support reactions Determine all reactive forces and couple moments acting on beam Resolve all forces into components acting perpendicular and parallel to beam s axis Shear and moment functions Specify separate coordinates x having an origin at beam s left end, and extending to regions of beam between concentrated forces and/or couple moments, or where there is no discontinuity of distributed loading 9

10 6.1 SHEAR AND MOMENT DIAGRAMS Procedure for analysis Shear and moment functions Section beam perpendicular to its axis at each distance x Draw free-body diagram of one segment Make sure V and M are shown acting in positive sense, according to sign convention Sum forces perpendicular to beam s axis to get shear Sum moments about the sectioned end of segment to get moment 10

11 6.1 SHEAR AND MOMENT DIAGRAMS Procedure for analysis Shear and moment diagrams Plot shear diagram (V vs. x) and moment diagram (M vs. x) If numerical values are positive, values are plotted above axis, otherwise, negative values are plotted below axis It is convenient to show the shear and moment diagrams directly below the free-body diagram 11

12 EXAMPLE 6.6 Draw the shear and moment diagrams for beam shown below. 12

13 EXAMPLE 6.6 (SOLN) Support reactions: Shown in free-body diagram. Shear and moment functions Since there is a discontinuity of distributed load and a concentrated load at beam s center, two regions of x must be considered. 0 x 1 5 m, + Σ F y = 0;... V = 5.75 N + Σ M = 0;... M = (5.75x ) kn m 13

14 EXAMPLE 6.6 (SOLN) Shear and moment functions 5 m x 2 10 m, + Σ F y = 0;... V = ( x 2 ) kn + Σ M = 0;... M = ( 5.75x x ) kn m Check results by applying w = dv/dx and V = dm/dx. 14

15 EXAMPLE 6.6 (SOLN) Shear and moment diagrams 15

16 6.2 GRAPHICAL METHOD FOR CONSTRUCTING SHEAR AND MOMENT DIAGRAMS A simpler method to construct shear and moment diagram, one that is based on two differential equations that exist among distributed load, shear and moment 16

17 6.2 GRAPHICAL METHOD FOR CONSTRUCTING SHEAR AND MOMENT DIAGRAMS Regions of distributed load dv dx = w(x) dm dx = V Slope of shear diagram at each point = distributed load intensity at each point Slope of moment diagram at each point = shear at each point 17

18 6.2 GRAPHICAL METHOD FOR CONSTRUCTING SHEAR AND MOMENT DIAGRAMS Regions of distributed load V = w(x) dx Change in shear = area under distributed loading Change in moment M = V(x) dx = area under shear diagram 18

19 6.2 GRAPHICAL METHOD FOR CONSTRUCTING SHEAR AND MOMENT DIAGRAMS Regions of concentrated force and moment 19

20 6.2 GRAPHICAL METHOD FOR CONSTRUCTING SHEAR AND MOMENT DIAGRAMS Regions of concentrated force and moment 20

21 6.2 GRAPHICAL METHOD FOR CONSTRUCTING SHEAR AND MOMENT DIAGRAMS Procedure for analysis Support reactions Determine support reactions and resolve forces acting on the beam into components that are perpendicular and parallel to beam s axis Shear diagram Establish V and x axes Plot known values of shear at two ends of the beam 21

22 6.2 GRAPHICAL METHOD FOR CONSTRUCTING SHEAR AND MOMENT DIAGRAMS Procedure for analysis Shear diagram Since dv/dx = w, slope of the shear diagram at any point is equal to the (-ve) intensity of the distributed loading at that point To find numerical value of shear at a point, use method of sections and equation of equilibrium or by using V = w(x) dx, i.e., change in the shear between any two points is equal to (-ve) area under the load diagram between the two points 22

23 6.2 GRAPHICAL METHOD FOR CONSTRUCTING SHEAR AND MOMENT DIAGRAMS Procedure for analysis Shear diagram Since w(x) must be integrated to obtain V, then if w(x) is a curve of degree n, V(x) will be a curve of degree n+1 Moment diagram Establish M and x axes and plot known values of the moment at the ends of the beam Since dm/dx = V, slope of the moment diagram at any point is equal to the shear at the point 23

24 6.2 GRAPHICAL METHOD FOR CONSTRUCTING SHEAR AND MOMENT DIAGRAMS Procedure for analysis Moment diagram At point where shear is zero, dm/dx = 0 and therefore this will be a point of maximum or minimum moment If numerical value of moment is to be determined at the point, use method of sections and equation of equilibrium, or by using M = V(x) dx, i.e., change in moment between any two pts is equal to area under shear diagram between the two pts 24

25 6.2 GRAPHICAL METHOD FOR CONSTRUCTING SHEAR AND MOMENT DIAGRAMS Procedure for analysis Moment diagram Since V(x) must be integrated to obtain M, then if V(x) is a curve of degree n, M(x) will be a curve of degree n+1 25

26 EXAMPLE 6.11 Draw the shear and moment diagrams for beam shown below. 26

27 EXAMPLE 6.11 (SOLN) Support reactions: See free-body diagram. Shear diagram From behavior of distributed load, slope of shear diagram varies from zero at x = 0 to 2 at x = 4.5. Thus, its parabolic shape. Use method of sections to find point of zero shear: + Σ F y = 0;... x = 2.6 m 27

28 EXAMPLE 6.11 (SOLN) Moment diagram From shear diagram, slope of moment diagram begin at +1.5, then decreases positively till it reaches zero at 2.6 m. Then it increases negatively and reaches 3 at x = 4.5 m. Moment diagram is a cubic function of x. + Σ M = 0;... M = 2.6 kn m 28

29 6.3 BENDING DEFORMATION OF A STRAIGHT MEMBER When a bending moment is applied to a straight prismatic beam, the longitudinal lines become curved and vertical transverse lines remain straight and yet undergo a rotation 29

30 6.3 BENDING DEFORMATION OF A STRAIGHT MEMBER A neutral surface is where longitudinal fibers of the material will not undergo a change in length. 30

31 6.3 BENDING DEFORMATION OF A STRAIGHT MEMBER Thus, we make the following assumptions: 1. Longitudinal axis x (within neutral surface) does not experience any change in length 2. All cross sections of the beam remain plane and perpendicular to longitudinal axis during the deformation 3. Any deformation of the cross-section within its own plane will be neglected In particular, the z axis, in plane of x-section and about which the x-section rotates, is called the neutral axis 31

32 6.3 BENDING DEFORMATION OF A STRAIGHT MEMBER For any specific x-section, the longitudinal normal strain will vary linearly with y from the neutral axis A contraction will occur ( ε) in fibers located above the neural axis (+y) An elongation will occur (+ε) in fibers located below the axis ( y) Equation 6-8 ε = (y/c)ε max 32

33 6.4 THE FLEXURE FORMULA Assume that material behaves in a linear-elastic manner so that Hooke s law applies. A linear variation of normal strain must then be the consequence of a linear variation in normal stress Applying Hooke s law to Eqn 6-8, Equation 6-9 σ = (y/c)σ max 33

34 6.4 THE FLEXURE FORMULA By mathematical expression, equilibrium equations of moment and forces, we get Equation 6-10 A y da = 0 Equation 6-11 σ max M = c A y 2 da The integral represents the moment of inertia of x- sectional area, computed about the neutral axis. We symbolize its value as I. 34

35 6.4 THE FLEXURE FORMULA Hence, Eqn 6-11 can be solved and written as Mc Equation 6-12 σ max = I σ max = maximum normal stress in member, at a pt on x-sectional area farthest away from neutral axis M = resultant internal moment, computed about neutral axis of x-section I = moment of inertia of x-sectional area computed about neutral axis c = perpendicular distance from neutral axis to a pt farthest away from neutral axis, where σ max acts 35

36 6.4 THE FLEXURE FORMULA Normal stress at intermediate distance y can be determined from My Equation 6-13 σ = I σ is -ve as it acts in the -ve direction (compression) Equations 6-12 and 6-13 are often referred to as the flexure formula. 36

37 6.4 THE FLEXURE FORMULA IMPORTANT X-section of straight beam remains plane when beam deforms due to bending. The neutral axis is subjected to zero stress Due to deformation, longitudinal strain varies linearly from zero at neutral axis to maximum at outer fibers of beam Provided material is homogeneous and Hooke s law applies, stress also varies linearly over the x- section 37

38 6.4 THE FLEXURE FORMULA IMPORTANT For linear-elastic material, neutral axis passes through centroid of x-sectional area. This is based on the fact that resultant normal force acting on x- section must be zero Flexure formula is based on requirement that resultant moment on the x-section is equal to moment produced by linear normal stress distribution about neutral axis 38

39 6.4 THE FLEXURE FORMULA Procedure for analysis Internal moment Section member at pt where bending or normal stress is to be determined and obtain internal moment M at the section Centroidal or neutral axis for x-section must be known since M is computed about this axis If absolute maximum bending stress is to be determined, then draw moment diagram in order to determine the maximum moment in the diagram 39

40 6.4 THE FLEXURE FORMULA Procedure for analysis Section property Determine moment of inertia I, of x-sectional area about the neutral axis Methods used are discussed in Textbook Appendix A Refer to the course book s inside front cover for the values of I for several common shapes 40

41 6.4 THE FLEXURE FORMULA Procedure for analysis Normal stress Specify distance y, measured perpendicular to neutral axis to pt where normal stress is to be determined Apply equation σ = My/I, or if maximum bending stress is needed, use σ max = Mc/I Ensure units are consistent when substituting values into the equations 41

42 EXAMPLE 6.16 Beam shown has x-sectional area in the shape of a channel. Determine the maximum bending stress that occurs in the beam at section a-a. 42

43 EXAMPLE 6.16 (SOLN) Internal moment Beam support reactions need not be determined. Instead, use method of sections, the segment to the left of a-a. Note that resultant internal axial force N passes through centroid of x-section. The resultant internal moment must be computed about the beam s neutral axis a section a-a. 43

44 EXAMPLE 6.16 (SOLN) Internal moment To find location of neutral axis, x-sectional area divided into 3 composite parts as shown. Then using Eqn. A-2 of Appendix A: y = Σ y A Σ A =... = mm 44

45 EXAMPLE 6.16 (SOLN) Internal moment Apply moment equation of equilibrium about neutral axis, + Σ M NA = 0; 24 kn(2 m) kn( m) M = 0 M = kn m 45

46 EXAMPLE 6.16 (SOLN) Section property Moment of inertia about neutral axis is determined using parallel-axis theorem applied to each of the three composite parts of the x-sectional area. I = [1/12(0.250 m)(0.020 m) 3 + (0.250 m)(0.020 m)( m m) 2 ] + 2[1/12(0.015 m)(0.200 m) 3 + (0.015 m)(0.200 m)(0.100 m m) 2 ] I = 42.26(10-6 ) m 4 46

47 EXAMPLE 6.16 (SOLN) Maximum bending stress It occurs at points farthest away from neutral axis. At bottom of beam, c = m m = m. Thus, σ = Mc max I = kn m( m) 42.26(10 = 16.2 MPa -6 ) m 4 At top of beam, σ = 6.79 MPa. In addition, normal force of N = 1 kn and shear force V = 2.4 kn will also contribute additional stress on x-section. 47

48 6.5 UNSYMMETRICAL BENDING A condition for flexure formula is the symmetric x- sectional area of beam about an axis perpendicular to neutral axis However, the flexure formula can also be applied either to a beam having x-sectional area of any shape OR to a beam having a resultant moment that acts in any direction 48

49 6.5 UNSYMMETRICAL BENDING Moment applied along principal axis Consider a beam with unsymmetrical shape Establish coordinate system as per usual and that resultant moment M acts along +z axis Conditions: 1. Stress distribution acting over entire x-sectional area to be a zero force resultant, 2. Resultant internal moment about y axis to be zero 3. Resultant internal moment about z axis to be equal to M 49

50 6.5 UNSYMMETRICAL BENDING Moment applied along principal axis Express the 3 conditions mathematically by considering force acting on differential element da located at (0, y, z). Force is df = σ da, therefore F R = F y ; 0 = A σ da Equation 6-14 (M R ) y = Σ M y ; 0 = A z σ da Equation 6-15 (M R ) z = Σ M z ; 0 = A y σ da Equation

51 6.5 UNSYMMETRIC BENDING Moment applied along principal axis Eqn 6.14 is satisfied since z axis passes through centroid of x-sectional area If material has linear-elastic behavior, then we can substitute σ = (y/c)σ max into Eqn 6-16 and after integration, we get A yz da = 0 51

52 6.5 UNSYMMETRIC BENDING Moment applied along principal axis A yz da = 0 This integral is the product of inertia for the area. It will be zero if y and z axes are chosen as principal axes of inertia for the area. Thus, Eqns 6-14 to 6-16 will always be satisfied regardless of the direction of applied moment M 52

53 6.5 UNSYMMETRIC BENDING Moment arbitrarily applied If a member is loaded such that resultant internal moment does not act about one of the principal axes of x-section, resolve the moment into components directed along the principal axes Use flexure formula to determine normal stress caused by each moment component Use principle of superposition to determine resultant normal stress at the pt 53

54 6.5 UNSYMMETRIC BENDING Moment arbitrarily applied Resultant general normal stress at any pt on x- section is M z y σ = + M yz Equation 6-17 I z I y σ = normal stress at the pt y, z = coordinates of pt measured from x, y, z axes having origin at centroid of x-sectional area and forming a right-handed coordinate system 54

55 6.5 UNSYMMETRIC BENDING Moment arbitrarily applied Resultant general normal stress at any pt on x- section is M z y σ = + M yz I z I Equation 6-17 y M y, M z = resultant internal moment components along principal y and z axes. Positive if directed along +y and +z axes. Can also be stated as M y = M sin θ and M z = M cos θ, where θ is measured positive from +z axis toward +y axis I y, I z = principal moments of inertia computed about the y and z axes, respectively 55

56 6.5 UNSYMMETRIC BENDING Moment arbitrarily applied + 56

57 6.5 UNSYMMETRIC BENDING Orientation of neutral axis Angle α of neutral axis can be determined by applying Eqn 6-17 with σ = 0, since no normal stress acts on neutral axis. Finally, we get I z tan α = tan θ I y Equation 6-19 For unsymmetrical bending, angle θ defining direction of moment M is not equal to angle α, angle defining inclination of neutral axis unless I z = I y. Thus, θ α 90 o 57

58 6.5 UNSYMMETRIC BENDING IMPORTANT Flexure formula applied only when bending occurs about axes that represent the principal axes of inertia for x-section These axes have their origin at centroid and are orientated along an axis of symmetry and perpendicular to it If moment applied about arbitrary axis, then resolve moment into components along each of the principal axes, and stress at a pt is determined by superposition of stress caused by each moment component. 58

59 EXAMPLE 6.20 Z-section shown is subjected to bending moment of M = 20 kn m. Using methods from Appendix A, the principal axes y and z are oriented as shown such that they represent the maximum and minimum principal moments of inertia, I y = 0.960(10-3 ) m 4 and I z = 7.54(10-3 ) m 4 respectively. Determine normal stress at point P and orientation of neutral axis. 59

60 EXAMPLE 6.20 (SOLN) Internal moment components To use Eqn 6-19, z axis needs to be principal axis for the maximum moment of inertia, as most of the area if located furthest away from this axis M y = 20 kn m sin 57.1 o = knm M z = 20 knm cos 57.1 o = knm 60

61 EXAMPLE 6.20 (SOLN) Bending stress The y and z coordinates of P must be determined first. Note that y, z coordinates of P are ( 0.2 m, 0.35 m). Using colored and shaded triangles from construction shown below, y P = 0.35 sin 32.9 o 0.2 cos 32.9 o = m z P = 0.35 cos 32.9 o 0.2 sin 32.9 o = m 61

62 EXAMPLE 6.20 (SOLN) Bending stress Applying Eqn 6-17, we have σ = M z y + M y z =... = 3.76 MPa I z I y 62

63 EXAMPLE 6.20 (SOLN) Orientation of neutral axis Angle =57.1 o is shown, Thus, tan α = tan θ... I z I y α = 85.3 o Neutral Axis 63

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